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2011 - 2012





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Table of Contents ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... 3 BRIEF SUMMARY .......................................................................................................... 4 CHAPTER 1(GOVERNMENT POLICY AND PROGRAM) ............................................. 5 STATISTICAL PROFILE OF HOUSING IN SOUTH AFRICA ....................................... 6 a. Living Conditions, Existing Housing Stock and Rate of Supply ............. 7-8 b. Access to Basic Services ............................................................................. 9 c. Existing housing condition in South Africa ............................................... 10 d. Existing Constraint in Housing in South Africa .................................... 11-16 e. National Housing Vision of South Africa ................................................... 17 CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................. 18 HOUSING STRATEGY OF SOUTH AFRICA .......................................................... 19-25 a. Design Implementation ........................................................................... 26-27 a.1. Recommendation and Conclusion ........................................................... 28 b. Green Architecture in Africa .............................................................................. 29 b.1. Design Strategy and Consideration .........................................................30-32
b.2. Recommendation and Conclusion ...................................................................... 33

References .............................................................................................................................. 34

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ABSTRACT: Urbanization is one of the most powerful irreversible forces in the world. It is estimated that 93 percent of the future urban population growth will occur in the cities of Asia and Africa, and to a lesser extent, Latin America and the Caribbean. The United Nation Habitat (UN-HABITAT) have studied the housing needs particularly in developing countries. Global poverty is moving into cities, mostly in developing countries, in a process called urbanization of poverty. The worlds slums are growing and growing as are the global urban population. Indeed, this is one of the greatest challenges we face in the new millennium. The persistent problems of poverty and slums are in large part due to weak urban economies, urban economic development is fundamental to UN-HABITATs mandate. Cities act as engines of national economic development. Strong urban economies are essential for poverty reduction and the provision of adequate housing, infrastructure, education, health, safety and basic services. In this review, Economic strategies related strategies and issues presented here as a platform for all sectors of the society to address urban economic development and particularly its contribution to addressing housing issues. The review also carries many ideas, solutions and innovative best practices from some of the worlds leading urban thinkers and practitioners from international organization, national government, local authorities, the private sector and civil society. Focusing on the housing related issues in the country of South Africa The review also gives interesting insight and deeper understanding of the wide range of urban economic development and human settlements development issues.

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BRIEF SUMMARY: The need to provide adequate, suitable and equitable housing has remained a major priority of every government. Even though housing is a basic necessity of life, more than half of populations in South Africa live in poor houses where they have no access to adequate sanitary facilities, water and warmth to meet their daily physical needs. Adequate housing is one of the effective means to alleviate poverty because shelter is usually the most expensive item for households. It is also a pre-requisite for better health, providing a great amount of savings when one is not sick Poverty occurs mainly at the individual or household level but, the most visible evidence of poverty arises when poor families and individuals cluster in an area. These areas which are challenged economically and disproportionately bear the social and economic burden of unemployment, crime, deteriorated housing, and poor health. In South Africa, households and communities may be characterized as poor based on income levels, housing conditions, malnutrition, ill and sanitation facilities as well as general insecurity, Several initiatives have been pursued by successive governments to improve the housing conditions of the poor, especially in the rural communities. This stems from the fact that, experience in other countries demonstrates that housing can be an important element that contributes to poverty and can also be used as a tool to alleviate poverty, contrast to our housing conditions in the Philippines. Evidence from the field suggest that, households living in improved houses in the Habitat communities are better off, in terms of access to social services such as water, sanitation and some other housing indicators than those in the old and run-down housing environment This paper will focus on administrative, socialize aspect and technical aspects (design) on housing strategies of South Africa

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South Africa has a rapidly increasing and urbanizing society but population growth will result in a numerically stable rural population. Coupled to this is a large existing and increasing housing backlog, due to very low rates of formal housing provision. (a) Population Size and Population Growth Rate South Africa's population is projected to be almost 42.8 million in 1995. The projected average annual growth rate of 2.27% per annum between 1995 and 2000 will increase the total population to approximately 47.4 million by 2000. This implies an average increase of approximately one million people per annum over this period. (b) Number of Households There will be an estimated 8.3 million households in South Africa in 1995. The average household size nationwide is 4.97 people, and it is estimated that there are approximately 2.0 million single people. Given the projected rate of population growth, an average of 200,000 new households will be formed annually between 1995 and 2000. The phenomena of extended households and circulatory migration further add to the complexity of dealing with the housing issue. (c) Urbanization Rate It is estimated that over 28.0 million people (66%) of South Africa's population are functionally urbanized. This implies that approximately 14.5 million people (34% of the total population) reside in rural areas, many of whom will spend part of their working lives in the urban areas.

