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Hebrew Review Guide (version 080707) (please email ktraphagen@wts.

edu any corrections of suggestions)


Hebrew
Character


Hebrew
Character
name
aleph bet gimmel dalet
he
or hey
or heh
waw
vav
zayin et tet yod kaf lamed mem nun
same
k
ayin pe
tsade
or
ade
qof resh sin shin
taw
tav name
translitera
tion
h w z y l m n s p q r
transliterat
ion
sounds
like
silent
v
as in
vine
g
as in
garden
d
as in
dot
h
as in
help
v
as in
vine
z
as in
zebra
ch
as in
Bach
t
as in
tip
y
as in
yo-yo
ch
as in
Bach
l
as in
lovely
m
as in
mom
n
as in
now
s
as in
sit
silent
f
as in
photo
ts
as in
nets
k
as in
keep
r
as in
run
s
as in
sin
sh
as in
shin
t
as in
tip
sounds
like
alternate
form

alternate
form
translitera
tion
b g d k p t
transliterat
ion
sounds
like
b
as in
boy
g
as in
garden
d
as in
dot
k
as in
keep
p
as in
pop
t
as in
top
sounds
like
final form final form
U/O Class I/E Class A Class

Historic Long
lem waw
o as in row
req
u as in rule
ireq yd
i as in machine
ere yd
ey as in they
qame he
a as in car

Long
olem
o as in row
ere
ey as in they
qame
a as in car
u o e i a
Short
qibb
u as in rule
qame atf
o as in row
segl
e as in met
ireq
i as in sit
pata
a as in car

Composite Shewa
atef-qame
o as in row
atef-segl
e as in met
atef-pata
a as in car
Gutturals: resist doubling; prefer a-class vowels; take composite shewa

and sometimes acts like a guttural
Quiescent Letters:

Complete Simple Noun Paradigm:
PL Dual SG

Masc Absolute

Masc Construct

Fem Absolute

Fem Construct
Common Irregular Nouns:
Singular Plural
absolute construct w/ suffix absolute construct w/ suffix
father , Q ,
son , Q ,
daughter , Q ,
brother , Q ,
wife Q ,
house Q ,
name , , Q ,
More Irregular Nouns (pg 47 Weingreen):
Noun SG Abs SG Cons PL Abs PL Cons Remarks
horse

Simple noun. The masc. pl. changes to in
the construct (general rule).
mare

Simple noun. The fem sg. termination in
the construct- general rule.
son

Pl. abs. irregular. Vowel shortened in cons.
sg. Qames lost in cons. pl.
hand

Same as "son." Note how dual serves also for
pl. (irregular)
people

Dagesh forte in of pl. Note: a vowel may be
elide, but not a syllable; since pl. abs. is really
there is no loss of vowel.
prophet

The Qames (under the first letter) of the sg.
abs. is lost.
prophetess

Same as "mare"
word, thing

Sg. cons. loses first Qames and shortens
second one. Both are lost in pl. cons., the first
shewa becoming hireq.
old (man),
elder

Second vowel of sg. abs. is Sere, but
changes in the same way as "word"
wise (man)

Same as "word" except that the first letter is a
guttural. In sg. cons. Qames is replaced by
composite shewa. In pl. cons. the composite
shewa becomes corresponding short vowel.
dust

Sg. same as "wise (man)"
man

Pl. abs. irregular. Pl. cons. same as "wise"
woman

Note special form of sg. cons. The pl. has
masc. termination. Pl. cons. same as "son"
eye

Note special form of cons. sg., where the
dipthong 'ai' becomes ''. In the pl. the full
vowel in the first syllable is not shortened, just
as in "horse"
star

