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BEE 4213 - Tutorial 1

Review Questions
1.1 Explain the utilisation of electricity energy in the following fields:

a) b)
c)

d)

Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential

1.2 Describe the major differences between American and European distribution systems in terms of cost, flexibility, safety, and reliability. 1.3 State and explain the functions of each substation (4 levels) found in the primary distribution system.
1.4 Give the definitions of the following terms:

a) b) c) d) e) f)

Domestic consumer Commercial consumer Industrial consumer Kilowatts of maximum demand Average power factor Peak period and Off-Peak period

1.5 Express the following terms with brief descriptions: a) Maximum demand b) Load factor c) Diversity factor d) Tariffs

Questions
1.1 A generating station has a maximum demand of 35,500 kW and has a

connected load of 65,000 kW. The number of units annually generated is 2.56 x 108 kWh. Calculate the demand factor and the load factor. [Ans. 0.45; 0.823]
1.2 A power generation station supplies the following loads to various

consumers: 15,000 kW, 12,000 kW, 8,500 kW, 6,000 kW and 450 kW. The station has a maximum demand of 22,000 kW. The annual load factor of the station is 0.48. Calculate (a) the number of units supplied annually, (b) the demand factor, and (c) the diversity factor. [Ans. (a) 9.25 x 107 units, (b) 0.252 and (c) 1.907]
1.3 A factory has its monthly (take 30 days) electric power consumptions as

follows: No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Electric Rating/ Operating Period Per Day Equipments/Appliances Pump motors 2 X 25 HP, 0.78 PF lagging/ 5 hours Conveyer motors 8 X 2.5 kVA, 0.82 PF lagging/ 18 hours Heating elements 5 X 3 kW/ 8 hours Air Conditionings 20 X 5 HP, 0.86 PF lagging/ 18 hours Lighting 7 kVA, 0.95 PF lagging/ 20 hours Others 45 kVA, 0.90 PF lagging/ 20 hours

The tariff rate (Tariff E1 TNB) is as follows: Tariff E1 (Medium Voltage General Industrial Tariff) For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month For all kWh Calculate:
a) The total monthly energy consumption (in kWh and kVArh) of the

Unit RM/kW Sen/kWh

Rates 19.50 22.2

factory [Ans. 86625.06 kWh + j47746.41 kVArh]

b) The maximum demand for this factory if the load factor is considered

as 72% [Ans. 167.1 kW]


c)

Average power factor and the total monthly bill charge [Ans. 0.87, RM22,489.21]

1.4 A load profiling data has been extracted from a distribution area

consisting of 3 groups of individual consumers. Table 1-1 depicts the 10 days average energy consumption (in kVA) for those individual consumers. Table 1-1 Individ ual 1st Group 1 42 2 256 3 89

2nd 53 128 78

3rd 126 112 63

4th 34 89 77

5th 65 134 95

6th 76 178 72

7th 90 136 69

8th 23 184 167

9th 55 105 111

10th 80 160 125

Calculate the diversity factor for the distribution area. What is the nearest standard size of the distribution transformer that serving the distribution area? [Ans. 1.42, 400 kVA]
1.5 An agriculture product of 1000 kg is raised through a vertical distance of

12m in 15 s by a hoist. The efficiency of the hoist gearing is 30% and that of the driving motor is 80%. If the hoist system is operates 18 hours/ day with the maximum demand of 42.3 kW, determine: a) The electrical power input to the motor [Ans. 32.7 kW]
b) The monthly load factor (take 1 month = 30 days) [Ans. 0.58] c) Total monthly bill charge due to the motor utilisation (take RM0.23/

kWh) [Ans. RM4,061.34]