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PEP Review 98-7

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE


By
David Netzer
(OCTOBER 2001)

ABSTRACT

The objective of this review is the production of middle distillate, 300-650°F cut point, while
maximizing diesel (550-650°F) yield. The new UOP’s new HyCycle (TM) Unicracking hydrocracking
technology is the basis of the evaluation. US Patents 5,980,729, 5,885,440 and a 2001 NPRA
publication [R98-07-001] have been served as a basis for evaluating the technology. The key
attributes to this technology are:
• Reverse arrangement of reactors system. The hydrocracking, with low conversion per
pass, about 33%, comes first followed by hydrotreating. The preheated feed enters the
hydrotreating reactor along with hydrocracker outlet product, for very deep sulfur and
nitrogen removal.
• The cracked products are separated from the reactor loop at about 1,800 psig in
hydrogen rich vapor phase. Product is condensed outside reactor loop prior to
conventional products recovery. An overall conversion of above 98% and below 650°F
cut point is achieved.
• Reactor loop nominal pressure of about 1,800 psig as opposed to 2,400 psig in more
conventional double reactor system.
• For 21.5 API, 2.5 wt% sulfur, 980°F TBP cut POINT VGO, the yield is 38 vol% diesel, 42
vol% kerosene and 29 vol% naphtha. The equivalent yield in conventional double
reactor system with 97% conversion to 650°F cut point is 19 vol% diesel, 54 vol%
kerosene and 36 vol% naphtha.
• The system comprises a finishing reactor, and naphtha product, meeting the 1 ppm
sulfur specification for typical downstream processing such as catalytic reforming.
• The hydrogen consumption for the above yield basis is reduced from 1,950 Scf/bbl in
conventional double reactor to 1,700 Scf/bbl in HyCycle.
• It is thought that the capital cost investment will be reduced by about 10-14% subject to
more detailed cost comparison.

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INTRODUCTION
Middle distillates, diesel and kerosene are the more important refinery products for Asian
countries like China and India, and other countries with emerging economy and infrastructure.
Even in Western European countries, the ratio of demand of middle distillate to gasoline products
is considerably higher compared to the ratio in North America. The newly emerging HyCycle(TM)
hydrocracking technology as developed by UOP is geared toward maximizing diesel yield, and
this is the focus of this report.
The hydrocracking process and chemistry are discussed along with the economics of
hydrocracking VGO to middle distillates in PEP Report 211, Hydrocracking (1994).
Hydrocracking of residual oils is discussed in PEP Report 228, Refinery Residue Upgrading
(2000).
The model used for this evaluation is a feed rate of 35,000 BPSD of (5,160 TPD, 5665
M3/day) of combined AGO and VGO (Atmospheric gas oil and 980°F TBP cut point vacuum gas
oil). These originate from atmospheric and vacuum fractionation of Arabian Light, crude oil, 34.5
API (SG=0.852). This capacity is based on an assumed 168,000 BPSD (350 days per year, 8.0
MMTPY) grass roots refinery, which is judged to represent an average future size refinery to be
built in emerging markets. The Arabian Light represents a common world benchmark of crude
oil. The results of this evaluation can be adjusted to many other potential hydrocracking feeds
and capacities while maintaining a reasonable accuracy. The size range of future hydrocracking
units is expected to be in the range of 20,000-50,000 BPSD per single train of production.

Diesel Specifications
Diesel fuel regulations over the next decade are reducing the sulfur content in all the major
markets to approach “sulfur free” fuel in order to reduce vehicle NOx and particulate emissions.
Parts of Europe have led the sulfur reduction. For instance, since 1991 Swedish Class 1 diesel
fuel has had <10 ppm sulfur, typically 1-3 ppm with cetane rating >51 [R98-07-005]. Diesel sulfur
content in Europe will be reduced to 50 ppm in 2005 (European Union, Stage 4 regulation). The
European commission’s (EC) latest Auto-Oil II discussion paper proposes a 10 ppm sulfur Ultra
Low Sulfur Diesel fuel be phased in starting on January 1, 2007 with a 10% supply requirement
[R98-07-004].
In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency has set a specification of 15 ppm sulfur for
June 1, 2006 [R98-07-006]. This regulation, concurrent with implementation of new gasoline
regulations, is being challenged in federal court by the National Petrochemical and Refiners
Association [R98-07-007; R98-07-008; R98-07-009]. The U.S. specification is currently 500 ppm
sulfur with aromatics <35 wt% (10 wt% in California with polyaromatics 1.4 wt%) and cetane
index >40 (>48 in California) [R98-07-002]. In order to provide 15 ppm sulfur fuel at the pump,
U.S. refiners may have to produce 1- ppm sulfur fuel at the refinery due to contamination in the
transportation system.
Japan is fine-tuning its program similar to the European and U.S. programs and tightening
NOx and particulates standards for diesel powered cars and small trucks [R98-07-003]. South
Korea is making major cuts in diesel sulfur levels later in the decade.
The Association for Latin American Refiners has proposed diesel sulfur and cetane
specifications of 2000 ppm sulfur and 47 respectively for 2005 [R98-07-003].
So far, the EC proposal and U.S. regulations have only defined the sulfur concentration;
other properties such as cetane number and aromatics content, have not yet been proposed.
However, the Category 3 diesel fuel specifications proposed under the automaker’s “World Wide
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Fuel Charter” suggest sulfur <30 ppm with cetane number >55 (or Cetane Index >52), total
aromatics <15 vol% with polyaromatics <2 vol%, and a density of 820-840 kg/m3 [R98-07-005].

HyCycle Unicracking-Key Process Features


The HyCycle Unicracking process is considered by many as a step change in technology for
maximum diesel yield in hydrocracking. The concepts of this process are described in three
patents [US 5,885,440; US 5,980,729; WO 97/38066]. This is a flow scheme for maximizing the
yield of high-quality diesel fuel. The quality of the diesel fuel is measured in terms of Cetane(1)
Index, aromatic content, sulfur content and nitrogen content.
HyCycle cracking process equipment features include [R98-07-001]:
• Separator/finisher
• Back-staged series flow reactors
• Novel fractionator design
Process and catalytic features include:
1. Low per pass conversion of 20-40% with high overall conversion of over 98%
2. Hydrogen consumption is reduced up to 20% compared to conventional technology
3. Selectivity to higher boiling products is high. Up to 5 vol% more yield of middle distillate
with a 15% shift towards diesel compared to other full conversion maximum diesel
processes
4. Operating pressure is 25% lower than conventional gas oil hydrocracking
5. Hydrogen partial pressure is lower
6. Space velocity is higher than conventional reactors but catalysts life and product quality
are unchanged.
The HyCycle process operates at low per pass conversion(2) in the reactor loop, which
minimizes the undesired cracking reactions, particularly of the diesel range molecules, and also
minimizes coke formation reactions, which reduce catalyst activity. Selective ring opening in
HyCycle shifts the equilibrium toward a more favorable regime for producing high-quality diesel
fuels.
The first key feature of the HyCycle Unicracking is the higher selectivity toward diesel
product. This shift in selectivity avoids cracking of diesel product while at the same time
increases saturation of aromatics. This is estimated to result in a net reduction of about 15% in
hydrogen consumption, in this particular application, compared with the present state of the art of
hydrocracking technology.
A second key feature of the HyCyle process is the 25% reduced operating pressure and the
higher space velocities obtained when compared with the present state of the art in
hydrocracking technology. This step change technology improvement can be accomplished
without compromising on catalyst life or diesel product quality.
A third key feature of the HyCycle Unicracking, and assuming a FCC unit in parallel to
hydrocracking, is the potential synergism in hydrotreating and aromatic saturation of light cycle oil
(LCO) produced at the FCC unit. The LCO is high in aromatic low valued diesel range product
that would be upgraded to high-quality diesel fuel.

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The design of the HyCycle combined with HPNA, heavy polynuclear aromatic, management
concept. The HPNA is known to be one of the undesirable hydrocracking products. The HPNA
separates from the cracked liquid at lower temperature and creates severe maintenance in the
colder sections, resulting in excessive down time of the hydrocracking unit. Using of hot
enhanced oil separation, at near reactor exit conditions, combined with downstream purge of
HPNA results in increasing catalyst cycle time and overall profitability. The enhanced separator
is using internal high pressure stripping with hydrogen, of diesel from liquid unconverted oil
(UCO) product. The enhanced separator /stripper recovers the distillate products as vapor at
reactor loop pressure. Liquid, consisting of unconverted oil from the separator, depleted of
distillate, recycles to the hydrocracker reactor within the hot high pressure loop. A small portion of
the unconverted oil in the “hot loop” high pressure cycle is let down from reactor loop pressure to
product fractionation, operating at close to atmospheric pressure this let down avoids build up of
HPNA in the reactor loop. The enhanced separator is combined with a finishing reactor. Traces
of olefins that exist in hydrocracking products could recombine with H2S and form mercaptans.
The finishing bed hydrotreats these mercaptans and bring down the sulfur content of the naphtha
range material, to under 1 ppm.
A range of catalysts are available from UOP for the HyCycle process [R98-07-001]. These
are zeolite based catalysts impregnated with metals on a proprietary support material. The
optimum balance between cracking and hydrogenation is judged on a case by case basis. The
DHC-32 LT catalyst can be operated for maximum diesel and no jet fuel or in a flexible mode
where naphtha and jet fuel are both produced along with increased diesel. The DHC-43 LT
catalyst is offered for maximizing the yield of jet fuel. Maximum naphtha yield is produced with
the HC-170 LT catalyst.
The reactor yields of the HyCycle process, when using a flexible, mixed mode catalyst
assumed in this Review, are compared with a conventional process in the table below. The
conventional hydrocracker is the unit described in PEP Report 211 for middle distillates. The
same Arabian Light VGO is processed in both cases. The single pass conversion of the
conventional process of Report 211 is 66%. The single pass conversion of the HyCycle process
in 30%. This comparison shows the yield for identical boiling range of diesel fuel is over 17%
points higher for the HyCycle process than for the conventional process. Incremental diesel is
produced at the expense of lighter products and fuel oil.

