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Faster Accessibility on Web through Semantic way - Overview Search engine is the vital page of millions of net users.

Very notable thing is the information shown by the search result should be precise and highly relevant. Taking all these into the consideration now search engines are being optimized to fix the versatile users view point. High level of research work is being carried out to get the highly user relevant information for searchers. Community based search engines helps lot for same mind people and it provides way for personalization. Step ahead is the semantic search engines where based on the semantic point of view vigorous searches from various servers were made and pours the results for the queries.
Semantic search plays an important role in realizing this goal, as it promises to produce precise answers to users queries by taking advantage of the availability of explicit semantics of information. [1]

A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web and FTP servers. The search results are generally presented in a list of results and are often called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.[2] Semantic search seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding searcher intent and the contextual meaning of terms as they appear in the searchable dataspace, whether on the Web or within a closed system, to generate more relevant results. Author Seth Grimes lists "11 approaches that join semantics to search",[1] and Hildebrand et al.[2] provide an overview that lists semantic search systems and identifies other uses of semantics in the search process. Rather than using ranking algorithms such as Google's PageRank to predict relevancy, Semantic Search uses semantics, or the science of meaning in language, to produce highly relevant search results. In most cases, the goal is to deliver the information queried by a user rather than have a user sort through a list of loosely related keyword results. Other authors primarily regard semantic search as a set of techniques for retrieving knowledge from richly structured data sources like ontologies as found on the Semantic Web.[4] Such technologies enable the formal articulation of domain knowledge at a high level of expressiveness and could enable the user to specify his intent in more detail at query time. [3] To engineer a search engine is a challenging task. Search engines index tens to hundreds of millions of web pages involving a comparable number of distinct terms. They answer tens of millions of queries every day. Despite the importance of large-scale search engines on the web, very little academic research has been done on them. The web creates new challenges for information retrieval. The amount of information on the web is growing rapidly, as well as the number of new users inexperienced in the art of web research. People are likely to surf the web using its link graph, often starting with high quality human maintained indices such as Yahoo! or with search engines. Human

maintained lists cover popular topics effectively but are subjective, expensive to build and maintain, slow to improve, and cannot cover all esoteric topics. Automated search engines that rely on keyword matching usually return too many low quality matches. To make matters worse, some advertisers attempt to gain peoples attention by taking measures meant to mislead automated search engines. We have built a large-scale search engine which addresses many of the problems of existing systems. It makes especially heavy use of the additional structure present in hypertext to provide much higher quality search results. [4]
Semantic technologies promise a next generation of semantic search engines. General search engines dont take into consideration the semantic relationships between query terms and other concepts that might be significant to user. Thus, semantic web vision and its core ontologies are used to overcome this defect. The order in which these results are ranked is also substantial.[5]

The Semantic Web is a framework that allows publishing, sharing, and reusing data and knowledge on the Web and across applications, enterprises, and community boundaries. The W3Cs approach is based on the layered set of standards shown in Figure 1. The bottom two layers provide a foundation, using XML for syntax and uniform resource identifiers (URIs) for naming. The middle three layers provide a representation for concepts, properties, and individuals based on the RDF, RDF Schema (RDFS) [BRI04] and OWL. The top-most layers, still under development, extend the semantics to represent inference rules, a logic framework, proofs, and trust. These languages and concepts can be used in contexts other than as Web documents, including storing information in databases, exchanging data in messages and even describing the contents of networking packets. For our purposes, however, we are interested in the use of RDF to encode information on Web pages, what we will call the Semantic Web on the Web. In this view, the Semantic Web consists of Semantic Web documents (SWDs) typically published as Web pages encoded in XML or one of several other encoding languages.[6]

Figure 1: Tim Berners-Lees layer cake of enabling Semantic Web standards and technologies.

Commonly used searching methodologies


Mkel[5] describes five mainly used methodologies:

RDF Path Traversal - traversing the net formed by the RDF data format. Keyword to Concept Mapping Graph Patterns - used to formulate patterns for locating interesting connecting paths between resources. Also commonly used in data visualization. Logics - by using inference based on OWL Fuzzy Concepts, Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy Logics

{{{{{ RDF Path Traversal Because the data model of RDF is a graph, where arcs and multiple arc paths encode information, it is natural to apply graph traversal in semantic search. There were a couple of primary uses of network traversal found in this survey. One is finding more relevant information instances given a

starting instance in the net, as in Rocha et al. [64]. Another use is in query formulation, such as in the GRQL [5] and SEWASIE [11] interfaces, where a query is constrained by navigating the classes and relationships. Simple path traversal is also usually used when gathering all the information about an item for visualization. This is again because of the way the RDF data model works: information important to the user is also found in other resources linked to an information item, and not just the direct properties of that item. At least SEAL [46] and Semantic Search [23] both make use of graph patterns for gathering the information to be shown for an item. Mapping Between Keywords and Concepts Mapping between keywords and formal concepts is a common pattern appearing in semantic search. There are several reasons for its prevalence. The first is that commonly all knowledge available has not been formally encoded. Much research, such as the fuzzy keyword to concept mapping of Zhang et al. [81], is specifically about how to combine searching through textual material with search through formally defined information. A second reason is that in many situations, natural language is the form of expression that comes most naturally to humans. Mapping patterns in the graph to sentences, such as in the SEWASIE visual query tool [11] can give the user a clearer picture of what the relationships represent. On the other hand, the user may be more comfortable in expressing their queries as natural language sentences, as in the WordNet-based systems [10, 43, 52]. Graph Patterns Whether described in RDF path or logical languages, graph patterns are an important concept in semantic search, used in multiple different roles. First, graph patterns are often used to formulate and encode complex constraint queries as discussed in section 2.1.3, specifying and locating interesting sub graphs in the RDF network. In Anyanwu and Sheth [4], general RDF patterns were also used to find interesting connecting paths between named resources. In result visualization, the specifications on where to fetch information relevant to the item are also usually given as graph patterns. Logics Logics and inference are integrally tied to the larger vision of the Semantic Web. For example, the web ontology language standard OWL [50] is based on Description Logics. However, only few applications are currently built solely on top of advanced logical frameworks, with the Wine Agent [32] being an exception rather than a common example. Much

