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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA

EML 3822 LABORATORY III BENDING MOMENT SOLID LABORATORY

NAME GROUP / SECTION GROUP MEMBERS

Assessments /Items Data Collection (CO1&2) Formula / Calculation (CO1 &2)

CO1 /5 /5

CO2 /5 /5

CO3 -

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

LECTURER DATE OF EXPERIMENT DATE OF SUBMISSION PENALTIES

Data Analysis (CO2) Discussion (CO3) Conclusion (CO3)

/30 /30 /10

Overall Impression (CO1) TOTAL

/10 /20 /40 /40

REPORT RECIEPT (tear here) NAME: MATRIC NO.: TITLE: DATE OF SUBMISSION: TIME OF SUBMISSION: STUDENTS SIGNATURE: APPROVED BY:

1.0 2.0

TITLE: BENDING MOMENT OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this experiment are as follows:a. To comprehend the action of the moment of resistance within the beam. b. To measure the bending moment at a normal section of a loaded beam and to compare it with the theoretical value. 3.0 INTRODUCTION

A length of material supported horizontally at two points in such a way that it will carry vertical loads is called a beam. The loading perpendicular to its longitudinal axis causes bending and in most cases transverse shearing. In the simplest example the loads and supporting reactions act in a vertical plane containing the longitudinal axis, and the beam has a rectangular cross section. The loads and support reactions are the external forces acting on the beam and they must be in equilibrium. Therefore, in order to study the strength of the beam it is necessary to know how these external forces affect it. 4.0 APPARATUS Refer to apparatus manual available in the Lab. a. The experimental beam is in two parts, the smaller left hand part being ( A ) and the larger right hand part being ( B ). At the section normal to the beam axis where they join a pair of ball bearings pinned in ( B ) fits in half housings fixed in ( A ) thus forming a frictionless hinge. A moment of resistance about the hinge is provided by an under slung spring balance which acts as a lever arm of 150 mm. b. Two end bearings on stands support the beam, and several stirrup shaped load hangers can be threaded onto the two parts of the beam. c. A spirit level is provided to help set up the beam. However it is generally sufficient to line up parts ( A ) and ( B ) by eye, and to realign them by adjusting the screws on the spring or spring balance each time a load is altered. d. Check the beam supports have been fixed at 900 mm span, and that the beam is positioned so that the bearing pin in part ( B ) is 300 mm from the left hand support A.

4.1

APPARATUS CONSTRUCTION

Figure 1. Bending Apparatus This experiment is divided into two parts:

Part 1 a. Position one hanger 100 mm from A, the second hanger in the groove just to the right of the section C (300 mm from A) and the third hanger 300 mm from B. b. Align two parts of the beam using the adjustment on the spring balance and note the initial no load reading. c. Place a weight on the first, realign the beam and read the balance d. Repeat the whole procedure using another weight. Part 2 a. Without altering the load hangers put a 5 N weight on the second hanger, align the beam and record the balance reading. b. Add 10 N weights to the first and third hangers. Align and re-read the balance. c. Move the third hanger to 400 mm from B and after aligning the beam record the new no load reading. d. Try two arrangements of the same total loading by placing 5 N on the first hanger and 12 N on the third hanger for one balance reading followed by moving the 10 N from the third to second hanger for the next reading.

5.0

RESULTS

Record all results and show all calculations. Find the net force causing the bending moment at C. Derive the experimental bending moment. For every case, the theoretical bending moment at C is to be calculated. Hint: In the first section of Part 2 the load hangers remain in the Part 1 positions. Hence the net force for a single load on any hanger can be derived as a proportion of the Part 1 values. As the system is a linear elastic structure the individual readings can be summed for multiple loading. 6.0 ANALYSIS

Compare the net force when all three loads are applied with the sum of the values derived from Part 1. Draw the bending moment diagrams for the Part 2 loadings. 7.0 DISCUSSION

Comment your experimental results. Explain irregularities/inaccuracy in results produced against theory. Did the experimental results verify the theory? How well did the results of Part 1 justify the linear behavior of the structure? 8.0 CONCLUSION

List major conclusions or results of the experiment and indicate the measure of certainty of the results. Include a few numerical results if appropriate.