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Living Conditions, Existing Housing Stock and Rate of Supply

A relatively small formal housing stock, low and progressively decreasing rates of formal and informal housing delivery in South Africa have resulted in a massive increase in the number of households forced to seek accommodation in informal settlements, backyard shacks and in overcrowded conditions in existing formal housing. (a) Urban Formal Housing Approximately 61% of all urban households live in formal housing or share formal housing with other families. The total formal housing stock in South Africa is estimated to be 3.4 million units. This includes formal houses, flats, townhouses and retirement homes. Formal housing provision for low-income households (houses costing below R45,000) is estimated to have decreased to under (b) Urban Informal Housing Approximately 1.5 million urban informal housing units exist in South Africa at present. These include around 620,000 serviced sites delivered by the old Provincial Authorities and through the Independent Development Trust's (IDT) Capital Subsidy Programme, as well as almost 100,000 unused (sterilized) serviced sites. Delivery of serviced sites through the IDT's Capital Subsidy Scheme and by the four (old) Provincial Authorities is estimated to have reached levels in excess of 120,000 per annum over the last three years, but has declined this year. (c) Hostels An estimated 5.2% of all households presently reside in private sector, grey sector4 and public sector hostel accommodation. No new hostel accommodation has been constructed over the last five years. Approximately one third of all public sector hostels (58 in all) housing approximately 100,000 people have been or are in the process of being upgraded.

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(d) Squatter Housing Approximately 13.5% of all households +-(1,06 million) live in squatter housing nationwide, mostly in free-standing squatter settlements on the periphery of cities and towns and in the back yards of formal houses. Low rates of formal housing delivery coupled with high rates of new household formation have resulted in a massive growth in the number of people housed in squatter housing. This form of housing remains the prevalent means through which urban households are accessing shelter in South Africa at present. It is estimated that approximately 150,000 new households per annum house themselves in this way. The recent rapid increase in the number of land invasions is a further indication of this. In the short-term particularly, policy responses from all tiers of Government will have to be pro-actively responsive to this fact. (e) Rural Housing Two thirds of the 17.1 million people estimated to live under the poverty datum line (PDL) live in the rural areas. Of the 14.5 million people estimated to live in the rural areas, the far greater part resides outside the commercial farming areas. There is a mix of both formal and informal house structures but what they generally share in common is inadequate access to potable water and sanitation, and a general insecurity of tenure. (f) Farm worker Housing The estimates on Farm worker households vary considerably between one to one and a half million households. Since 1990 farm owners received subsidies towards the building of 20,140 approved Farm worker residences. Farm workers do not have security of tenure, and are therefore reluctant to put earnings into housing. Consequently, the living conditions of Farm workers are among the worst in the country especially the hostel-type accommodation for seasonal workers.

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Access to Basic Services Many people in South Africa do not have access to basic services, such as potable water, sanitation systems and electricity. Furthermore, many neighborhoods are inadequately supplied with social and cultural amenities. a. Water Supply Approximately one quarter of all functionally urban households in South Africa do not have access to a piped potable water supply (South African Labor Development and Research Unit, 1994). b. Sanitation An estimated 48% of all households do not have access to flush toilets or ventilated improved pit latrines, whilst 16% of all households have no access to any type of sanitation system (SALDRU, 1994). An estimated 85% of rural households have some form of sanitation system whereas an estimated 49% of Farm workers are reliant on the vend for this purpose. c. Electricity It is estimated that 46.5% of all households are not linked to the electricity supply grid in South Africa (SALDRU, 1994). d. Socio-cultural Amenities Although no accurate statistics exist, many households do not have access to sociocultural amenities within their neighborhoods, such as schools, health care facilities, sports facilities, cultural and community centers, etc. Most informally housed people have poor access to such facilities, whilst many formal housing areas are also poorly