Yield, wt% FF
Product Conventional HyCycle Difference, %
Fuel Gas 0.84 0.75 -0.09
LPG 4.64 3.2 -1.44
Light Naphtha 8.22 5.70 -2.52
Heavy Naphtha 20.14 16.60 -3.54
Kerosene (Jet Fuel) 46.90 37.78 -9.12
Diesel 16.72 34.60 +17.88
Fuel Oil 2.69 2.67 -0.02

The HyCycle Unicracking process offers flexibility in staging the capital investment. As an
initial operation, the HyCycle can operate in a once through, partial conversion mode, avoiding

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the enhanced oil separation and post reactor. This mode of operation produces unconverted low
sulfur heavy fuel oil as a co-product in addition to diesel and lighter products and requires a lower
capital investment. As relative demand for diesel increases with time at the expense of demand
for low sulfur heavy fuel oil, the system can be modified to maximize diesel product as described
above.

Design Basis
The HyCycle process currently produces 10 ppm sulfur, diesel product from Arabian gas
oils. The diesel fuel also has a high cetane rating, low aromatics content and a density within the
Category 3 range of the automaker’s “World Wide Fuel Charter” [R97-07-005].

Design assumptions
• Make up hydrogen at 99.9 vol% is available at 340 psig from battery limits.
• Hydrocracking conversion per pass 33% and 650°F TBP cut point
• Nominal hydrocracking and hydrotreating: temperatures 700°F pressure 1,850 psig.
• Hydrogen at recycle compressor outlet: 90 mol%, for establishing purge rate.
• Operating temperature of finishing reactor 625°F.
• Sulfur content of naphtha material 1 ppm.
• Heat of reaction 45-50 Btu/Scf of hydrogen as consumed.
• Yield structure as shown
• Let down of to recycle of UCO (unconverted oil) from high pressure loop to low pressure
is 0.1.
The HyCycle hydrocracking plant comprises two (2) sections: Section 100, hydrogen make
up compression system reaction loop, and Section 200, product recovery. Other associated
process areas such as light end processing, naphtha splitter, sour water stripping, rich amine
regeneration, sulfur recovery, tail gas unit and waste water treating are considered outside the
battery limits (OBL) of the hydrocracking. The rationale is that light gases, naphtha, sour water,
H2S, ammonia, and waste water are generated in other areas of the refinery such as crude unit
and distillate hydrotreating. Therefore, all these streams are combined into a single central
operation of naphtha splitting, purge hydrogen recovery, sulfur recovery and waste water treating.

Make up hydrogen compression, and reactor loop, Section 100


Hydrogen, 99.9 mol% is produced from steam reforming of light naphtha (C5/C6), LPG, or
natural gas from OBL. The assumed delivery pressure is 340 psig (25.0 kg/cm2-a) and
containing less than 100 vol ppm of CO. This hydrogen is dedicated to the HyCycle
hydrocracking. Any impure hydrogen from other sources, such as catalytic reforming will be
purified prior to entering the hydrocracking reactor loop.
The hydrogen is compressed in 3 stage reciprocating compressor to 2,050 psig (145.2
kg/cm2-a), with interstage air coolers to 150°F (65°C) and trim water coolers to 100°F (38°C) in
stages one and two. Only partial hydrogen cooling is incorporated in to the exit of 3rd stage.
Three 50% motor driven compressors are assumed, two operating and one stand by.
The reactor loop encompass the key design features of the HyCycle. The ultimate
conversion(3) is 98.5% and conversion per pass(2) , at 650°F (343°C) cut point, is designed for
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33% conversion per pass in high pressure loop. The ultimate one pass conversion of 83% in the
long loop is achieved after accounting for low pressure product fractionation producing and
recycling of unconverted oil. Average hydrocracking pressure, at middle of the reactors cycle, is
maintained at 1,875 psig (133.0 kg/cm2-a).
H2S and ammonia are removed inside the high pressure loop by a water wash of ammonia
followed by the use of a lean amine, about 50 wt% MDEA solution for H2S. Loaded (rich) amine
solution is routed to OBL for regeneration where it is combined with other amine streams.
The catalytic portion of the reaction loop is based on information published by UOP at NPRA
conferences, which was not intended for process analysis or design. The Hydrocracking (HC)
reactor vessel has an assumed inlet temperature of about 700°F (371°C) which slightly
increasing with time. Hydrotreating (HT) reactor vessel has an assumed inlet temperature of
about 690°F (365°C) which also slightly increasing with time. In addition, there is a Finishing
Reactor, which enhances the separation of distillate product vapor via hot stripping with
hydrogen. It is assumed that trace sulfur removal, down to below 1 ppm for the naphtha material.
The naphtha material resulted from the Finishing Reactor needs no further hydrotreating, if
intended for downstream catalytic reforming of naphtha (CCR). This Finishing Reactor is
combined with UOP proprietary enhanced hot separator, which operates close to pseudo critical
conditions and uses hydrogen stripping of residual diesel material. The assumed separation and
finishing reactor temperature is 625°F (330°C). The actual separation temperature would vary,
depending on VLE (vapor liquid equilibrium) and overall heat balance. The hydrotreating and
hydrocracking reactors have a design margin to work as a once through mode with 83%
conversion. Under this scenario reactors will operate in a temperature range of 725-800°F and at
pressure close to the design pressure. The assumed space velocities, based on cold
hydrocarbon liquids is 1.15/hr in hydrocracking section and 2.3/hr at hydrotreating section. The
design pressure of the reactors is set at 10% above normal operating pressure of the
hydrocracking reactor.
The recycle gas compressor, is a centrifugal compressor, driven by a multi-stage
condensing steam turbine using steam at 600 psig/750°F, condensing to 3.5” Hg vacuum, 120°F.
The turbine is equipped with an uncontrolled extraction port at 150 psig. The extraction steam
option increases overall operating flexibility. Recycle gas cooling is provided by air coolers which
cool the gas down to 140°F (60°C) assuming an ambient air at 100°F (38°C).
A fired heater is used to provide the heat deficiency to the reactor loop. In most
hydrocracking cases firing duty is provided to a mixture of hydrogen, preheated feed and
unconverted oil. In this particular design situation, using hot UCO (unconverted oil) recycle and
reversed reactors arrangement, only recycle hydrogen will be heated. The heater is equipped
with low NOx burners and has no air preheaters. Therefore a de-NOx system is not needed to
meet environmental regulations. Since the recycle heater is much smaller than the fractionation
heater, excess heat in flue gas is recovered to preheat boiler feed water to be delivered for steam
generation at 600 psig (42 kg/cm2-g) and 150 psig steam (10.5 kg/cm2-g) in the fractionation
heater. The flue gas is released to a common stack at OBL at about 350- 400°F (176- 205°C).
The firing duty will be provided by low sulfur refinery gas, which is expected to be rich in
hydrogen, (probably over 50 vol%) and available at 80 psig (5.6 kg/cm2-g).
Gas Oil, (AGO and VGO) feeds are assumed available at 420°F (215°C) from vacuum and
crude units and after heat recovery. For base case design assume that 50% of VGO is coming
from storage at 180°F and 50% from the vacuum and crude units, thus the combined
temperature is about 300°F. The system, is designed for gas oil feed temperature ranging from
180°F to 420°F.

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Power recovery turbine, by reversed pumps, will be used only on one pump of the service.
No power recovery is applied for spare pump and normal let down valve is used when spare
pump is in service. About 300 kwh of power recovery is the assumed minimum size to
economically justify power recovery reversed pump system.
In general, hydrocrackers are designed for high level of heat integration in order to reduce
energy cost and steam generation in hydrocracking reactor loops is un-common. In this
particular case the level of heat integration is reduced while introducing steam generation to
move heat load from one section of the plant to the other. This is thought to result in higher
operating flexibility, at a slightly reduced thermal efficiency and probably reduced capital cost. All
steam generated in the high pressure loop, will go through analytical hydrocarbons detection,
through a “suspect” condensate system. Depending on specific application the “suspect
condensate” can be used for water wash service for ammonium sulfide in the cold section of the
hydrogen recycle. Low pressure “suspect” steam can be used for stripping services in the
fractionation, and ultimately will end in waste water. Therefore this practice of steam generation
avoids any potential contamination of the boiler feed water system.

Product Recovery Section 200


The vapor recovery consists of mid pressure 320 psig (23.5 kg/cm2-a) V-107 and V-201
drums where hydrogen rich flash gas is recovered, and usually, depending on refinery
configuration, could proceed to hydrogen recovery by PSA along with other hydrogen purge
streams. The LPG stripper operates at 120 psig (9.5 kg/cm2-a) recovers C3/C4 as liquid product
and releases light gas (methane and ethane) with residual propane to refinery fuel gas. Live
steam at 150 psig is used for the stripping.
The liquid recovery uses steam stripped fractionation, in an atmospheric column, with a
nominal overhead pressure of 10 psig (1.7 kg/cm 2-a) and bottom pressure of 30 psig (3.1
kg/cm2-a). The fractionator is equipped with two pump-around loops for diesel and kerosene with
150 psig and 50 psig steam generation respectively. As an alternate, the heat released in the
pump-around loops, particularly the kerosene pump-around could be used for downstream
naphtha fractionation which is out of the scope of this evaluation. The diesel and kerosene
products are drawn through side strippers using 50 psig steam. A HPNA purge, at a rate of
about 500 BPSD, 1.5% of feed rate, is drawn from the UCO produced in the products
fractionator, prior to recycling to high pressure loop. The thermal duty to the fractionation is
provided by a fired heater with dual firing capability, using refinery hydrogen rich fuel gas or low
sulfur fuel oil such as UCO. No air preheater is applied, nor de-NOx system. Steam at 600 psig
(42 kg/cm2-g) and 150 psig (10.5 kg/cm2-g) will be generated for enhanced heat recovery, while
flue gas is exhausted at 400°F (205°C).
The utilities to be provided or exported to/from OBL are:
• Electric power 6,000 volt, over 200 KW service
• Electric power 380 volt 5-200 kw service.
• Electric power 220 volt 0-5 kw service.
• Steam 600 psig 750°F
• Steam 600 psig saturated, 488°F.
• Steam 150 psig 0-100°F superheat
• Steam 50 psig 0-100°F superheat
• Boiler feed water, deaerated at 250°F and 750 psig
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• Cooling water at 90°F and 50 psig and maximum allowed return of 115°F and minimum
return pressure of 30 psig.
• Plant air at 90 psig
• Instrument air at 90 psig

