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Communication is the activity of conveying information.

Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the sender. Communication is a process that involves exchange of information, thoughts, ideas and emotions. Communication is a process that involves a sender who encodes and sends the message, which is then carried via the communication channel to the receiver where the receiver decodes the message, processes the information and sends an appropriate reply via the same communication channel. Communication is defined as: 1. The act of transmitting 2. A giving or exchanging of information, signals, or messages as by talk, gestures, or writing 3. The information, signals, or message 4. Close, sympathetic relationship 5. A means of communicating; specif., a system for sending and receiving messages, as by telephone, telegraph, radio, etc. 6. A system as of routes for moving troops and material 7. A passage or way for getting from one place to another 8. The art of expressing ideas, esp. in speech and writing 9. The science of transmitting information, esp. in symbols Communication of information, messages, opinions, speech and thoughts can be done via different forms of modern communication media, like, e-mail, telephone and mobile. Some of the basic ways of communication are by speaking, singing, sign language, body language, touch and eye contact. These basic ways of communication are used to transfer information from one entity to other. There are many different types of communication but they can be classified into four basic types of communication. Types of Communication Communication can occur via various processes and methods and depending on the channel used and the style of communication there can be various types of communication.

Types of Communication Based on Communication Channels Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication.

Verbal Communication Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. The oral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication. Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.

Nonverbal Communication Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements. The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a persons face say a lot about his/her mood. On the other hand gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings.

Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose Based on the style of communication, there can be two broad categories of communication, which are formal and informal communication that have their own set of characteristic features.

Formal Communication

Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Hence formal communication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent and rigid tone to it.

Informal Communication

Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. Informal communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informal conversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chats with our loved ones can simply go on and on. Verbal Communication Verbal communication includes sounds, words, language and speaking. Language is said to have originated from sounds and gestures. There are many languages spoken in the world. The bases of language formation are: gender, class, profession, geographical area, age group and other social elements. Speaking is an effective way of communicating and is again classified into two types viz. interpersonal communication and public speaking. Good verbal communication is an inseparable part of business communication. In a business, you come across people from various ages, cultures and races. Fluent verbal communication is essential to deal with people in business meetings. Also, in business communication self-confidence plays a vital role which when clubbed with fluent communication skills can lead to success.

Public speaking is another verbal communication in which you have to address a group of people. Preparing for an effective speech before you start is important. In public speaking, the speech must be prepared according to the type of audience you are going to face. The content of your your speech should be authentic and you must have enough information on the topic you have chosen for public speaking. All the main points in your speech must be highlighted and these points should be delivered in the correct order. There are many public speaking techniques and these techniques must be practiced for an effective speech. Verbal communication entails the use of words in delivering the intended message. The two major forms of verbal communication include written and oral communication.

Written communication includes traditional pen and paper letters and documents, typed electronic documents, e-mails, text chats, SMS and anything else conveyed through written symbols such as language. This type of communication is indispensable for formal business communications and issuing legal instructions. Communication forms that predominantly use written communication include handbooks, brochures, contracts, memos, press releases, formal business proposals, and the like. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the writing style, grammar, vocabulary, and clarity. Written communication is writing the words which you want to communicate. Good written communication is essential for business purposes. Written communication is practiced in many different languages. E-mails, reports, articles and memos are some of the ways of using written communication in business. The written