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Existing Housing Conditions in South Africa a. Present Housing Backlog It is estimated that the urban housing backlog in 1995 will be approximately 1.5 million units. The consequences of this backlog are physically reflected in overcrowding, squatter settlements and increasing land invasions in urban areas, and generally by the poor access to services in rural areas. Socially and politically, this backlog gives daily impetus to individual and communal insecurity and frustration, and contributes significantly to the high levels of criminality and instability prevalent in many communities in South Africa. Coupled to this housing shortfall are:

An estimated 720,000 serviced sites in the urban areas that will require upgrading to meet minimum standards of accommodation;

a large number of rural houses that lack access to basic services; and Approximately 450,000 people living in existing public, private and grey sector hostel accommodation that requires upgrading.

Due to the high rates of population growth and low rates of housing provision, it is estimated that the housing backlog is presently increasing at a rate of around 178,000 units per annum. b. Conditions of Tenure Many South Africans do not have adequate tenure security over their homes:

Approximately 58% of all households (4.8 million households) have secure tenure (ownership, leasehold or formal rental contracts) over their accommodation; whereas

an estimated 9% of all households (780,000 households) live under traditional, informal / inferior and/or officially unrecognized tenure arrangements in predominantly rural areas; and

an additional estimated 18% of all households (1.5 million households or 7.4 million people) are forced to live in squatter settlements, backyard shacks or in over-crowded conditions in existing formal housing in urban areas, with no formal tenure rights over their accommodation.

This pattern of insecure tenure is undoubtedly one of the salient features and causes of the housing crisis in South Africa.

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One of the most significant and short-term interventions required of the Government will be to provide the widest range of options for the rapid attainment of secure tenure. As an invisible intervention, it is likely to have a highly significant and positive impact on the propensity of individuals and communities to commence with the process of investing in their own housing conditions, no matter how modest they may be at the beginning. Existing Constraints to Resolving South Africa's Housing Crisis Numerous constraints to housing delivery still remain. During the formative stages of policy development, extensive analyses of the problems facing housing in South Africa were undertaken. This section summarizes some of the key constraints and problems that need to be addressed by housing policy and strategy in South Africa. a. Scale of the Housing Problem The large scale of the housing and services backlog, and the rapid growth in housing demand represent a mammoth ask for future housing policy. Coupled to the scale of the problem are other key constraints that need to be addressed:

Geographic disparities: large disparities in housing conditions exist between rural and urban areas, different urban areas as well as between different provinces; and

low-incomes: low-incomes of large proportions of South Africa's population imply that many people are unable to afford adequate housing using their own financial resources alone. b. Structure of South Africa's Human Settlements

South Africa's history has produced a wasteful settlement structure that has inherent to it specific constraints that need to be overcome:

Concentrated need: high rates of urbanization have concentrated housing needs in urban areas;

inefficient and inequitable cities: the geographic segmentation of living areas according to race and class, urban sprawl, and disparate levels of service provision and access to amenities in different areas make South Africa's cities very inequitable; inefficient and relatively expensive to manage and maintain; and


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Dispersed rural settlement structure: the dispersed nature of many rural settlements hamper servicing and make access to socio-cultural amenities problematic.

c. Institutional Framework The past institutional framework governing housing has resulted in numerous constraints to housing delivery in South Africa:

Duplication of housing institutions and funding mechanisms: fragmentation of the housing function racially (between the three previous own affairs administrations and the Department of Housing) and geographically (with the TBVC States and homeland areas having jurisdiction for housing in their areas) has resulted in a large amount of overlap, duplication and confusion within and between housing institutions which results in significant inefficiencies and wastage;

inability to carry out responsibilities: many authorities have been inadequately resourced and politically unable to undertake certain responsibilities, which has resulted in delays to the housing development process and a virtual collapse in the public environment and public administration, in many areas; and

local government transition: the slow process of local government transition is already resulting in significant delays to the housing process. However, new legislation and procedures are being developed and the problems associated with the collapse of local government in many areas under the previous dispensation are being addressed. Because of the mutually reinforcing or potentially destructive relationship between the housing process and the local government process, a high level of policy-coordination will be essential between the relevant national and provincial Departments.