Table 1

PRODUCTS YIELD AND QUALITY

Vol% (TBP
WT% cut points)
H2S 2.44
NH3 0.10
CH4 0.35
C2 H6 0.40
C3 H8 1.30
C4 H10 1.90
C5 2.20 3.01
C6 3.50 5.01
C7 –310°F (154°C) Heavy Naphtha 16.6 20.74
310-550°F (154-288°C) Kerosene 37.78 42.47
550-650°F (288-343°C) Diesel 34.6 38.46
650°F + (343°C +) Heavy fuel oil 1.50 1.46
Total 102.67 111.15

Light Naphtha (C5/C6) properties (after downstream, OBL naphtha fractionation)

Specific gravity 0.67


API 80
RON 75
Paraffin’s 84 vol%
Naphthenes 14 vol%
Benzene 2.0 vol%
Olefins 0.0
Sulfur content 1 ppm
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Table 1 (Concluded)

PRODUCTS YIELD AND QUALITY

Heavy Naphtha (C7-310°F) Properties

Specific Gravity 0.75


API 57
RON 60
Paraffins 48 vol%
Naphthenes 46 vol%
Aromatics 6.0 vol%
Sulfur content 1 ppm

Kerosene 310-550°F (Jet Fuel) properties

Specific gravity 0.822


API 40.6
Sulfur content 10 wt ppm
Smoke point 24.5 mm
Aromatics 11.0 wt%
Flash point 125°F 52°C

Diesel 550-650°F properties

Specific gravity 0.835


API 38
Sulfur content 10 wt ppm
Aromatics 11.0 wt%
Polyaromatics 0.20 wt%
Cetane Index 67
Flash point 320°F 160°C

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PROCESS DISCUSSION AND RATIONALE
The design of the HyCycle hydrocracker, the make up hydrogen compression, reaction loop,
vapor recovery and liquids recovery, depend on desired product slate. This is an attempt to
optimize the design for maximum diesel yield at the expense of kerosene and naphtha. The
following issues have been considered while establishing the design basis.

Feedstock
The feedstock is a blend of atmospheric and vacuum gas oils produced from Arabian Light
Crude oil, 680-980°F/BP.
The blend has the following distillation curve:

ASTM D1160 Distillation °F °C


IBP 611 322
10% 702 372
30% 763 406
50% 825 441
70% 896 480
90% 966 519
EP 1040 560

The 21.5 API gravity oil (0.9246 specific gravity) contained 21 wt% monoaromatics and 32
wt% total aromatics. Sulfur, nitrogen and conardson carbon contents were:

Sulfur 2.5 wt%


Total nitrogen 0.09 wt%
Conardson carbon 0.15 wt%

Hydrocracking catalyst
In general Amorphous or zeolitic catalyst is used for middle distillate hydrocracking and both
produce high quality product. The amorphous is somewhat more distillate selective, however
requires a higher reaction temperature. On the basis of UOP data specific to low-conversion
HyCycle, it was decided to use zeolite based catalyst. This rational can be reviewed on a case
specific basis.
Potential heat recovery at the reactors
The estimated heat of reaction is 45-50 Btu/Scf of reacted hydrogen, which amounts to
about 105-115 MM Btu/hr heat release in the reactors and end up as low level heat. Since
reactors pressure is 1,800-1,900 psig as opposed to 2,400 psig in the more traditional design, the
use of an isothermal reactor with 2,000 psig steam generation at 635°F may be worth further
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consideration. The steam pressure is above reaction pressure, thus avoiding a concern of
hydrocarbon leaks into the steam system, the steam can be let down in pressure if need to, and
can be superheated at the fired heaters. About 150,000 lb/hr of steam can be recovered
assuming boiler feed water preheat to about 450°F by recycle gas cooling. After the steam is
superheated to 930°F its motive power can amount to 20,000 kW. At the same time, much of the
lower level heat load on the air coolers will be eliminated. Almost needless to say that under
such a scenario, the load on the fired heaters will increase substantially due to the assumed
superheating.

Conversion
Data from UOP’s NPRA public release suggests 20-40% conversion per pass, US
5,980,729 suggests a case with 30% conversion per pass [R98-07-001]. It is understood that the
above conversion is in the high pressure hot loop. It is further understood that this low
conversion low severity is applied to avoid cracking of diesel product that recycles in the loop. It
was judged that 33% conversion per pass is a reasonable optimum in the high pressure loop. It
was assumed that the combined conversion per pass including the fractionation, is 83% per long
pass. The ultimate conversion(3) at 650°F TBP cut point is assumed at 98.5 wt%. In 2001 issue
of NPRA publications [R98-07-001] UOP indicates an ultimate conversion of 99.5%, however the
cut point is not indicated in NPRA issue. Additional information received by UOP refers 99.5%
conversion at 730°F cut point and the 650°F cut point in this case is the basis of the adjustment
in the overall conversion. The conversion is at 650°F cut point, however if kerosene is blended to
the diesel pool, higher cut point, gas oil material could be blended into the diesel pool. This may
result in higher middle distillate yield.

Hydrogen Requirement
Hydrogen is consumed by hydro-desulfurization, hydro-denitrification, aromatics saturation
and hydrocracking. If VGO from delayed coking or visbreaking, is combined in the feed, an
additional amount of hydrogen would be needed for saturating olefins. About 4% of the hydrogen
is dissolved in the liquid product and purged from the high pressure loop. The net hydrogen
consumption was estimated at 1,630 SCF/BBL feed, about 56% in hydrocracking reactor and
42% in hydrotreating reactor where most of hydrotreating is dedicated to aromatic saturation.
The consumption in finishing reactor is estimated at 2% of the hydrogen. The pressure in the
flash drum, 300 psig is suitable for hydrogen recovery by PSA (pressure swing adsorption) [see
PEP Report 212 “Options for Refinery Hydrogen,” (1994)]. A diesel oriented refinery would
normally have a relatively smaller catalytic reforming unit which co-produces hydrogen at about
90% purity. Under the most reasonable scenario a dedicated hydrogen plant, in this case 60 MM
Scfd (67,000 M3/hr) at high purity, and less than 100 ppm CO, would be required. Steam
reforming of light naphtha, about 6,000 bpsd, or LPG is thought to be worth a serious
consideration as a hydrogen source, unless low cost natural gas is available. Under this
scenario, the light naphtha and LPG produced in the hydrocracking can satisfy about 80% of the
feed to the hydrogen plant. Other light naphtha sources such as straight run naphtha from a
crude unit could be a good source for hydrogen production. Any impure hydrogen resulting from
catalytic reforming, say about 1,500 Scf/bbl, would be used as a separate hydrogen stream for
less severe hydroprocessing services such as straight run diesel hydrotreating at about 1,000
psig.
3x50% make up hydrogen compressors have been assumed, however 2x100% units could
be a reasonable selection depending on a very case specific basis. Air cooling combined with
trim water cooling was assumed for interstage cooling. However, depending on water quality, air
coolers could be avoided, thus resulting in cost reduction. The hydrogen recycle loop is cooled
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only by air coolers as a safety concern to avoid any of the high pressure rich gas from leaking to
cooling water system. It is reasonable to assume that usage of cooling water could result in
lower capital and compression cost, however, at some added cost to overcome safety concerns.
All these issues could be addressed on a case specific basis.

Reactors
Based on prior art and UOP patent US 5,980,729, it was estimated a cold liquid space
velocity of 1.4 /hr for hydrocracking and 2.8/hr for hydrotreating where catalyst amounts to 80% of
reactor T-T volume. Details of the reactor internals are discussed in [R98-07-001]. A design
pressure margin of 10% was allowed. Design margins of 5% could be possible under a different
ASME code and these issues could be addressed on a case specific basis. External insulation of
the reactors will bring down the outside temperature to 140°F. The option of internal insulation, a
“cold wall” design is thought to be of lower capital investment but was judged to present operating
and safety risks.
The Finishing Reactor/ Enhanced Separator uses [US 5980729] hydrogen heating as a
reflux duty. In this particular design, reflux duty can be provided by generating 600 psig steam
and hot hydrogen for diesel stripping will come from the reheated hydrogen sources. An
alternative concept for stripping could be generating 2,000 psig steam in reactor effluent coolers,
or by isothermal reactor, and using the steam for stripping the diesel instead of hydrogen. In this
case the reflux duty will be provided by generating 600 psig steam.

Acid gas removal


The ammonia and some 10% of the H2S is removed by water wash. The lean amine
solution, such as MDEA, at reactor loop pressure (1,750 psig) removes the bulk of the H2S.
Higher absorption pressures above 300 psig is not advantageous from the standpoint of amine
circulation for H2S removal and result in higher capital cost associated with the higher pressure
and cost of pumping. As an alternate approach, the H2S could have been purged with the
hydrogen rich light gases at 300 psig and to proceed to 300 psig MDEA absorber. The down
side of this low pressure approach, would be the build up of H2S in the reactor loop, reducing the
partial pressure of hydrogen and increasing hydrogen losses to purge. This issue could be
addressed on a case specific basis while examining all other issues such as cracking activity and
selectivity that could be somewhat affected by the content of H2S and ammonia in the high-
pressure reaction loop. Acid gas removal is discussed in Pep Report 216, “Acid Gas Treatment
and Sulfur Recovery”, (1997).

Recycle compressor
A centrifugal compressor, 3,300 kW operating was selected for the recycle loop. Although a
centrifugal compressor is of lower cost and higher reliability compared with a reciprocating
compressor, several issues need to be sorted out on a case specific basis. These issues are
related to variance in conditions between start of run (SOR) and end of run (EOR). Variation in
molecular weight, resulted from light gas production, and pressure drop, resulted from changes in
catalyst, could be key issues in actual design. A steam turbine drive, using 600 psig/750°F
steam, condensing at vacuum, with option of steam extraction at 150 psig will provide a good
speed control on the compressor. The steam turbine would handle variance of feed and changes
from start of run (SOR) and end of run (EOR). A multi-stage steam turbine will provide over 70%
adiabatic efficiency. An electric motor drive could also be a viable selection depending on a case
specific and overall steam balance of the refinery.

