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Operation Flood White Revolution Muhammad Ali 2007-va-378 Bs(Hons) Dairy Technology

Operation Flood Operation Flood was a rural development programme started by India's National Da iry Development Board (NDDB) in 1970. One of the largest of its kind, the progra mme objective was to create a nationwide milk grid 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 2

Operation Flood It resulted in making India the largest producer of milk and milk products, and hence is also called the White Revolution of India. It also helped reduce malpra ctices by milk traders and merchants. This revolution followed the Indian green revolution and helped in alleviating poverty and famine levels 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 3

Operation Flood Gujarat-based Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited) was the engine behind the success of Operation Flood and in turn became a mega company based on the cooperative ap proach. Verghese Kurien (chairman of NDDB at that time), then 33, gave the profe ssional management skills and necessary thrust to the cooperative, and is consid ered the architect of India's 'White Revolution' (Operation Flood). 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 4

Operation Flood His work has been recognised by the award of a Padma Bhushan, the Ramon Magsaysa y Award for Community Leadership, the Carnegie-Wateler World Peace Prize, the Wo rld Food Prize 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 5

Introduction Operation Flood has helped dairy farmers, direct their own development, placing control of the resources they create in their own hands. A 'National Milk Grid', links milk producers throughout India with consumers in over 700 towns and citi es, reducing seasonal and regional price variations while ensuring that the prod ucer gets a major share of the price consumers pay. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 6

Introduction The bedrock of Operation Flood has been village milk producers' cooperatives, wh ich procure milk and provide inputs and services, making modern management and t echnology available to members. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 7

objectives . Operation Flood's objectives included 1. 2. 3. Increase milk production ("a flood of milk") Augment rural incomes Fair prices f or consumers 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 8

Programme Implementation Operation Flood was implemented in three phases. 1. 2. 3. Operation Flood Phase I Operation Flood Phase II Operation Flood Phase III 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 9

Operation Flood Phase I Phase I (19701980) was financed by the sale of skimmed milk powder and butter oil donated by the European Union (then the European Economic Community) through the World Food Programme. NDDB planned the programme and negotiated the details of EEC assistance. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 10

Operation Flood Phase I During its first phase, Operation Flood linked 18 of India's premier milksheds w ith consumers in India's major metropolitan cities: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and C hennai. Thus establishing mother dairies in four metros. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 11

Operation Flood Phase I Operation flood, also referred to as White Revolution is a gigantic project propound ed by Government of India for developing dairy industry in the country. The Oper ation Flood 1 originally meant to be completed in 1975, actually the period of ab out nine years from 1970-79, at a total cost of Rs.116 corers. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 12

Operation Flood Phase I As start of operation Flood-1 in 1970 certain set of aims were kept in view for the implementation of the programmers. Improvement by milk marketing the organiz ed dairy sector in the metropolitan cities Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Delhi. The objectives of commanding share of milk market and speed up development of dairy animals respectively hinter lands of rural areas with a view to increase both pr oduction and procurement. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 13

Operation Flood Phase II Operation Flood Phase II (19811985) increased the milksheds from 18 to 136; 290 ur ban markets expanded the outlets for milk. By the end of 1985, a self-sustaining system of 43,000 village cooperatives with 42.5 lakh milk producers were covere d. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 14

Operation Flood Phase II Domestic milk powder production increased from 22,000 tons in the preproject yea r to 1,40,000 tons by 1989, all of the increase coming from dairies set up under Operation Flood. In this way EEC gifts and World Bank loan helped promote selfreliance. Direct marketing of milk by producers' cooperatives increased by sever al million litres a day. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 15

Operation Phase III structure first-aid operative 1/11/2011

Flood PhaseIII (19851996) enabled dairy cooperatives to expand and strengthen the infra required to procure and market increasing volumes of milk. Veterinary health care services, feed and artificial insemination services for co members were extended, along with intensified member education. Muhammad Ali 16

Operation Flood PhaseIII Operation Flood's Phase III consolidated India's dairy cooperative movement, add ing 30,000 new dairy cooperatives to the 42,000 existing societies organized dur ing Phase II. Milksheds peaked to 173 in 1988-89 with the numbers of women membe rs and Women's Dairy Cooperative Societies increasing significantly. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 17

Operation Flood PhaseIII Phase III gave increased emphasis to research and development in animal health a nd animal nutrition. Innovations like vaccine for Theileriosis, bypassing protei n feed and urea-molasses mineral blocks, all contributed to the enhanced product ivity of milch animals. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 18

Operation Flood's success Operation Flood's success led to NDDB evolving similar programmes for other comm odities. Where potential synergies exist, NDDB has created commercial firms to e xploit these for the benefit of rural producers. Some of NDDB's commercial opera tions include: Indian Immunologicals Limited (IIL), Hyderabad, IDMC Limited (IDM C), Anand, Mother Dairy Fruit & Vegetable Private Limited (MD F&V), Delhi and Dh ara Vegetable Oil and Foods Company Limited (DOFCO), Vadodara. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 19

Operation Flood's success In its larger interest to promote the development of cooperatives NDDB has set u p separate units and works in close association with a number of national level institutions. Some of these include: Sabarmati Ashram Gaushala (SAG), Bidaj, Ani mal Breeding Centre (ABC), Salon, Institute of Rural Management, Anand (IRMA), N ational Cooperative Dairy Federation of India (NCDFI), Anand and Foundation for Ecological Security (FES), Anand. 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 20

Summary From the outset, Operation Flood was conceived and implemented as much more than a dairy programme. Rather, dairying was seen as an instrument of development, g enerating employment and regular incomes for millions of rural people. A World B ank Report 1997 says: Operation Flood can be viewed as a twenty year experiment confirming the Rural Development Vision 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 21

References Ramdas, Sagari R. and Nitya S Ghotge. 2006. India's Livestock Economy. "The Fors aken Drylands", Seminar Issue # 564, August 2006. Welcome to Amul - The Taste of India Magazine: India Today- special issue: April 21, 2008. page no. 96. http:/ / nflood.html 1/11/2011 Muhammad Ali 22