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d. Land and Planning Issues The historical and existing patterns of land use and allocation, as well as the legislative and policy framework associated with land, provides an immense challenge and constraint. A fundamentally different approach will be required to make the housing programmed a sustainable reality. However, the impact will have to reach far beyond purely legal and institutional matters, which Government can rectify over time. A wholly new approach to land use and planning is required, impacting both on the professions and the communities. Even today, South Africans tend to view land as an infinite and cheap resource, whereas the opposite is generally true. The country's extremely wasteful approach to land will have to change, allowing for higher densities and innovation in its use. A different approach to land use not only promises the possibility of social cohesion, but can also have a dramatic and beneficial impact on costs and the efficiency of other resource utilization such as energy and water. The inability and unwillingness to release sufficient suitable land for housing continues to be a constraint to timorous housing delivery:

Lack of coherent policy on land: no clear outline of responsibilities for the identification, assembly, planning and release of land for low-income housing exists, and inconsistent positions exist between different government departments and tiers of government;

land identification: previous racial zoning practices, reluctance of certain authorities to accept responsibility for low-income housing, resistance of many existing communities and various legislative constraints have impeded the identification of sufficient, suitable land for low-income housing;

constraints to land assembly: due to legislative controls and the fact that land was previously assembled according to ability to pay rather than need, insufficient land has been assembled for low-income housing;

land planning: present planning legislation and approaches are burdensome, inappropriate in the South African context and resource-intensive;

land invasions: increases in informal land invasions hamper efforts to timorously release adequate, suitable land for human settlement in a planned manner, and may result in certain people attempting to jump the housing / subsidy queue; and

land title: many different tenure arrangements (many of which are not officially recognized) complicates the registration of secure tenure. Furthermore, notwithstanding the sophistication of South Africa's land registration system, most citizens are forced to acquire accommodation outside this formal system.


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e. The Housing Construction Sector The building materials supply, building and civil sector also face significant constraints:

Inadequate development framework: the lack of identified land, poor access to bulk infrastructure networks and confused and lengthy planning procedures hamper developers' ability to undertake housing development expeditiously;

limited capacity: at present, South Africa's construction sector and building materials supply industry are emerging from an economic recession and production slump: significant capacity will have to be built to enable it to deliver the number of houses required: competition from other development program will further dilute this capacity. Certainty around the future housing policy and strategy to be adopted by Government has become essential to initiate the necessary sustained capacity growth and mobilization, and to release the job creation and employment potential latent within this sector. This will most markedly be felt within the marginalized sector of small and largely black builders, through whom a great deal of the challenge should be met;

potential bottlenecks: significant potential bottlenecks exist in certain sub-sectors of the construction and building materials supply industries: the lack of basic and managerial skills and building material production and supply constraints are but two examples;

incompatibility of demand and supply: geographic distribution of demand does not match present location of construction capacity and building materials suppliers;


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Sociological Issues

Many social features of South African society pose important constraints and challenges to future housing policy:

High expectations: the high expectations of many people from a new democratic order have to be tempered by fiscal and practical realism, if this is not to become a major constraint to housing development in South Africa;

crime and violence: continuing high levels of crime and violence often hamper or derail development processes;

lack of consumer protection: inadequate protection for consumers against fraudulent and exploitative practices and behavior by suppliers of housing products and services, currently characterizes the housing environment

poor consumer education: low levels of consumer education increase misunderstanding of developmental and housing issues and the number of unscrupulous operators in the housing environment

Perceptions of housing: many households still have a limited view of housing, and have not realized its full potential as a means of increasing equity and security. While this is undoubtedly partly a function of the backlog itself, increased housing production will provide an opportunity for the creation of a viable secondary housing market;