12
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Product fractionation
At this point, we assume a LPG stripper at 120 psig, followed by an atmospheric column, at
10 psig at the receiver. Steam is generated in pump-around loops and kerosene-diesel product
side strippers. As an alternate, a combination of atmospheric distillation along with mild vacuum,
of 100-150 mm Hg, could be a viable option, depending on a case specific basis. Combined full
range naphtha C5-310°F is sent to OBL for further product recovery and upgrading. The
assumed downstream naphtha fractionation could become heat integrated with pump-around
loops of the main distillate fractionator.

Heaters
The more common practice for recycle heater is to use a mixed phase heater in the reaction
loop for both hydrogen recycle and liquid feed recycle. The alternate common approach would
be to use separate heaters for the liquid feed and gas recycles. In the Hycycle case, the
hydrotreating and hydrocracking reactors are in reversed arrangement and the UCO recycles hot
within the high pressure loop. Because of this configuration, heating of hydrogen recycle as an
exclusive source of thermal duty, is the chosen option. This gas recycle heating results in
somewhat higher exit temperature and higher skin temperature, compared with mixed phase
heating, thus fuel gas firing will be the highly preferred mode of operation.
The heater for the fractionation unit is operating in lower severity in both temperature and
pressures, thus fuel firing or dual firing would be an acceptable approach. The UCO is purged at
650°F from the recycle seems to be a good low sulfur low nitrogen fuel source.

Materials of Construction
All the issues of hydrogen graphitization and sulfur corrosion resulting from high pressure,
high temperature are fully considered, using the latest version of “Nelson Curves”. For a
conservative design the following is suggested. For hydrocracking reactor, we selected 2.25% Cr
1.0 % Mo. For hydrotreating reactor we selected 2.25 Cr 1.0% Mo, with 347 stainless cladding.
For the Finishing Reactor and enhanced separation use 1.25% Cr 0.5% Mo and SS 317
cladding. Outside insulation will bring the temperature to 140°F.
For reactor loop heater, 2.25 Cr 1.0 Mo is used. For the fractionator heater and all
exchangers above 450°F we used 1.25% Cr 0.5% Mo. All services below 450°F use C.S,
regardless of pressure. For sulfur corrosion above 625°F use 321 SS in heat exchangers.

Equipment size limitation


A size limitation of 17' - 0” (5,185 mm) is assumed for transportation of pressure vessels.
This limit along with other design considerations set the diameter of the hydrocracking and
hydrotreating reactors. A key design consideration is the wall thickness of the reactors. For
35,000 bpsd HyCycle this wall thickness is expected to be in the order of 12” which would
represent a near maximum practical fabrication. The weight of the hydrocracking reactor is
expected to be in the order of 2,200,000 lb (1,000 ton) which could present a near limit for
transportation and erection, especially in emerging markets areas.

Products quality
The diesel product will meet the Euro IV specification and will be mixed with hydrotreated
straight run diesel, about 35,000 BPSD as produced in the crude distillation unit. The kerosene
product, as described, meets the specifications for jet fuel. It would be a common practice to mix

13
PEP REVIEW 98-7
this kerosene product with straight run (310-550°F) kerosene material as produced in crude unit
after a MEROX (mercaptans oxidation) unit, if needed. The heavy naphtha product is of low
octane, thus could be very synergistic for catalytic reforming (CCR) along with straight run
naphtha. The light naphtha (C5/C6) could be a good stock for hydrogen production by steam
reforming. The LPG (C3/C4) could meet typical market specifications.

Waste treatment
The hydrocracking process design feature includes water wash of tube sheets and other
elements of the cold sections of the reactor loop. This water, about 80 gpm after dissolving
ammonium sulfide, is directed to waste water. For the particular case as depicted in this design
basis ammonia recovery, being only about 5.0 tpd, would not be economical. The wastewater is
directed to sour water stripper along with sour water from other units such as distillate
hydrotreating and CCR. The H2S and ammonia are stripped, and routed to conventional Claus
type sulfur plants and associated tail gas treating. Ultimately, 99.5% or higher sulfur recovery is
achieved. All the ammonia is oxidized, in the sulfur plant, to elemental nitrogen. Additional
wastewater, about 65 gpm will result from live steam stripping in fractionation. This water will be
routed to API separator with other wastewater streams.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The conceptual design for a 35,000 B/SD gas oil HyCycle hydrocracker is shown in Figure
1. The process design, yields and utility consumption rates are based upon engineering
principles, computations, published information and other nonconfidential information. The
design may or may not be similar to that licensed or otherwise used.
The product yields at the reactor discharge and product quality are listed in Table 1. Table 2
provides the flows and approximate composition of the major streams. Major equipment size and
material of construction are listed in Table 3. Estimated utility consumption is summarized in
Table 4.
The plant consists of two sections:
• Section 100—H2 Compression and Reactor Loop
• Section 200—Product Recovery

Section 100, H2 compression and reactor loop


The hydrogen is produced at 99.9 vol% purity by steam reforming of light naphtha or LPG.
A partial source of hydrogen could be reformer (CCR) gas after hydrogen purification. Hydrogen
at 340 psig, 100°F (25.0 kg/cm2-a, 38°C) is compressed in K-101 consisting of 3 stages.
Average adiabatic efficiency of 83.0% and 97% motor efficiency was assumed. The first stage
discharge is 640 psig and achieves a discharge temperature of 225°F (61 kg/cm2-a, 107°C).
Second stage discharge is 1,130 psig, 225°F (80.5 kg/cm2-a, 107°C) and 3rd stage discharge is
2,050 psig, 225°F (142.7 kg/cm2-a, 107°C). Hydrogen at 150°F proceeds to mix with the
discharge of the recycle gas compressor K-102 at 2,020 psig. In the discharge of stages No-1
and No-2 air cooling (E-101, E-103) is employed down to 150°F (65°C) and trim water cooling (E-
102, E-104) to 100°F (38°C). Total compression power is 5,060 kw, motor power is 3x2600 Kw
and are rated for 3,300 kw each. Cooling water flow rate at 90°F and assumed 20°F temperature
rise.
VGO/AGO feed from intermediate storage, and 180°F (82°C), VGO from vacuum unit and
AGO from crude unit (not shown) are mixed, pumped to 2,200 psig which is the needed delivery
14
PEP REVIEW 98-7
pressure to reactor loop. The feed sent to a filter M-101 of 10 microns cut, prior to being heated
from 300°F to 600°F in E-107. For cold feed, exclusively from storage at 180°F, the feed is
diverted first to E-106, preheated to 300°F and then proceed to E-107 for final heating to 600°F
and prior to mixing with effluent of hydrocracking reactor R-103. In the hydrotreating reactor, all
sulfur compounds are converted to H2S, nitrogen compounds are converted to ammonia almost
all di and tri aromatics are saturated along with about 55% of the mono-aromatics. Trace
organomethalics are removed in the first bed. Mixed phase fluid from R-101 at 730°F is cooled to
640°F in three successive heat exchanger, prior to entering R-102, enhanced separator finishing
reactor: Preheating hot UCO recycle at E-108, preheating hydrogen at E-109 and generating 600
psig saturated steam at E-110. The fluid enters R-102 which has three functions: vapor liquid
separation in the middle section, stripping the UCO liquid of distillate material, using preheated
hydrogen, and residual sulfur removal in the finishing catalytic section. The hydrogen preheating
is providing reflux thus minimizing UCO vapor. The finishing reactor bed removes traces of
mercaptans that could be formed by recombining of H2S with traces of olefins. Overhead of R-
102 proceeds to E-107 for feed heating as discussed above. Liquid separated from the bottom of
R-102 is reheated in E-108 and recycles to cracking in R-103. In R-103 recycle UCO from
product fractionation (area 200) heated hydrogen as well as cold shot of cold hydrogen combined
in four beds reaction zone. The desulfurized feed is undergoing 33% cracking to a cut point of
650°F. Hydrocracked mixture at 725°F merges with fresh feed as discussed earlier.
Two parallel services are used for hydrogen cooling from E-107. The first is hydrogen
preheat at E-112 and the second is low pressure steam generation at E-111. The combined
stream from E-113 and E-106 goes through E-114 dedicated as cold feed preheat. If feed is
available at temperature below 300°F the flow rate to E-111 is reduced and more heat becomes
available to preheat feed at E-106.
Portion of UCO from R-102, up to 10%, is let down from loop pressure, 1800 psig to a mid
pressure, 320 psig, hot flash drum V-107 this let down control the build up of HPNA and other
non-crackable material in the reactor loop. V-107 release most of dissolved hydrogen in the hot
UCO this hydrogen is cooled in E-114 and merge with a purge stream drawn from recycle
compressor suction drum V-106 this purge stream is free of H2S. The hydrogen rich stream is
routed to cold separator V-201 in section 200.
Mixed phase of hydrogen and hydrocarbon from E-106 entering air cooler E-113 at about
280°F. A wash water is introduced to wash any ammonium sulfide material from the tubes of E-
113. Hydrocarbon liquids as well as sour water loaded with all the ammonia and some of the H2S
are separated from hydrogen, H2S and light gas in Cold Separator V-105. Overhead from V-105
containing hydrogen, light hydrocarbon gas and H2S proceed to loop amine scrubber C-101 for
bulk H2S removal with 50 wt% MDEA. Rich amine solution product is let down to amine
regeneration at OBL. Overhead from C-101 at 1750 psig (124 kg/cm2-a) enters the Recycle Gas
Compressor K.O Drum V-106 and then to K-102, and is compressed to 2,050 psig. K-102 is a
centrifugal compressor driven by a steam turbine. The steam turbine is powered by 600 psig and
750°F (42- kg/cm2-g 400°C) steam, exhausting to 3.5” Hg. Compressor K-102 power is about
3,300 kW. The steam requirement for the turbine is about 35,000 lb/hr, (16 TPH). Recycled gas
at about 2,000 psig and 165°F is split about 15 % of it is mixed with compressed make-up
hydrogen from K-101 and sent to “cold shot” in the hydrocracking reactor R-103 and also to reflux
/stripping gas in the finishing reactor /enhanced separator section of R-102. The balance of the
hydrogen is preheated to 625°F in feed effluent exchanger E-112 and E-109 prior to entering to
charge heater F-101. The outlet of the charge heater F-101, combined with recycled UCO is the
feed to Hydrocracking Reactor R-103 at a controlled temperature of 700°F or any other
temperature dictated by catalyst performance and overall heat integration.