communication can be edited and amended many times before it is communicated to the second party to whom the communication is intended. This is one of the main advantages of using writing as the major means of communication in business activity. Written communication is used not only in business but also for informal communication purposes. Mobile SMS is an example of informal written communication. Oral communication is the spoken word, either face-to-face, or through phone, voice chat, video conferencing or any other medium. Various forms of informal communications such as the grapevine or informal rumor mill, and formal communications such as lectures, conferences are forms of oral communication. Oral communication finds use in discussions and causal and informal conversations. The effectiveness of oral conversations depends on the clarity of speech, voice modulation, pitch, volume, speed, and even non-verbal communications such as body language and visual cues. Verbal communication makes the process of communication easier and faster, and remains the most successful form of communication. Yet this makes up only seven percent of all human communication! Non-Verbal Communication Non-verbal communication involves physical ways of communication, like, tone of the voice, touch, smell and body motion. Creative and aesthetic non-verbal communication includes singing, music, dancing and sculpturing. Symbols and sign language are also included in non-verbal communication. Body language is a nonverbal way of communication. Body posture and physical contact convey a lot of information. Body posture matters a lot when you are communicating verbally to someone. Folded arms and crossed legs are some of the signals conveyed by a body posture. Physical contact, like, shaking hands, pushing, patting and touching expresses the feeling of intimacy. Facial expressions, gestures and eye contact are all different ways of communication. Reading facial expressions can help you know a person better. Non verbal communication entails communicating by sending and receiving wordless messages. They usually reinforce verbal communication, though it can also stand alone and convey messages on its own. Physical non verbal communications or body language includes facial expressions, eye contact, body posture, gestures such as a wave, pointed finger and the like, overall body movements, tone of voice, touch, and others. Facial expressions are the most common among all nonverbal communication. For instance, a smile or a frown conveys distinct emotions hard to express through verbal communication. Research estimates that body language including facial expressions account for 55 percent of all communication. Paralanguage, or the way something is said rather than what is actually said, is an important component of non verbal communication. It includes voice quality, intonation, pitch, stress, emotion, tone, and style of speaking, and communicates approval, interest or the lack of it. Research estimates that tone of the voice accounts for 38 percent of all communications. Other forms of non-verbal communication usually communicate ones personality. These include:

Aesthetic communication or creative expressions such as dancing, painting, and the like Appearance or the style of dressing, combing hair and the like which communicates of ones personality Space language such as paintings, landscapes and others communicate social status and taste Symbols such as religious, status, or ego-building symbols

Visual communication The last type of communication out of the four types of communication, is the visual communication. Visual communication is visual display of information, like, topography, photography, signs, symbols and designs. Television and video clips are the electronic form of visual communication. A third type of communication is visual communication through visual aids such as signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, color and other electronic resources. Visual communication such as graphs and charts usually serve to reinforce written communication, and in many case replace written communication altogether. As the adage goes a picture is worth a thousand words, such visual communication is more powerful than verbal and non verbal communication on many occasions. A good understanding of different types of communications help know and deal with people better, clear misunderstandings and misconceptions, and contribute to the success of the enterprise.

BASIC ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Simply, we can define communication as sharing of ideas or feelings with others. Communication takes places when one person transmits information and understanding to another person. There is a communication when you respond or listen to someone. Movements of lips, the wave of hands or the wink of an eye may convey more meaning than even written or spoken words. The basic elements of communication process include communicator, communicatee, message, channel and feedback. - Communicator is the sender, speaker, issuer or writer, who intends to express or send out a message. - Communicatee is the receiver of the message for whom the communication is meant. The communicatee receives the information, order or message. - Message, which is also known as the subject matter of this process, i.e., the content of the letter, speech, order, information, idea, or suggestion. - Communication channel or the media through which the sender passes the information and understanding to the receiver. It acts as a connection between the communicator and the communicatee, i.e., the levels of communication or relationships that exist between different individuals or departments of an organization. - Feedback, which is essential to make communication, a successful one. It is the effect, reply or reaction of the information transmitted to the communicatee. Firstly, the communicator develops an exact idea about concepts, beliefs or data that he wants to convey. Then he translates the idea into words, symbols or some other form of message which he expects the receiver to understand. The communicator picks out an appropriate medium for transmitting the message. The message is then received by the communicatee. The communicatee acts upon the message as he has understood it. Finally, the effectualness of communication is assessed through response or feedback. If the communication brings in the desired changes in the actions, it is said to be successful communication.

A message: what need to be communicated A messenger: the person who has something to communicate A receiver: the person who will receive the message Encoding: verbal and non-verbal convention of communication Decoding: reading by the receiver of the encoding done by the messenger Channel: the means of communication

This process works as follows: The messenger has something to communicate, a message. This message has an intent. The messenger will encode his message with words, behavior and body language that he senses will help him to best communicate this message according to his intent. The message will go through a channel, a means of communication such as e-mail, face to face or phone conversation, letter, presentation. The receiver will then decode the message using conventions, cultural or contextual background, and language skills. The message he receives might or might not meet the intent of the messenger.