Non-payment: non-payment for services constrains the long-term viability of the public environment and sustained housing production, as well as limiting the amount of resources available for new housing provision. Linked to the breakdown in law and order and the due process of civil and criminal law in many areas, private housing finance has effectively been withdrawn from large sectors of South African Society;

special needs housing: prevalent social problems in South Africa have increased the need for special needs housing, such as old age homes, homeless shelters and frail care facilities; and

other important sociological considerations: specific sociological factors complicate the ability of housing policy to reach all targets, such as:
o o o o o

Circular migration and dual households; hostel accommodation; the prevalence of single (often female-headed) households; cultural and legal impediments to access for women to housing; and traditional tenure systems.

g. Economic Issues

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A number of factors militate against a massive increase in effective demand for, and supply of housing:

A low rate of growth; declining per capita income; a highly unequal distribution of income which penalizes low-income groups; mass unemployment; low levels of gross domestic investment and fixed capital formation; declining personal domestic savings; a high consumption: savings ratio among low-income groups; a high level of government disserving; persistent inflation; and a persistent balance of payments constraint.

Conclusion of constraints All of the constraints above are able to only provide a brief sketch of the scope and extent of the challenge. However, all of them are dwarfed by the single most significant constraint to the housing delivery process, that of affordability. In policy terms, affordability is conceptualized here as having two essential components. The first relates to State affordability, and is understood in terms of the very real and accepted limitations imposed by the State focus and macro-economic realities. This constraint is further tempered by the realization that housing has to compete with other national priorities such as health, water and education. Of more significance and concern is the grinding poverty of such a large proportion of the South African population. This provides the single most important limitation on the housing program. The resolution of this problem is something that a sustainable housing program can significantly contribute to, but cannot remotely seek to solve on its own. These two affordability constraints have important policy consequences. In broad terms, it confirms the need to focus limited State resources on the poorest sections of our population. In more specific terms, it requires the State to constantly seek new ways of supporting the poor to mobilize complementary support through which our housing goals can be achieved over time.


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NATIONAL HOUSING VISION OF SOUTH AFRICA Housing is defined as a variety of processes through which habitable, stable and sustainable public and private residential environments are created for viable households and communities. This recognizes that the environment within which a house is situated is as important as the house itself in satisfying the needs and requirements of the occupants. Government strives for the establishment of viable, socially and economically integrated communities, situated in areas allowing convenient access to economic opportunities as well as health, educational and social amenities, within which all South Africa' s people will have access on a progressive basis, to:

A permanent residential structure with secure tenure, ensuring privacy and providing adequate protection against the elements; and

Potable water, adequate sanitary facilities including waste disposal and domestic electricity supply.

Despite the constraints in the environment and the limitations on the focus, every effort will be made in order to realize this vision for all South Africans whilst recognizing the need for general economic growth and employment as well as the efforts and contributions of individuals themselves and the providers of housing credit, as prerequisites for the realization thereof. In order to meet the housing challenge in the country, Government aims to establish a sustainable housing process which will even- totally enable all South Africa's people to secure housing with secure tenure, within a safe and healthy environment and viable communities in a manner that will make a positive contribution to a non-racial, nonsexist, democratic and integrated society, within the shortest possible time frame.


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HOUSING STRATEGY OF SOUTH AFRICA Housing and Economic Empowerment

Housing as a process represents more than a simple economic activity but constitutes the foundation for the establishment of continuously improving public and private environments within which stable and productive communities can grow and prosper. Government housing policies and strategies will therefore be directed at enabling and supporting communities to mobilize towards participating in the satisfaction of their own housing needs in a way that maximizes the involvement of the community and the private sector and leads to transfer of skills to and economic empowerment of members of the community. Policy emphasis will be placed on supporting local initiatives including small or medium sized companies in partnership with larger, established companies committed to providing appropriate support and training. In order to do this, future housing strategy will place specific emphasis on:

Promoting the participation of affected communities in the planning and implementation of new developments;

maximizing job creation in the construction and allied sectors (in particular, the role of labor based construction and the use of local labor in housing development);

improving economic linkages, particularly with the national electrification program;

program for skills transfer, capacity building and upward mobility for both skilled and unskilled labor in the housing field;

the role of small and intermediate enterprises in housing construction, as well as in backwardly linked (materials supply), forwardly linked (household businesses) and sideways linked (school construction) economic sectors;

mechanisms to stimulate entrepreneurial development in creating new housing environments and maximize the participation of historically disadvantaged, emerging entrepreneurs; and

Constantly evaluating and supporting the role of women in the housing delivery process.


