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Hydrology tools

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Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

Lesson 9A overview
Surface hydrology tools
Creating hydrologically correct topographic surfaces Defining flow direction over the surface Defining stream networks
Analyzing streams

Defining drainage basins Determining flow length and tracing rain drops Exercise 9A

Lesson 9B: Groundwater hydrology tools

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Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-2

ArcHydro Data Model


A geospatial and temporal data model Supports hydrologic simulation models
It is not itself a simulation model Can construct a simulation model attached to ArcHydro using DLL Can customize the behavior of ArcHydro
2
Network Network

1
Drainage Drainage

Hydrologic information systems Five key areas


Flow Flow

3
Channel Channel

5
Time Series Time Series Time Time

4
Hydrography Hydrography

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9-3

Surface hydrology tools


ArcToolbox ArcToolbox Hydrology tools Hydrology tools Hydrology Modeling Hydrology Modeling toolbar in ArcMap toolbar in ArcMap Watershed Watershed Rain Drop Rain Drop Map Algebra functions
FlowDirection FlowAccumulation and so on

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Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-4

Roadmap: Surface hydrology


Surface Flow Direction Flow Direction Fill sinks Fill sinks Surface preparation Surface preparation

Required for all surface hydrology functions

Flow Accumulation Flow Accumulation Define drainage network Define drainage network Stream Order Stream Order Stream Link Stream Link Stream to Feature Stream to Feature Basin Basin Snap Pour Point Snap Pour Point Watershed Watershed Flow Length Flow Length Rain drop trace Rain drop trace
Copyright 20012004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Stream networks Stream networks

Basins and watersheds Basins and watersheds

Other operations Other operations


Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-5

Topographic surfaces
Use published data
Examples: DEM, DTED

Create your own


Interpolation

Both have errors


Sinks

Prepare before use


Fill sinks

Use the Topo to Raster tool

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9-6

Topo to Raster tool


Interpolates a hydrologically correct surface
Points Points Lakes Lakes Rivers Rivers Contours Contours Boundary Boundary Hillshade Hillshade Provides elevation Provides elevation Clipping source Clipping source For reference For reference Provides elevation Provides elevation

Sinks Sinks
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Possible input Possible input


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9-7

Identifying and filling sinks


Sinks
Surrounded by higher cells Stop surface flow Usually data errors
Identify sinks

ArcToolbox
Fill sinks

Identifying sinks
Need flow direction

Filling sinks
Iterative process
May create new sinks

Sink Sink

Filled sink Filled sink

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Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-8

Flow Direction tool


Created from an elevation surface
Determines the direction water flows through a cell
78 72 72 71 58 49 74 67 56 49 46 50 69 53 44 37 38 48 64 58 55 22 31 24 68 61 47 21 16 19 74 53 34 12 11 12 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 1 4 4 8 4 4 4 8 8 4 8 4 16

32 16 8

64 128 1 4 2

2 1

128 128 1 2 1 2 1 1 1

Elevation Elevation

Flow Direction map Flow Direction map

Flow Direction Flow Direction

Required by all other surface hydrology tools

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9-9

Flow Accumulation tool


Accumulates water downhill into each cell
Based on flow direction
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 2 0 1 7 0 0 4 0 2 5 20 1 7 0 2 4 0 24 35 0 0 0 1 0 1

Flow Direction Flow Direction

Flow Accumulation Flow Accumulation

Provide weight layer to model actual rainfall High accumulations = streams

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9-10

Creating streams
Extract high-value cells from flow accumulation
Can use a conditional tool: Con or Set Null

Choose a threshold value (e.g., accumulation > 100)


A low threshold creates more streams

CON(FlowAcc GT 100, 1) CON(FlowAcc GT 100, 1) SETNULL(FlowAcc LT 100 , 1) SETNULL(FlowAcc LT 100 , 1)


Copyright 20012004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-11

Stream Order tool


Assigns relative ranking to stream segments
Based on the number of tributaries Two methods: Shreve or Strahler
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Strahler ordering Strahler ordering 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 4 7 Shreve ordering Shreve ordering 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

Requires stream network and flow direction inputs

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9-12

Stream Link tool


Assigns a unique ID to each stream segment
May use to link attributes
25 20 16 11 13 15 18 19 22 23 17 21 24

1 2

5 6 3 7 4 8 10 9 12 Stream IDs Stream IDs

14

26

Requires stream network and flow direction inputs

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9-13

Creating basin IDs for streams


Use the Region Group tool
Normally a Generalization tool Assign unique IDs to groups of connected streams
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Basin IDs Basin IDs FOUR FOUR
Diagonal cells NOT considered
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2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2

EIGHT EIGHT
Diagonal cells ARE considered
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9-14

Stream to Feature tool


Raster-to-vector conversion tool

Stream to Feature tool

Raster to Polyline tool

Designed for stream networks


Handles parallel stream segments properly Requires stream network and flow direction inputs

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Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-15

Roadmap: Basins and watersheds


Surface Flow Direction Flow Direction Fill sinks Fill sinks Surface preparation Surface preparation

Required for all surface hydrology functions

Flow Accumulation Flow Accumulation Define drainage network Define drainage network Stream Order Stream Order Stream Link Stream Link Stream to Feature Stream to Feature Basin Basin Snap Pour Point Snap Pour Point Watershed Watershed Flow Length Flow Length Rain drop trace Rain drop trace
Copyright 20012004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Stream networks Stream networks

Basins and watersheds Basins and watersheds

Other operations Other operations


Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-16

Defining watersheds and basins


Find all cells that drain to a pour point
Watershed tool: You provide pour points Basin tool: Finds its own pour points
Pour points

Pour point

The The Watershed Watershed tool tool

The The Basin Basin tool tool

Watershed

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9-17

Snap Pour Point tool


Snaps pour point cell to high accumulation neighbor
Like the nearest stream cell

Use before running the Watershed tool


Snap distance

am tre S

Cell you clicked on

The cell that will be selected (cell with highest flow accumulation)

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Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-18

Roadmap: Other operations


Surface Flow Direction Flow Direction Fill sinks Fill sinks Surface preparation Surface preparation

Required for all surface hydrology functions

Flow Accumulation Flow Accumulation Define drainage network Define drainage network Stream Order Stream Order Stream Link Stream Link Stream to Feature Stream to Feature Basin Basin Snap Pour Point Snap Pour Point Watershed Watershed Flow Length Flow Length Rain drop trace Rain drop trace
Copyright 20012004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Stream networks Stream networks

Basins and watersheds Basins and watersheds

Other operations Other operations


Working with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

9-19

Flow Length tool


Calculates flow length for each cell
Upstream: To top of basin Downstream: To pour point

May have a weight layer Use to compute a basins time of concentration

Downstream flow length Downstream flow length

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9-20

Performing a raindrop trace


Trace the downhill path of a raindrop
The Cost Path tool returns a grid The Hydrology Modeling toolbar returns a graphic

Use: Find where a contaminate spill will go


Downhill path Downhill path Source cell Source cell

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9-21

Exercise 9A overview
Run Topo to Raster Fill surface sinks Run Flow Direction Run Flow Accumulation Create a stream network Edit stream segments Run Basin Run Watershed Run Flow Length Trace a rain drops path

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9-22