15
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Section 200 product recovery
Liquid 1,765 psig from V-105 rich in diesel kerosene and naphtha is separated from sour
water and let down to Cold Flash Drum V-201 at 300 psig. Dissolved hydrogen containing traces
of H2S methane and ethane combines with purge hydrogen and flash hydrogen from area 100.
This crude hydrogen stream about 3.0 Mmscfd at about 80 vol % is release to PSA hydrogen
recovery at OBL or fuel gas system. Liquids from V-201 depleted of most of the hydrogen and
portion of CH4 and C2H6 is let down to C-201, LPG stripper operating at 120 psig (9.4 kg/cm2-a)
where essentially all C4 and most C3 are recovered as mixed liquid, about 1,600 BPSD with 38
liquid vol% propane. About 20% of C3 along with residual methane and ethane are released to
refinery fuel gas header operating at 80 psig. The stripper feed is preheated by E-201 using 50
psig steam, and reboiled by 600 psig steam at E-203 and stripping is enhanced by small injection
of 150 psig live steam.
Heavy liquid from Hot Flash Drum V-107 is let down to the coil of fired heater F-201 and
partially vaporized at end point of 700 F. Vapor /liquid mixture is introduced to the flash zone of
the Fractionation Column C-202 with total of 50 trays. The UCO at 650°F and 30 psig, from the
bottom of fractionation column C-202 enters a booster pump provides suction pressure to the
recycle pump which recycles the UCO at 2200 psig to the hydrocracking reactor R-103 in area
100. A HPNA purge of about 525 BPSD is drawn from the discharge of the booster pump and
could be used as a major source of fuel for F-201.
The 10,066 BPSD full range naphtha C5-310 F is recovered as overhead product of C-202
and sent to OBL by the reflux pump. About 14,836 BPSD kerosene product from Kerosene
Stripper C-203 is cooled by E-209, generating 50 psig steam , followed by air cooler E-210. The
diesel product, about 13,461 BPSD from Diesel Stripper C-204 is cooled by generating 150 psig
steam at E-211, followed by air cooler E-212 to 160°F and sent to OBL.

16
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 2

Hycycle ™ Unicracking Hydrocracking for Middle Distillate

STREAM FLOWS
CAPACITY: 1372 MILLION LB/YR

STREAM FLOWS, LB/HR


Mol. Wt. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Water 18.0 895 895 895 160 -- --
Hydrogen 2.0 13,165 -- 77,450 70,885 65,080 12,515 Trace Trace
Hydrogen Sulfide 34.1 -- -- 110 110 11,618 9 -- --
Ammonia 14.3 -- -- -- -- 472 -- -- --
Methane 16.0 -- -- 24,265 24,265 24,415 1,985 -- --
Ethane 30.1 -- -- 35,950 37,645 37,385 2,265 -- --
Propane 44.1 -- -- 19,450 24,980 25,580 1,600 -- --
Butane ( mix) 58.1 -- -- 13,385 21,545 22,345 1,095 -- --
Pentane ( mix) 72.2 -- -- 2,300 11,675 12,675 182 -- --
Hexane ( mix) 86.2 -- -- 600 15,510 17,110 45 -- --
C7-310 F TBP -- -- 110 73,400 78,400 10 -- --
310-550 F TBP -- -- 11 168,190 178,190 1 Trace --
550 F-650 F TBP -- -- 153,182 163,182 -- Trace --
650 F-980 F TBP -- 471,625 955,305 999,579 964,514 -- 947,305 82,000

Total, lb/hr 13,165 471,625 1,129,831 1,601,861 1,601,861 19,867 947,305 82,000
Total, kg/hr 5,972 213,925 512,483 726,592 726,592 9,012 429,690 37,195

STREAM FLOWS, LB/HR


Mol. Wt. (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16)
Water 18.0 -- -- 10 743 180 1,055 740 41,055
Hydrogen 2.0 Trace Trace 215 65,395 12,705 77,995 54,995 77,995
Hydrogen Sulfide 34.1 -- -- 1 91 10 11,630 8,176 11,630
Ammonia 14.3 -- -- 472 330 472
Methane 16.0 -- -- 79 22,080 2,185 26,735 19,820 26,735
Ethane 30.1 -- -- 106 32,558 2,940 39,650 27,755 39,650
Propane 44.1 -- -- 73 17,689 1,760 27,180 19,025 27,180
Butane ( mix) 58.1 -- -- 48 12,180 1,205 23,440 16,410 23,440
Pentane ( mix) 72.2 -- -- 5 2,099 200 12,857 9,000 12,857
Hexane ( mix) 86.2 -- -- 2 553 50 17,155 12,010 17,155
C7-310 F TBP -- -- 2 190 10 78,510 54,955 78,510
310-550 F TBP Trace Trace -- 68 1 179,250 125,475 179,250
550 F-650 F TBP Trace Trace -- 80 -- 163,285 114,282 163,260
650 F-980 F TBP 82,000 Trace -- 955,305 -- 15,209 10,500 15,000

Total, lb/hr 82,000 Trace 541 1,109,031 21,246 674,423 473,473 714,189
Total, kg/hr 37,195 Trace 245 503,048 9,637 305,913 214,764 323,951

17
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 2 (Continued)

Hycycle ™ Unicracking Hydrocracking for Middle Distillate

STREAM FLOWS
CAPACITY: 1372 MILLION LB/YR

STREAM FLOWS, LB/HR


Mol. Wt. (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24)
Water 18.0 39,900 Trace 1,155 1,065 1,055 35,000 - -
Hydrogen 2.0 5 325 77,665 77,665 77,450 -- 260 65
Hydrogen Sulfide 34.1 1,890 550 9,190 110 110 -- 350 200
Ammonia 14.3 472 Trace -- -- -- -- -- --
Methane 16.0 -- 1,572 24,750 26,330 26,250 -- 750 762
Ethane 30.1 -- 1,781 38,343 38,343 37,763 -- 300 1,481
Propane 44.1 -- 6,058 21,449 21,449 21,049 -- 50 6,008
Butane ( mix) 58.1 -- 8,913 14,745 14,745 14,480 -- 20 8,893
Pentane ( mix) 72.2 -- 10,371 2,511 2,511 2,481 -- -- 10,371
Hexane ( mix) 86.2 -- 16,505 658 658 648 -- -- 16,505
C7-310 F TBP 10 78,288 220 220 210 -- -- 78,288
310-550 F TBP 10 179,170 70 70 70 -- -- 179,120
550 F-650 F TBP 10 163,170 80 80 80 -- -- 163,170
650 F-980 F TBP 5 14,995 -- -- -- -- -- 14,995

Total, lb/hr 42,302 481,698 190,836 183,246 181,646 35,000 1,730 479,858
Total, kg/hr 19,188 218,495 86,562 83,119 82,393 15,876 785 217,660

STREAM FLOWS, LB/HR


Mol. Wt. (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32)
Water 18.0 4,000 3,900 20 10 3,900 100 45 30
Hydrogen 2.0 -- 65 - 65 - -- --
Hydrogen Sulfide 34.1 -- 190 20 160 10 10 -- --
Ammonia 14.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Methane 16.0 -- 780 5 757 - - -- --
Ethane 30.1 -- 1,550 50 1,431 - - -- --
Propane 44.1 -- 7,900 4,785 1,203 1 20 30 20
Butane ( mix) 58.1 -- 10,300 8,640 193 1 60 90 60
Pentane ( mix) 72.2 -- 1,200 80 5 -- 10,286 15,430 10,286
Hexane ( mix) 86.2 -- 300 10 2 -- 16,493 24,740 16,493
C7-310 F TBP -- -- -- -- -- 78,288 117,432 78,288
310-550 F TBP -- -- -- -- -- 179,120 -- --
550 F-650 F TBP -- -- -- -- -- 163,170 -- --
650 F-980 F TBP -- -- -- -- -- 14,995 -- --

Total, lb/hr 4,000 26,185 13,610 3,826 3,911 462,542 157,767 105,177
Total, kg/hr 1,814 11,877 6,173 1,735 1,774 209,805 71,562 47,707

18
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 2 (concluded)

Hycycle ™ Unicracking Hydrocracking for Middle Distillate

STREAM FLOWS
CAPACITY: 1372 MILLION LB/YR

STREAM FLOWS, LB/HR


Mol. Wt. (33) (34) (35) (36) (37)
Water 18.0 50 50 30 28 2
Hydrogen 2.0 -- -- -- -- --
Hydrogen Sulfide 34.1 -- -- -- -- --
Ammonia 14.3 -- -- -- -- --
Methane 16.0 -- -- -- -- --
Ethane 30.1 -- -- -- -- --
Propane 44.1 -- -- -- -- --
Butane ( mix) 58.1 -- -- -- -- --
Pentane ( mix) 72.2 -- -- -- -- --
Hexane ( mix) 86.2 -- -- -- -- --
C7-310 F TBP -- -- -- -- --
310-550 F TBP 179,120 -- -- --
550 F-650 F TBP -- 163,170 -- -- --
650 F-980 F TBP -- -- 97,000 90,000 7,000

Total, lb/hr 179,170 163,220 97,030 90,028 7,002


Total, kg/hr 81,270 74,035 44,012 40,836 3,176

19
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 3

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE

MAJOR EQUIPMENT
CAPACITY: 1,372 MILLION LB/YR (622,000 T/YR)
DIESEL FUEL
AT 0.96 STREAM FACTOR
EQUIPMENT
NUMBER NAME SIZE MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION REMARKS
------------------- ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

REACTORS

R-101 HYDROTREATING REACTOR 15 FT DIA CLADDING: 347 SS 2.25 CR/1 MO


50 FT T-T 3 BEDSD
R-102 FINISHING REACTOR 15 FT DIA CLADDING: 347 SS 2.25 CR, 1 MO
50 FT T-T 1 BED; 8 STRIPPING TRAYS
R-103 HYDROCRACKER 15 FT DIA SHELL: 2.25%CR, 1%MO 4 BEDS
80 FT T-T

COLUMNS

C-101 AMINE ABSORBER 8 FT DIA SHELL: C.S. 15 VALVE TRAYS, 24 INCH SPACING
36 FT TRAYS: C.S.
C-201 LPG STRIPPER 10 FT DIA SHELL: C.S. 24 VALVE TRAYS, 24 INCH SPACING
60 FT TRAYS: C.S.
C-202 PRODUCT FRACTIONATOR 16 FT DIA SHELL: C.S. 50 VALVE TRAYS, 24 INCH SPACING
120 FT TRAYS: C.S.
C-203 KEROSENE STRIPPER 6 FT DIA SHELL: C.S. 8 VALVE TRAYS, 24 INCH SPACING
25 FT TRAYS: C.S.
C-204 DIESEL STRIPPER 7.5 FT DIA SHELL: C.S. 10 VALVE TRAYS, 24 INCH SPACING
33 FT TRAYS: C.S.