more commonly, applications make use of a few particular entailments as a base, and build their own functionality on top of that. For example SHOE [28], ODESeW [16], GRQL [5] and SEWASIE [11] all make use of the transitive subClassOf hierarchy, and some also the properties conferred to a class by that hierarchy. Combining Uncertainty with Logics In the research direction of augmenting text search with ontology techniques, there is a need for formalisms which allow combining uncertain annotations based on text search with the firmness of semantic annotations. As a result, several formalizations for, and experiments with fuzzy or probabilistic logics, relations and fuzzy concepts have been undertaken in that field. The method described in Zhang et al. [81] is an example. Fuzzy logics are, however, not only useful in combining text search with ontologies. On the search method research side not directly tied to actual applications, Singh et al. [70] applies fuzzy qualifiers to complex constraint queries. In Parry [56], the idea is presented that user profiling could be used as a basis for weighting the interestingness of an ontological relation to be used in the search. In Kauppinen and Hyvonen [41], a basis is depicted for calculating overlap values for historical and current geographic places, for use in a probabilistic mapping of the concepts to one another in any ontological search. }}}} makela
{{{{ After a decade of enjoying the power to obtain information on any topic under the Sun from the World Wide Web at the click of a mouse, the world is now preparing for a transition from a Web of Documents, as we see it today, to a Web of Data the Semantic Web. The WWW was a brainchild of Sir Tim Berners-Lee and so is the Semantic Web but, whereas most of the Webs content today is designed for humans to read, the Semantic Web is all about adding structure and expressing meaning such that the machines can interpret the data. Hence, as opposed to the WWW where computers are just required to parse web pages for layout and routine processing, when its extension comes into existence in the form of Semantic Web, computers will be able to process the semantics reliably. RDF stands for Resource Description Framework. As suggested by the name, it is a language standardized by the W3C intended to represent every piece of information that exists, about a Web resource. The Web Resource could be a resource that can be directly retrieved from the Web or it could just be an entity that can be identified on the Web and the description of the resource consists of assertive, atomic properties like its name that would help identify

the resource, a link that would identify its location on the Web (whenever applicable) and a date of creation to specify when it came into existence. Fundamentally, RDF is about adding structure to the voluminous data that exists in todays electronic world as plain text. RDF is the foundation of Semantic Web [2]. Semantic Web is a Web-of-Data as opposed to the existing Web-of-Documents and hence, RDF is to Data what HTML is to Web documents. More so, the RDF properties that describe relations among the data on the Web are compared to the hyperlinks on the current Web. While the hyperlinks link to documents on the Web, the RDF properties can link any two resources. This notion of being able to semantically link resources like, documents, images, people, concepts etc., is an important contribution of RDF. It makes explicit the contextual relationships that are implicit in the current Web. The underlying idea of RDF [1] is to represent every resource using a Web identifier, more formally known as a Uniform Resource Identifier or URI and all information is encoded in the form of triples of { subject, predicate, object }. In other words, triples are the basic building blocks of RDF. They are simple, atomic statements about the resources being described where the resource itself is the subject, the property being described is the predicate and the value of the property for this particular resource is the object. Most commonly all RDF data is depicted as a graph where the nodes represent the resources and arcs represent their properties or relationships with other resources. Semantic Web is a collaborative effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of researchers and industrial partners and according to the World Wide Web Consortium the Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given welldefined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation [4]. A simple use-case would explain how this might be useful. Consider a scenario where Alice records all data about her daily schedule and all pictures taken by her in two different RDF models named Calendar and Image. The purpose of creating RDF models for all the data is to add structural detail to the data so that based on a particular property, say, date (assuming that it is used in both the models); Alice can easily determine what she was doing from her Calendar RDF model when she clicked a particular photograph, details of which are in the Image RDF model. Similarly, volumes of raw information that may answer numerous such questions may indeed exist on the Web, but they are not in a machine-usable form. The Semantic Web addresses this problem in two ways [4]. First, it enables communities to expose their data semantics so that a program doesn't have to strip the formatting, pictures and ads from a Web page to identify the relevant bits of information. Secondly, it allows people to write (or generate) files which explain - to a machine - the relationship between different sets of data. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a W3C recommendation to enable Semantic Web, i.e. it is a framework that helps

add structure to the data. Finally, as Sir Tim Berners-Lee puts it [5], Semantic Web is not Artificial Intelligence. The concept of machine-understandable documents does not imply artificial intelligence which allows machines to comprehend human mumblings. It only indicates a machine's ability to solve a well-defined problem by performing well-defined operations on existing well-defined data. Instead of asking machines to understand people's language, it involves asking people to make the extra effort of defining any data they deal with." }}}} D-RDF: Dynamic Resource Description Framework by Kamna Jain