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Sustainability and Fiscal Affordability

It is critical that housing delivery as a process be initiated at scale on a sustainable basis. This requires the essential short term action should be structured in order not to frustrate medium to longer term interventions. The State has insufficient resources to meet the needs of the homeless on its own and recognizes that sustained, substantial investment in housing from sources outside the national focus will be required. Housing policy will therefore need to recognize the fundamental pre-condition for attracting such investment, which is that housing, must be provided within a normalized market and thus attract maximum private investment. The challenge is achieving a balance between State intervention and the effective functioning of the housing market with vigorous and open competition between suppliers of goods and services to end users. The housing process must be economically, fiscally, socially, financially and politically sustainable in the long term. This implies balancing end-user affordability, the standard of housing, the number of housing units required and the fiscal allocations for housing. It is important that:

The contribution of housing to the overall success of the Reconstruction and Development Program and the Government of National Unity be recognized;

a long-term housing program be outlined that meets the housing needs of all South Africans within the shortest possible time frame;

the maximum possible sustained investment is mobilized from the State, private sector and individuals if the housing program is to be sustainable, requiring the State to continuously ensure level playing fields between the broader public sector and the private sector. This does not preclude the State from vigorously intervening to correct distortions and imbalances in the market-place;

the housing program must take cognizance of constraints to its implementation, if such a program is not going to lead to distortions in the housing market (such as high inflation, poor quality workmanship and a higher proportion of housing starts to finishes);

program should make provision for skills transfer; and a primary aim of the housing strategy must be to build viable and sustainable communities: to this end, responsibility for and affordability of the costs of long term maintenance and development of housing environments and services must be recognized in planning and implementation.


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All functional policies and strategies should take due cognizance of the complexities of and potential implications for the upgrade- ding and redevelopment of hostels in order to create sustainable humane living conditions in State and privately owned hostels country wide and to ensure the re-integration of these hostel communities into the surrounding communities. It must be honestly acknowledged that the stated desire to end the marginalization of hostels and their residents has not yet been given effect. Government undertakes to constantly review its approach to hostels, both public and private, and to do so with the assistance of the residents and workers living in conditions that are often inhumane.

Special Needs Housing

State housing policies and subsidy programmed must reflect a constant awareness of and provision for the special needs of the youth, disabled people and the elderly. To this end, special attention will be paid to the possible modification of the subsidy programmed to give effect to this approach.

Urban and Rural Balance

Historically, the relationship between urban and rural housing and their respective needs has been paid scant attention. The Government has already initiated a process of institutional review that seeks to bring the question of rural housing into the mainstream of national housing policy. State housing policy and strategy should achieve balance in emphasis between urban and rural and take cognizance of the particular characteristics and requirements of rural communities. Special cognizance needs to be taken of:

The dilemma facing farm workers reaching the end of their working life or contemplating a change in employment, in terms of the linkage between their employment and home;

the different composition of rural households; the effects of circulatory migration; the pre-dominance of female headed households; the non-saleable nature of the rural home; and the diversity of tenure arrangements and the impact thereof on especially the accessing of credit and subsidies.

Housing and the Reconstruction and Development Programmed (RDP)


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The Reconstruction and Development Programmed sets out a clear vision for housing in the future. It is therefore imperative that future housing policy and strategy be developed in accordance with this vision and guidelines. The provision of housing and services is a key component of the Reconstruction and Development Programmed. Apart from being seen as a national priority in its own right, future housing strategy has a direct bearing on the success of all five key programmed of the RDP. These programmed are:

Meeting basic needs; developing human resources; building the economy; democratizing the State and society; and Implementing the RDP.

The implications of a successful housing programmed, or of its relative lack of success, are the subject of constant interaction between the Department and the RDP unit. Because of its consequential impact on the question of hard and soft services, as well as on local government, the role of housing needs to be correctly located within the overall framework of the RDP.