COMPRESSORS

K-101A-C H2 MAKE UP COMPRESSORS 3,500 BHP C.S. 3 STAGES EACH, RECIPROCAL; MOTOR DRIVE.
2 OPERATING, 1 SPARE.
K-102 H2 RECYCLE COMPRESSOR 4,025 BHP C.S. 1 STAGE, CENTRIFUGAL; TURBINE DRIVER

HEAT EXCHANGERS

E-101A,B H2 COMPRESSOR COOLER 1 380 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. AIR COOLER


1.7 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S. 1 SPARE
E-102A-C H2 COMPRESSOR TRIM 1 COOLER 700 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. IN PARALLEL
1.2 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-103A,B H2 COMPRESSOR COOLER 2 406 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. AIR COOLER
1.7 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S. 1 SPARE
E-104A-C H2 COMPRESSOR TRIM 2 COOLER 600 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. IN PARALLEL
1.2 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-105A,B H2 COMPRESSOR COOLER 3 406 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. AIR COOLER
1.7 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-106 H2-FRESH FEED EXCHANGER 5,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
31 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-107A,B FRESH FEED -H2 EXCHANER 7,000 SQ FT SHELL: 1.25CR, 0.5 MO
45.5 MMBTU/HR TUBES: 1.25 CR, 0.5 MO
E-108 RECYCLE UCO-EFFLUENT EXCHANGER 10,000 SQ FT SHELL: 2.25CR, 1 MO
50 MMBTU/HR TUBES: 321 SS
E-109 H2 FEED-EFFLUENT EXCHANGER 5,000 SQ FT SHELL: 1.25CR, 0.5 MO
45 MMBTU/HR TUBES: 321 SS
E-110 R-101 EFFLUENT-STEAM EXCHANGER 2,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
37 MMBTU/HR TUBES: 321 SS
E-111 R-102 CONDENSER 1,500 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
21 MMBTU/HR TUBES: 321 SS

20
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 3 (Continued)

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE

MAJOR EQUIPMENT
CAPACITY: 1,372 MILLION LB/YR (622,000 T/YR)
DIESEL FUEL
AT 0.96 STREAM FACTOR

EQUIPMENT
NUMBER NAME SIZE MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION REMARKS
------------------- ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

E-112 H2-STEAM BOILER 4,500 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.


39 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-113A-D H2-H2 EXCHANGER 6,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
16.4 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-114A-C RECYCLE GAS COOLER 6,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. AIR COOLER
33.3 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-115 FLASH H2 COOLER 250 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
1.5 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-116 TURBINE EXHAUST CONDENSER 6,500 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
35 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-201 COLD SEPARATOR HTR 7,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
30 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-202 STRIPPER CONDENSER 8,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
27 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-203 STRIPPER REBOILER 3,500 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
27 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-204 UCO PROD COOLER 1,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
13.7 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-205 KEROSENE PUMP AROUND COOLER 2,200 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
20 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-206 DIESEL PUMP AROUND COOLER 2,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
20 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-207A-D FRACTIONATOR CONDENSER 2,800 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. AIR COOLER
15 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-208 NAPHTHA PROD COOLER 1,500 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
2.2 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-209 KEROSENE PROD COOLER 1,700 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
10.7 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-210A,B KEROSENE COOLER 1,200 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. AIR COOLER
8 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-211 DIESEL PROD COOLER 2,000 SQ FT SHELL: C.S.
13.7 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.
E-212A,B DIESEL COOLER 2,229 SQ FT SHELL: C.S. AIR COOLER
18 MMBTU/HR TUBES: C.S.

PROCESS FURNACES

F-101 FEED-RECYCLE FURNACE 33 MMBTU/HR 347 SS GAS FIRED


F-201 PRODUCT FRACTIONATOR 161 MMBTU/HR CHROME-MOLY

TANKS (OFFSITE)

T-101A,B STARTUP OIL TANK 2,205,000 GAL C.S. 3 DAYS SUPPLY


T-201 NAPHTHA 1,250,000 GAL C.S. 3 DAYS PRODUCTION
T-202 KEROSENE-JET FUEL 2,000,000 GAL C.S. 3 DAYS PRODUCTION
T-203 DIESEL FUEL 2,000,000 GAL C.S. 3 DAYS PRODUCTION
T-204 FUEL OIL 110,000 GAL C.S. 5 DAYS PRODUCTION

21
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 3 (Concluded)

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE

MAJOR EQUIPMENT
CAPACITY: 1,372 MILLION LB/YR (622,000 T/YR)
DIESEL FUEL
AT 0.96 STREAM FACTOR

EQUIPMENT
NUMBER NAME SIZE MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION REMARKS
------------------- ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PRESSURE VESSELS

V-101 H2 COMPRESSOR K.O. DRUM 1 700 GAL C.S.


V-102 H2 COMPRESSOR K.O. DRUM 2 700 GAL C.S.
V-103 H2 COMPRESSOR K.O. DRUM 3 700 GAL C.S.
V-104 FEED SURGE DRUM 9,000 GAL C.S.
V-105 COLD SEPARATOR 32,000 GAL C.S. HORIZONTAL
V-106 RECYCLE COMPRESSOR KO. DRUM 3,400 GAL C.S.
V-107 HOT FLASH DRUM 4,000 GAL 1.25%CR, 0.5%MO

V-201 COLD FLASH DRUM 28,500 GAL C.S.


V-202 LPG REFLUX DRUM 1,000 GAL C.S.
V-203 FRACTIONATOR REFLUX DRUM 5,400 GAL C.S. HORIZONTAL

MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT

M-101 FRESH FEED FILTER SYSTEM CARBON STEEL 100 MESH SS SINTERED, BACKFLUSH
M-201 UCO FILTER SYSTEM CARBON STEEL 100 MESH SS SINTERED, BACKFLUSH

SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

S-101 CATALYST INITIAL CHARGE

PUMPS

SECTION OPERATING SPARES OPERATING BHP


--------------- ------------------- -------------- -------------------------
100 19 9 3,578
200 10 8 1,010

22
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 4

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE

UTILITIES SUMMARY
CAPACITY: 1,372 MILLION LB/YR (622,000 T/YR)
DIESEL FUEL
AT 0.96 STREAM FACTOR

BATTERY LIMITS SECTION SECTION


UNITS TOTAL 100 200
--------------- ---------------------- --------------- ---------------
AVERAGE CONSUMPTIONS
COOLING WATER GPM 6,660 3,740 2,920
PROCESS WATER GPM 80 80 --
ELECTRICITY KW 10,574 9,394 1,181
NATURAL GAS MM BTU/HR 205 44 161
STEAM, 50 PSIG M LB/HR 28 -- 28
STEAM, 150 PSIG M LB/HR 4 -- 4
STEAM, 600 PSIG M LB/HR 72 35 37
STEAM, 50 PSIG M LB/HR -102 -40 -62
STEAM, 150 PSIG M LB/HR -43 -- -43
STEAM, 600 PSIG M LB/HR -44 -38 -6

PEAK DEMANDS
COOLING WATER GPM 7,992 4,488 3,504
PROCESS WATER GPM 96 96 --
STEAM, 50 PSIG M LB/HR 34 -- 34
STEAM, 150 PSIG M LB/HR 5 -- 5
STEAM, 600 PSIG M LB/HR 86 42 44

23
PEP REVIEW 98-7
COST ESTIMATES
The capital investment and production costs for hydrocracking as oil produced from Arabian
Light crude oil for the production of jet and diesel fuels are presented. Costs are based on an
U.S. Gulf Coast location for the second quarter of 2000. Overnight construction is assumed (ie,
the cost of funds spent during construction are excluded).

Investment Costs
Table 5 sets forth the total fixed capital (TFC) investment for a 35,000 B/SD HyCycle
hydrocracking unit. The costs are calculated at a PEP Cost Index of 624. The design has not
been fully optimized either for equipment size or energy consumption. Owner’s costs such as
cleared land are excluded. Licensing or royalty fees are regarded as proprietary and are not
included in these costs.
The boundary limit installed costs was $151 million before contingency. This cost is 14%
lower than the corresponding cost of the conventional VGO middle distillate hydrocracker
evaluated in PEP Report 211. Both units cracked Arabian Light gas oil. The conventional unit
operates at 2645 psi compared to 1910 psig in the HyCycle process. The lower pressure
reduces the reactor cost and hydrogen compressor cost. UOP has estimated a 5% capital
reduction compared to “previous offerings” due to these factors [R98-007-001]. Table 6 shows
the investment costs broken down by section. The major items are the reactors and initial
catalyst charge and the hydrogen compressors. The estimated cost of catalysts, about $10 MM,
is based on generic industry data from hydrocracking projects. Because of the large size
hydrocracking reactors and the subsequent portion of capital cost attributed to these reactors, it
should be noted that the process specifications of these items could be highly influenced by site
specific factors such as transportation local construction capability. Material of construction
design codes, desired run length on the catalyst could be subject to operator’s preference and
would affect capital investment. Adding 15 or 25% contingency to the current estimate results in
a boundary limit investment of 174 million $ or 189 million $ respectively.
Offsite investment before contingency (Table 5) totals 21 million $. The offsite investment is
relatively small percentage of the boundary limit investment due to the high cost of the reactors
and credit for steam generation within the boundary limits. The cost of the offsite is based on an
assumed generic integration with other refinery units such as crude distillation, vacuum distillation
sulfur recovery, waste water treating, spent catalyst, and intermediate storage. Offsite
investment includes the incremental cost of utilities and storage. Gas oil feed and product
storage are based on 3 days production (except fuel oil, 5 days). The allowance for general
service facilities includes a control room, roads, fire protection and equipment. The cost of rich
MDEA stripping is included in the waste treatment investment. The allocation also covers the
flare and relief system and incremental additions to the water collection and treatment system.
Contingencies of 15 or 25% bring the total offsite investment to 23.8 million $ or 26.5 million $
respectively.
The total fixed capital cost or boundary limits investment is 198 million $ including a 15%
contingency or 216 million $ when including a 25% contingency.