Full vowel does not change. Qames of sg.
abs. is shortened in sg. cons. and disappears
in pl. cons.
DEFINITE ARTICLE
Normal: becomes
Special Situations:
Problem Solution Remark
and resist doubling
no dagesh
or guttural or
virtual doubling-no dagesh
guttural
Het with Qames

vowel change to segol, no dagesh
or unaccented gutturals
Unaccented heh or ayin with Qames
,
vowel change to segol, no dagesh
accented gutturals
compensatory lengthening
, , gutturals , ,
compensatory lengthening
INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS:
to, for with, by, in as, like, according to
Normal situation: affix preposition with shewa: W "with a king"
Before the Definite Article: takes the place of and takes its pointing
W (the king) becomes W (with the king)
Before Nouns with a Shewa:
preposition takes a hireq, shewa becomes silent under the consonent
(Samuel) becomes (with Samuel) NOTE: Names (Proper Nouns) are
always Definite
Before a Composite Shewa: takes the vowel pointing of the composite shewa
(lion) becomes (with a lion)
Before Names of God:
(Lord, Adonai) becomes (in the Lord)- takes a patah
X (God) becomes X (to God)- takes a sere
Before : the yod quiesces, the preposition takes a hireq
(Judah) becomes (to Judah)
Before an accented syllable (accented syllable=tone syllable): Preposition takes a qamets
becomes
THE CONJUNCTION follows the same preposition rules AND ALSO:
Before labials (BuMP letters ) and before a shewa initial word it becomes a SUREQ
ADJECTIVES - Adjective paradigm is same as noun (but no dual form).
Attributive Adjectives (agree in number, gender, and definiteness)
Atrributive adjectives usually come After the noun they modify
a good man
the good man (note the qamets in "the man"... preceding a guttural)
Substantive use of Adjective: functions independently as a noun.
a wise one (or a wise man)
the wise one (note the pointing of the article due to the at the beginning of the word)
Predicative Adjectives (agree in gender and number but NEVER TAKE THE ARTICLE)
Predicative adjectives usually Precede the noun they modify.
The man is good.
W The king is evil
The wife is great.
Demonstrative Adjectives:
Near Far
this (ms) that (ms)
this (fs) that (fs)
these (cp)

those (mp)


those (fp)
VERBS
Complete Qal Paradigm (see following pages)
Strong Verb Synopsis (see following pages)
PRONOUNS
See Pronoun Chart for the following:
Independent subject pronouns
Suffixes on prepositions ,
(Recognize suffixes on and )
Suffixes on as a preposition (with...) and direct object marker.
See Noun Paradigm for suffixes added to ms, mp, fs, and fp noun forms.
P
e
r
f
e
c
t
I
m
p
e
r
f
e
c
t
)
3
p

(
J
u
s
s
i
v
e
I
m
p
e
r
a
t
i
v
e

(
2
p
)
C
o
h
o
r
t
a
t
i
v
e

(
1
p
)
I
n
f
i
n
i
t
i
v
e
P
a
r
t
i
c
i
p
l
e
s
3
m
s

A
c
t
i
v
e
P
a
s
s
i
v
e
3
f
s

I
n
f

C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
:

t
o

k
i
l
l

m
s
2
m
s

f
s
2
f
s

f
s
1
c
s

I
n
f

A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

m
p

f
p
3
m
p

3
f
p

N
e
g
a
t
i
v
e

C
o
m
m
a
n
d
s

w
/

I
m
p
e
r
f
e
c
t
2
m
p


D
o
n
'
t

a
s
k



2
f
p





N
e
v
e
r

A
s
k



1
c
p

C
o
m
p
l
e
t
e

Q
a
l

S
t
r
o
n
g

V
e
r
b

(
p
a
g
e

2
7
)
S
Y
N
O
P
S
I
S

O
F

T
H
E

S
T
R
O
N
G

V
E
R
B
P
E
R
F
E
C
T
I
M
P
E
R
F
E
C
T
I
M
P
E
R
A
T
I
V
E
I
N
F
I
N
I
T
I
V
E

C
O
N
S
T
R
U
C
T
I
N
F
I
N
I
T
I
V
E

A
B
S
O
L
U
T
E
P
A
R
T
I
C
I
P
L
E
Q
A
L
G

A
c
t
i
v
e

N
I
F
A
L
G

P
s
v
/
R
e
f
l

S
o
m
e

o
n
l
y

i
n

N
i
f
a
l

a
r
e

a
c
t
i
v
e

P
I
E
L
D

A
c
t
i
v
e

S
t
t
v
-
C
s
t
v

o
r

I
t
r
t
v

(
s
o
m
e
t
i
m
e
s

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
v
e
)

P
U
A
L
D

P
a
s
s
i
v
e

o
f

P
i
e
l

v
e
r
b
s

H
I
T
P
A
E
L
D

R
e
f
l
e
x
i
v
e

o
f

P
i
e
l

-
:

H
I
F
I
L
H

A
c
t
i
v
e

C
s
t
v

Q
a
l

&

N
i
p
h
a
l
.