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Stabilizing the Housing Environment

A stable public environment is required for viable private investment. At the same time the creation of a stable public environment is dependent on and requires the incentives and benefits associated with the improvement of the private living environment of people, created by private investment and access to credit. It is essential that the vicious and degenerative cycle of despair in many areas of the country be turned into a cycle of reconstruction and development, through joint and simultaneous action by both the public and private sectors in consultation with affected communities. This will require action by the State as a whole and cannot be dealt with by the housing departments in isolation. In this regard government intends to pursue an incentive based approach to stabilize the living environments for many communities living in unstable and degenerating residential areas. The approach is envisaged to be two pronged namely:

A general governmental strategy, consisting of an unprecedented national and provincial campaign aimed at the re- assumption of payment for goods and services, combined with coordinated multi functional public investment and management focus in areas where the public environment has collapsed; and ,

Simultaneous, equally vigorous engagement by the private sector (by agreement with the State), in areas where the public environment has substantially stabilized, in terms of identified criteria. Housing credit will be the main focus, although private investment across the full spectrum of business activities will be sought.


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Implementation of Subsidy

1. Focus on the Poor Government remains committed to a system of subsidization which is biased in favor of those most in need of Government assistance. It is essential that the bulk of State housing resources be utilized to assist the poorest of the poor and the introduction of a fourth (higher) category of subsidy, for the lower end of the market, has been decided upon. 2. Tenure Security of tenure is a key cornerstone of Government's approach towards providing housing to people in need. In this regard, Government rejects the elevation of the individualized private home ownership above other forms of secure tenure. Subsidy policy will therefore be designed to provide for the fullest range of tenure options, on the basis of a limited State contribution to be geared by private (individual) investment, credit / finance and, where possible, the sweat equity of the owner. Ensuring that subsidies can be made available in areas where traditional tenure arrangements apply is essential and this issue is currently under investigation.

Housing Support

In order to assist individuals and communities in the housing process, Government is currently considering the establishment (in conjunction with the private sector where possible) of housing support mechanisms throughout the country. These mechanisms are envisaged to, inter alia, provide:

Advice and support to communities in the planning and funding of new housing developments and their continuous upgrading;

advice to prospective home owners / tenants on technical, legal and financial as well as consumer protection aspects;

planning assistance including the quantification and costing of material and other requirements;

assistance and advice in respect of contracting and supervision;


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DESIGN HOUSING STRATEGIES IN SOUTH AFRICA South African housing policy is formulated around the supporter paradigm, where state assistance is given in the form of a capital subsidy grant, to households who then take over the process of housing provision in an incremental manner. Constraints in improving housing for the lowest income groups however continue to be experienced in the areas of affordability, the impact of health on housing development, and planning, design and management of the resultant built environment. Affordability is at the heart of households efforts to improve their housing situation. It has been widely recognized that employment, income generation and access to housing are highly interrelated. In South Africa, the poors incomes have continued to be too meager or unstable to permit commitment of scarce resources to housing. DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION IN PRACTICE

The low-cost incremental housing in South Africa seems to focus only on cost saving rather than design and layout that recognizes human habitation. Mass production of housing units has led to loss of architectural value, aesthetic quality and a sense of identity for its residents, making it an area of great concern in policy implementation. The professional attitude towards designing for the poor is questionable, and the resultant places as part of the face of the city are an aspect that needs to be corrected, through research to understand the appropriate development concept that reflects peoples behavior in space, activities and appropriate response to context and environment. The traditional settlement pattern and houses , even in informal settlement spatial organization, exhibits common concepts of courtyard and cluster of houses as well as utilization of space that integrates social, economic and climatic conditions as factors determining the basis of conceptualizing such housing. As argued by Denyer (1978), an examination of indigenous settlements and architecture in Africa show a personal adaptation in a style properly worked out and closely tailored to the needs of the people. Anderson (1974) concentrates on the built environment and describes traditional architecture as by the people for people. If architects, planners and engineers are an integral part of the society, they should understand the norms, codes and value systems of the society they live in which will in turn request for a different mode of operation and intervention that is responsive to provision of housing in South Africa.