Production Costs
Table 7 lists the unit cost and consumption factors used in estimating the value of
feedstocks, products and utilities included in the production cost. By-products are shown as a
credit (negative). Feedstock and product values are mid-2000 values determined by PEP. The

24
PEP REVIEW 98-7
gas oil feed is based on 10 vol% atmospheric gas oil and 90% vacuum gas oil. The on stream
factor is 0.96.
Raw material cost of 24.51 ¢/lb of diesel fuel includes catalyst replacement every three
years (UOP expects 4 years catalyst life with their new catalysts [R97-07-001]. By-product sales
and credits of mainly jet fuel and full range naphtha offset most of the raw material cost. Utility
costs, 0.52 ¢/lb of diesel, are relatively low due to credit for steam generation.
Plant cash costs total 4.48 ¢/lb of diesel fuel. Adding depreciation at 10%/yr of total fixed
capital of $216 million (including a 25% contingency) and an allowance for general
administration, sales and research expenses gives a net production cost of 6.15 ¢/lb. At a 25%
contingency factor, the product value is 9.51 ¢/lb of diesel fuel.
Product value of units of 0.5 and 1.5 times the base case capacity were also calculated at a
0.96 on stream factor and a constant 25% ROI. With a 25% contingency, the product value from
the half capacity plant is 11.49 ¢/lb, 14% higher than the 10.08 ¢/lb of the base case. Increasing
capacity to 150% of the base case reduces the product value 4.6% to 9.62 ¢/lb. With a 15%
contingency, the respective product values at 0.5 and 1.5 times the base case capacity are 10.81
and 9.07 ¢/lb of diesel fuel.
With 25% contingency, reducing the time on stream factor to 0.92 from 0.96 reduces the
production of diesel fuel to 1315 million lb/yr (12,342 B/D) from 1,372 million lb/yr (12,878B/D).
Plant cash costs increase to 4.55 ¢/lb from 4.48 ¢/lb of diesel. Net production cost becomes 6.29
¢/lb, up from 6.15 ¢/lb. The total product value at 25% ROI rises to 10.39 ¢/lb from 10.08 ¢/lb.
Similarly, with 15% contingency, the base unit’s total production cost decreases to 10.21 ¢/lb of
diesel with less time on steam.

Profitability
Based upon a total fixed capital cost (included 25% contingency) of $216 million and a 0.96
operating factor, the total return on investment (ROI) before income taxes, was an attractive
29.3% at the mid 2000 prevailing diesel fuel market value of 10.77 ¢/lb. When the plant capacity
is half the base case capacity, the ROI reduces to 21.1%. Increasing capacity to 1.5 times the
base case increases the ROI to 32.7%. Similarly, but with a 15% capital cost contingency, the
base case unit’s ROI increases to a very attractive 33.6%, the half capacity case returns 24.7%
and the 1.5 times case return rises to 37.4%.
At a 0.92 operating factor instead of 0.96 and a product value of 10.77¢/lb of diesel fuel, the
base case unit’s ROI decreases 2.1 percentage points to 27.2% with a 25% contingency and
rises 2.0 points to 31.4% with a 15% contingency. At 25% contingency, the 0.5 and 1.5 times
capacity plants' returns are 19.2% and 30.5% respectively. Also with a 15% contingency, the 0.5
and 1.85 times plant capacity plants returns are 22.7% and 34.9% respectively, down 2.0 and 2.5
percentage points when the time on stream is reduced to 0.92.

25
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 5

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE

TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT


CAPACITY: 1,372 MILLION LB/YR (622,000 T/YR)
DIESEL FUEL
AT 0.96 STREAM FACTOR

PEP COST INDEX: 624

CAPACITY
EXPONENT
COST --------------------------
($1,000) UP DOWN
------------ ---------- ----------
BATTERY LIMITS EQUIPMENT, F.O.B.
REACTORS 24,383 0.98 0.90
COLUMNS 1,373 0.95 0.81
VESSELS & TANKS 1,834 0.84 0.97
HEAT EXCHANGERS 5,666 0.78 0.63
FURNACES 5,897 0.82 0.82
COMPRESSORS 9,921 0.76 0.76
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 10,000 1.00 1.00
MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT 700 1.00 1.00
PUMPS 2,670 0.79 0.74
---------
TOTAL 62,444 0.90 0.85

DIRECT INSTALLATION COSTS 37,163 0.86 0.73


INDIRECT COSTS 37,915 0.84 0.76
UNSCHEDULED EQUIPMENT, 10% 13,752 0.87 0.79
---------
BATTERY LIMITS, INSTALLED 151,274 0.87 0.79

CONTINGENCY, 25% 37,819 0.87 0.79


---------
BATTERY LIMITS INVESTMENT 189,093 0.87 0.79

OFF-SITES, INSTALLED
CLARIFIED WATER 578 0.74 0.64
COOLING WATER 1,284 0.92 0.92
PROCESS WATER 302 0.62 0.62
BOILER FEED WATER 2,695 0.52 0.39
STEAM 2,739 0.48 0.00
TANKAGE 6,662 0.65 0.65
---------
UTILITIES & STORAGE 14,261 0.62 0.47

GENERAL SERVICE FACILITIES 4,067 0.86 0.77


WASTE TREATMENT 2,888 0.84 0.74
---------
TOTAL 21,216 0.70 0.56

CONTINGENCY, 25% 5,304 0.70 0.56


---------
OFF-SITES INVESTMENT 26,519 0.70 0.56

TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL 215,612 0.85 0.76

26
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 6

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE

CAPITAL INVESTMENT BY SECTION


CAPACITY: 1,372 MILLION LB/YR (622,000 T/YR)
DIESEL FUEL
AT 0.96 STREAM FACTOR

PEP COST INDEX: 624

REACTOR LOOP PRODUCT RECOVERY


------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------
CAPACITY CAPACITY
EXPONENT EXPONENT
COST ------------------------- COST -------------------------
($1,000) UP DOWN ($1,000) UP DOWN
------------ ----------- ---------- ------------ ----------- ----------
BATTERY LIMITS EQUIPMENT, F.O.B.
REACTORS 24,383 0.98 0.90 -- -- --
COLUMNS 520 1.12 0.95 853 0.84 0.74
VESSELS & TANKS 1,565 0.86 1.03 269 0.75 0.68
HEAT EXCHANGERS 4,466 0.79 0.64 1,200 0.77 0.62
FURNACES 2,813 0.82 0.82 3,085 0.82 0.82
COMPRESSORS 9,921 0.76 0.76 -- -- --
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 10,000 1.00 1.00 -- -- --
MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT 450 1.00 1.00 250 1.00 1.00
PUMPS 1,707 0.83 0.76 963 0.73 0.70
--------- ---------
TOTAL 55,824 0.92 0.87 6,620 0.80 0.75

DIRECT INSTALLATION COSTS 30,654 0.87 0.77 6,509 0.77 0.56


INDIRECT COSTS 32,917 0.86 0.79 4,997 0.75 0.61
UNSCHEDULED EQUIPMENT, 10% 11,940 0.89 0.82 1,813 0.78 0.64
--------- ---------
BATTERY LIMITS INSTALLED 131,335 0.89 0.82 19,939 0.78 0.64

CONTINGENCY, 25% 32,834 0.89 0.82 4,985 0.78 0.64


--------- ---------
BATTERY LIMITS INVESTMENT 164,169 0.89 0.82 24,924 0.78 0.64

OFFSITES, INSTALLED
CLARIFIED WATER 309 0.74 0.64 269 0.74 0.64
COOLING WATER 721 0.92 0.92 563 0.92 0.92
PROCESS WATER 130 0.62 0.62 102 0.62 0.62
BOILER FEED WATER 1,028 0.51 0.34 1,667 0.53 0.42
STEAM 258 0.48 0.00 2,481 0.48 0.00
TANKAGE 2,772 0.65 0.65 3,890 0.65 0.65
--------- ---------
UTILITIES & STORAGE 5,219 0.66 0.58 8,972 0.60 0.41

27
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 7

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE

PRODUCTION COSTS
PEP COST INDEX: 624

VARIABLE COSTS
CONSUMPTION
UNIT COST PER LB ¢/LB
------------------------- -------------------------- ----------
RAW MATERIALS
FRESH FEED 10% AGO 6.442 ¢/LB 2.89017 LB 18.62
HYDROGEN 99.9% 73.21 ¢/LB 0.07717 LB 5.65
CATALYST & CHEMICALS 834 ¢/LB 0.000292 LB 0.24
MDEA 183 ¢/LB 0.000002 LB NEGL
---------
GROSS RAW MATERIALS 24.51

BY-PRODUCTS
C1 FUEL GAS 7.806 ¢/LB -0.01012 LB -0.08
C2 FUEL GAS 11.11 ¢/LB -0.01156 LB -0.13
C3 FUEL GAS 12.05 ¢/LB -0.03757 LB -0.45
C4 FUEL GAS 11.55 ¢/LB -0.05491 LB -0.63
FULL NAPHTHA 13.13 ¢/LB -0.64451 LB -8.46
KEROSENE(JET FUEL) 11.12 ¢/LB -1.09191 LB -12.14
H. FUEL OIL 7.671 ¢/LB -0.04335 LB -0.33
---------
TOTAL BY-PRODUCTS -22.22

CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION
UNIT COST PER LB PER KG
------------------------- -------------------------- --------------------------
UTILITIES
COOLING WATER 7.45 ¢/MGAL 2.45 GAL 20.4 LITERS 0.02
PROCESS WATER 1.101 $/MGAL 0.0294 GAL 0.245 LITERS NEGL
STEAM, 600 PSIG 5.72 $/MLB 0.172 LB 0.172 KG 0.10
STEAM, 50 PSIG 3.5 $/MLB -0.453 LB -0.453 KG -0.16
STEAM, 150 PSIG 4.51 $/MLB -0.239 LB -0.239 KG -0.11
ELECTRICITY 4 ¢/KWH 0.0648 KWH 0.143 KWH 0.26
NATURAL GAS 3.24 $/MMBTU 1,260 BTU 698 KCAL 0.41
---------
TOTAL UTILITIES 0.52