O
n
l
y

H
i
f
i
l
=
n
o
t

c
s
t
v

H
O
F
A
L
H

P
a
s
s
i
v
e

o
f

H
i
f
i
l

v
e
r
b
s

Complete Noun with Suffixes


fem sing

masc sing
3ms

3ms
3fs

3fs
) 2ms
)
2ms
+ 2fs
+
2fs
1cs

1cs
3mp

3mp
3fp

3fp
2mp

2mp
2fp

2fp
1cp

1cp
fem plural

masc plural
3ms

3ms
3fs

3fs
) 2ms
)
2ms
+ 2fs
+
2fs
1cs

1cs
3mp

3mp
3fp

3fp
2mp

2mp
2fp

2fp
1cp

1cp
z
:

b
n

o
b
j
e
c
t
p
r
o
n
o
u
n
s
u
b
j
e
c
t
p
r
o
n
o
u
n
E
n
d
i
n
g
s
f
o
r

P
L
N
o
u
n
s
E
n
d
i
n
g
s
f
o
r

S
G
N
o
u
n
s

z
i
n

h
i
m

:
t
o

h
i
m
:
:

b
f
r
o
m

h
i
m

w
i
t
h

h
i
m

h
i
m

:
n
h
e

3
m
s
n

z
i
n

h
e
r
n

:
t
o

h
e
r
n

b
f
r
o
m

h
e
r
n

w
i
t
h

h
e
r
n

h
e
r

n
s
h
e


n
3
f
s

z
i
n

y
o
u

:
t
o

y
o
u

b
f
r
o
m

y
o
u

w
i
t
h

t
h
e
e

y
o
u
n

y
o
u

2
m
s
(

z
i
n

y
o
u
(

:
t
o

y
o
u
(

b
f
r
o
m

y
o
u
(

w
i
t
h

t
h
e
e
(

y
o
u

y
o
u


(
2
f
s

z
i
n

m
e

:
t
o

m
e

b
f
r
o
m

m
e

w
i
t
h

m
e

m
e

o
:

1
c
s
o

z
o

z
i
n

t
h
e
m
o

:
t
o
t
h
e
m
o

b
n

b
f
r
o
m

t
h
e
m
o

w
i
t
h
t
h
e
m
o

t
h
e
m
o

n
n

n
t
h
e
y


o
3
m
p

z
i
n

t
h
e
m

:
t
o
t
h
e
m

b
n

b
f
r
o
m

t
h
e
m

w
i
t
h
t
h
e
m

t
h
e
m

n
n

n
t
h
e
y

3
f
p
o

z
i
n

y
o
u
o

:
t
o

y
o
u
o

b
f
r
o
m

y
o
u
o

w
i
t
h

y
o
u
o

y
o
u
o

y
o
u

o
2
m
p

z
i
n

y
o
u

:
t
o

y
o
u

b
f
r
o
m

y
o
u

w
i
t
h

y
o
u

y
o
u

y
o
u

o
2
f
p
:
:

z
i
n

u
s
:
:

:
t
o

u
s
:
:

b
f
r
o
m

u
s
:
:

w
i
t
h

u
s
:
:

u
s
:
:

w
e


:
:


:
:
1
c
p





Definitions and Terms:
1. Dagesh Forte/ Lene
Dagesh Forte Dagesh Lene
Form
Function doubling stop, "hard" pronunciation
Occurence all non-gutturals ONLY BeGaDKePaT

Recognition Is it non-begadkephat?
If : Does it follow a
vowel?
Look at preceding consonant,
lene will NOT follow a vowel
Pronunciation no effect Stop, "hard" consonant for