28
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Table 7 (concluded)

HYDROCRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE

PRODUCTION COSTS
PEP COST INDEX: 624

CAPACITY (MILLION LB/YR)* 686 1,372# 2,058


------------ ------------ ------------
INVESTMENT ($ MILLIONS)
BATTERY LIMITS (BLI) 109.0 189.1 269.6
OFFSITES 18.0 26.5 35.2
--------- --------- ---------
TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL (TFC) 127.0 215.6 304.8

SCALING EXPONENTS 0.76 0.85


PRODUCTION COSTS (¢/LB)
RAW MATERIALS 24.51 24.51 24.51
BY-PRODUCTS -22.22 -22.22 -22.22
UTILITIES 0.52 0.52 0.52
--------- --------- ---------
VARIABLE COSTS 2.81 2.81 2.81

OPERATING LABOR, 4/SHIFT, $33.58/HR 0.17 0.09 0.06


MAINTENANCE LABOR, 3%/YR OF BLI 0.48 0.41 0.39
CONTROL LAB LABOR, 20% OF OPER LABOR 0.03 0.02 0.01
--------- --------- ---------
LABOR COSTS 0.68 0.52 0.46

MAINTENANCE MATERIALS, 3%/YR OF BLI 0.48 0.41 0.39


OPERATING SUPPLIES, 10% OF OPER LABOR 0.02 0.01 0.01
--------- --------- ---------
TOTAL DIRECT COSTS 3.99 3.75 3.67

PLANT OVERHEAD, 80% OF LABOR COSTS 0.54 0.42 0.37


TAXES AND INSURANCE, 2%/YR OF TFC 0.37 0.31 0.30
--------- --------- ---------
PLANT CASH COSTS 4.90 4.48 4.34

DEPRECIATION, 10%/YR OF TFC 1.85 1.57 1.48


--------- --------- ---------
PLANT GATE COSTS 6.75 6.05 5.82

G&A, SALES, RESEARCH 0.12 0.11 0.10


--------- --------- ---------
NET PRODUCTION COST 6.87 6.16 5.92

ROI BEFORE TAXES, 29.3%/YR OF TFC 5.42 4.60 4.34


--------- --------- ---------
PRODUCT VALUE 12.29 10.76 10.26

-----------------------------------
* OF DIESEL FUEL
# BASE CASE

29
PEP REVIEW 98-7
CONCLUSION
If the high yield of diesel product would represent a desired product slate, the preliminary
conclusion about the HyCycle(TM) Unicracking technology is very positive. This preliminary
conclusion could be enforced by confirmation of the assumption made during the course of this
evaluation, in terms of reactor operating conditions, vapor product separation conditions, and
product yield. It is recognized that a non-disclosure agreement with UOP would have been
required in order to further establish the technical integrity of the above report.

FOOTNOTES
(1) Cetane Index. A Nomograph for calculating Cetane Index is presented in Standard
Methods For Analysis and Testing of Petroleum and Related Products. 1988 issue British
Institute of Petroleum. Vol 1 218-3. API gravity and 50% boiling point by ASTM distillation is
needed.
(2) Per pass conversion: 100- 650°F+ material in distillate product (liquid volume)
650°F+ in (fresh feed + recycle)
(3) Overall conversion : 100- 650°F+ in distillate product (liquid volume)
650°F+ material in feed

30
PEP REVIEW 98-7
CITED REFERENCES

Literature
R98-07-001 Antos, G.J., et al., “Unicracking TM Innovations Delivery Profit,” National
Petrochemical and Refiners Association 2001 Annual Meeting, New Orleans,
LA, (March 18-20, 2001), Paper AM-01-30
R98-07-002 Lamourelle, A.P., et al., “Clean Fuels: Route to Low Sulfur Low Aromatic Diesel,”
National Petrochemical and Refiners Association 2001 Annual Meeting, New
Orleans, LA, (March 18-20, 2001), Paper AM-01-28
R98-07-003 Adler, K., “2001 In Review: Europe, Asia See Trends of Fuels Regulations,”
World Refining, 11,1 (January/February 2001), 36, 38-40
R98-07-004 Peckham, J., “Euro Commission Proposes 10 ppm ULSD Phase-in from 2007,”
Diesel Fuel News, 5, 5 (March 5, 2001), 11\
R98-07-005 Roj, A., “Fuel Quality for the Future—an Automotive Industry View,” Cleaner
Fuels for Europe workshop, Helsinki, Finland, (Nov. 23-23, 2000)
R98-07-006 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “EPA Gives the Green Light on Diesel-
Sulfur Rule,” News Release (R-30), (February 28, 2001)
R98-07-007 National Petrochemical and Refiners Association, “NPRA to Challenge Diesel
Sulfur Rule in Court: Decision Motivated by Supply Concerns,” News Release
(January 23, 2001)
R98-07-008 National Petrochemical and Refiners Association, “NPRA Files Petition for
Review of EPA’s Diesel Sulfur Rule,” News Release (February 2, 2001)
R98-07-009 National Petrochemical and Refiners Association, “NPRA Reaction to Reports of
Administration Decision on Diesel Rule,” News Release (February 28, 2001)

Patents
US 5885440 Hoehn, R.K., et al., (to UOP LLC), “Hydrocracking process with integrated
effluent hydrotreating zone,” U.S. 5,885,440 (March 23, 1999)
US 5980729 Kalnes, T.N., (to UOP LLC),”Hydrocracking Process,” U.S. 5,980,729 (Nov. 9,
1999)
WO 97/38066 Cash, I. R., (to Chevron U.S.A.), “Process for Reverse Staging in
Hydroprocessing Reactor Systems,” WO 97/38066 (application) (Oct. 16, 1997)

Reports
211 Chang, E.J., “Hydrocracking,” PEP Report 211, SRI Consulting, Menlo Park, CA
(April 1994)
212 Leiby, S.M., “Options for Refinery Hydrogen,” PEP Report 212, SRI Consulting,
Menlo Park, CA (February 1994)
216 Ma, J.J. “Acid Gas Treatment and Sulfur Recovery,” PEP Report 216, SRI
Consulting, Menlo Park, CA (November 1997)

31
PEP REVIEW 98-7
228 Nielsen, R. H., “Refinery Residue Upgrading,” PEP Report 228, SRI Consulting,
Menlo Park, CA (May 2000)

32
PEP REVIEW 98-7
Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 2)
(TM)
HYCYCLE UNICRACKING HYDROCRACKING
FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE
H2 COMPRESSION AND REACTOR LOOP

225 F
O
225OF 225OF 600 psig
640 psig 150OF 150OF 100OF 2050 psig Steam
100 F O
1130 psig
V-102 150OF 22
V-101 E-104 V-103
E-101 E-102 E-103 E-105
Make-up H2 K-102
1
K-101A K-101B K-101C
E-116
Vac.
Vent
Wash 2020 psig CW
Water 165OF
V-104 140OF
16
Atmospheric Gas Oil V-105 21
E-114
Vacuum Gas Oil

From Storage
18 To V-201
300OF
V-106
M-101 17 19
2
E-106 330OF 320OF E-113 130OF
Waste 1750 psig
E-107 Water 20
600OF
O
130 F
490OF E-112 15 C-101
4 BFW 700OF Lean MDEA
1910 psig
690OF
14 630 F
O

R-101 13
R-103
R-102

E-110 E-111
3 Rich MDEA
640OF 500 F
O
150OF
11 To V-201
6

E-115
O 625OF E-109 1800 psig
730 F O
BFW
725 F 10
1820 psig 695 F
O O
5 625 F 1860 psig
V-107
E-108 7
BFW 400OF
250OF 8

12
320OF
Unconverted 715OF 1860 psig
Oil from F-101 1950 psig
Section 200 Unconverted
36 9 Oil to E-204

V-101 R-101 F-101 V-104 M-101 A,B R-102 V-102 R-103 V-103 V-105 V-107 V-106 C-101 K-102
H2Co mpressor Hydrotreating Feed-Recycle Feed Fresh Feed Finishing H2Co mpressor Hydrocracker H2Co mpressor Cold Hot Flash Recycle Amine H2 Recycle
K.O.1 Reactor Furnace Surge Filter System Reactor K.O.2 K.O.3 Separator Drum Compressor Absorber
K.O.
K-101A,B,C
H2 Make up

PEP Review 98-7


2001
33
Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 2)
(TM)
HYCYCLE UNICRACKING HYDROCRACKING
FOR MIDDLE DISTILLATE
PRODUCT RECOVERY

E-207 Fuel Gas


265OF

Fuel
Gas V-203

E-202 Steam 10 psig C-202 10 psig 28,000 lb/hr


H2 28
180OF 100OF 20,000 lb/hr 140OF Waste Water
BFW
CW
23 26
V-202
375OF 32
C-201
From V-106 140 FO V-201 E-205 CW E-208
C-203 Naphtha
& V-107 300 psig 120 psig 450OF
450OF
11 Steam 150 psig
20,000 lb/hr Steam 50 psig
From V-105 10,000 lb/hr
27
18 BFW Kerosene
Water
29
LPG 33
E-206 475OF E-209
E-210 140OF
550OF C-204
24
O
550 F BFW
37,000 lb/hr Steam
E-201 O
280 F 600 psig Steam 600 psig /750OF
9000 lb/hr Steam 50 psig
400OF BFW 14,000 lb/hr
Steam 50 psig Steam 150 psig
Steam from F-101 Diesel
32,000 lb/hr 25 6000 lb/hr
150 psig
E-203 34
120 psig F-201 E-211
360OF E-212 160OF
BFW

18,000 lb/hr
Steam 50 psig
28,000 lb/hr
30

650OF, 30 psig
O
700 F
From V-107 E-204

625OF 35
9 Fuel
Oil
UCO to Fuel Oil
To R-103 650OF M-201
2200 psig
36 37

V-201 C-201 V-202 F-201 M-201 C-202 V-203 C-203 C-204


Cold Flash LPG Stripper LPG Fractionator UCO Filter Product Fractionator Kerosene Diesel
Drum Reflux Drum Feed Heater System Fractionator Reflux Stripper Stripper

PEP Review 98-7


2001
34