Transliteration Repeat Consonant Note when absent

Dagesh lene occurs in a syllable initial begadkepat letter not preceded by a vowel.
Note: for dagesh forte, the doubled consonant closes one syllable and opens the following.
EXCEPTION!: when a dagesh is within a consonant AND a shewa is beneath the consonant
THEN the dagesh is forte and the shewa is vocal (even if the previous vowel is short!)
A previous word ending in a vowel will spirantize (soften) a begadkepat letter.
2. Open/Closed syllable
CVC= closed
CV=open
A CVC cannot have a vocal shewa
3. Direct Object Marker : or (see section on pronouns also)
4. Waw Consecutive/Conjunctive
Kellys waw + Verb Quadrants
` + Perfect ` + Imperfect
N
a
r
r
D
i
r
S
p
c
h
Form: "I `
Occurrence: Clause initial (waw on verb
is always clause initial)
waw type: waw conjunctive, coordinating
two verbal ideas; continues narrative
Translation: usually past tense, 'and'
Form: "I `
Occurrence: Clause initial
waw type: waw consecutive
Translation: usually future, modal,
durative; log/temp sequence, present or
future idea, depends on context of
previous clauses
Form: "I ` `
Occurrence: Clause initial
waw type: waw consecutive. Temporal or
logical subordination of clauses; explanation
Translation: Matter of interpretation
Logical: so, thus, because, therefore
Temporal: then, when, after
Other: and, etc. PAST TENSE
Form: "I ``
Occurrence: Clause initial, primarily
direct speech, prophecy, etc.
waw type: waw conjunctive coordinating two
verbs
Translation: future, modal, durative;
sequential, usually 'and' except in specific
contexts (e.g. following command).
5. Furtive Patah:
Example: X
Patah occuring prior to the final guttural
6. 3 M's
Mappiq: marks the as a consonant
Metheg: occurs in distant open syllable, helpful for distinguishing qamets from qamets hatuf.
Maqqef: raised line between two words which pulls the accent from the first word, making
"two words" functionally into "one"
Here's another opportunity to distinguish qamets from qamets hatuf-->
7. Silent/Vocal Shewa
Shewa preceded by a LONG vowel is VOCAL
Shewa preceded by Short vowel is Silent (keep your s's together)
CVC closed syllable cannot have a vocal shewa
Shewa under dagesh forte is vocal
If a shewa is followed by a dagesh--> the shewa is silent and the dagesh is lene
9. Vowel Letters
a class i/e class o/u class
10. Construct Chain
W The king of the land.
Chain of "construct" form nouns "anchored" by an absolute noun at the end; can be
connected by maqqef(s).
Construct noun NEVER takes the article.
Nothing can come between the nouns in a construct chain.
If the absolute is definite, the entire construct chain is definite.
Construct noun will often experience vowel reduction. WG 24 has examples.
Attributive adjectives cannot interrupt the construct chain, it must follow the ENTIRE chain.
Look for agreement.
The good word of the queen.
The word of the good queen.
Predicate adjectives agree with the construct noun in gender and number and usually
PRECEDE the construct chain.
The hand of the man is large.
11. Stative Verb: expresses being or some state of being
12. Seven Verbal Stems and their meanings (see attached sheet)
13. Segolate Noun: unaccented final syllable with a segol-->except with gutturals
Accent is always on the penultimate syllable
W
gutturals don't follow the pointing because they prefer A-class vowels
Instead: look for accent on penultimate AND short vowel in the ultimate of a bisyllabic noun
(here the patah under the ayin is because the resh also sometimes wants an a- class
and the ayin gets its own a-class under the nun)
(here the ayin gets its a-class under the resh)
When suffixes are added the nouns "remember" their archaic leading vowel.
14. How Negative Commands are formed (for 2nd Person)
("don't") or ("never") with the imperfect verb
15. Interrogative heh: simple questions, prefix the particle to the beginning of a clause

Have you kept the law?
16. Cohortative and Jussive
See forms on Qal Strong Verb sheet
Cohortative - 1st person (on the IMPERFECT)
Jussive - 3rd person (on the IMPERFECT)
17. Qames and Qames Hatuf: a metheg will help distinguish
Qames Hatuf is a SHORT vowel, so look for short vowel indicators.
18. How possession is indicated in Hebrew: with suffixes "there is to me" translate as "I
have a ......"
19. The syntax of the Infinitive Absolute
Infinitive Absolute is found with a finite verb that has the same root. Translate with emphasis.