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Low cost incremental housing is arranged spatially along straight lines, is monotonous, has no hierarchic ordering principle in spaces and lacks aesthetic attributes. Zeri (1974) suggests that architecture is composed of the void itself, the enclosed space in which man lives and moves, and that internal space is the protagonist of architecture. Gideon (1964) on the other hand, suggests that internal space is merely a stage in the development of architectural space conception and that it is the interplay between interior and exterior space which is critical. The South African society has been socially disintegrated through the apartheid system and one objective of the housing policy is integration and restructuring of the city and spaces. If this is understood, then the quality of indoor and outdoor space that provides solutions to the interrelationship between the people, social cultural and economic aspects, and environment, is critical and should be the priority of built environment professionals.

With regard to the construction of houses, the notion of self-help and community participation is an integral part of indigenous African architecture, culture and value system. In addition to the living environment, economic and income generating activities are incorporated as part of the house function. This concept should be re-conceptualized in the present housing design as it has been recognized as a method of survival for the people.

The current housing implementation concept with regard to design needs to be inspired through research carried out in the area of settlement patterns and house form in traditional architecture to understand the principles and processes underlying qualitative built environments.

The South African housing policy advocates for the use of local building materials and technologies. However, in practice local governments have continued to adhere to building codes and regulations that are largely unaffordable by the poor, leading to a lack of housing consolidation, or consolidation with materials that are considered inferior and inadequate. What could be considered appropriate yet affordable construction materials for the poor that would not entail the use of for example, polythene? All over Africa, governments are experimenting with building materials and technologies that meet functional, safety and aesthetic standards while enabling cost reduction and affordability.


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This is an area that needs to be researched thoroughly and experience from elsewhere in the continent brought to bear on housing delivery in South Africa.


The focus of the South African housing policy is on owner occupation, and rental housing has been associated with the apartheid housing policy formulation. One form of rental housing which has not been transferred through privatization or discounted purchase, is hostels. The resolution of the hostel question has not met with great success. Hostels are a result of the political ideology of apartheid, which form of housing has left behind habitats that are crime-infested and unhealthy, and where social disintegration has occurred. An analysis of the existing hostel situation is intimidating with imposing architecture in the landscape, and the overcrowding that exists in the hostels may result in health hazards while contributing to the deterioration of the buildings and services. This inhuman face of housing needs radical intervention by conversion to new environments of social integration. Attempts at conversion of hostels to family units have met with difficulty because of Inappropriate intervention, with a strategy that has developed a negligible amount of family Units among predominantly male hostel environments, which approach has been threatening to any potential occupant of the newly converted units (Adebayo and Adebayo, 2000).

Intervention has to be more than one-off buildings. The revitalization of entire hostel Neighborhoods should be the focus of any of intervention aimed at social integration. Re-conceptualization of the environment and architecture to more friendly buildings is called for. The issue of inner city housing is another dimension of rental housing that needs to be pursued in South Africa. Bringing people close to the city is widely recognized as a positive move, not only on account of its ability to open up opportunities for the poor, but also because of the potential to utilize already existing infrastructure, and to use costly land optimally. Some people have however had the misconception that compactness, bringing the poor into the inner city residential areas has the potential to turn the city into urban slums. European cities have proved that there is no basis for this argument. Towards this end, some of the vacant buildings in the city could be converted to rental accommodation. Further, there should be a change in the existing building composition in the inner-city, and









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accommodation alongside business, recreational and social activities as a way to reintegrate the city.


Housing the poor in South Africa is a long term program whose success is dependent on a delivery system in which individual subsidy beneficiaries must be able to participate. It is anticipated that a good record of economic growth will be able to place the poor on the road to affordability. However, economic growth must be coupled with government efforts to allow the poor to partake of the benefits of such economic growth. In addition, the built environment created should be a matter of concern if a sustainable and responsive place is to be created. Finally, if the government is serious about acting as facilitator in the housing delivery system, housing policy must be seen as an experiment to be tested in the field. The policy can therefore not be separated from its implementation. Its feasibility will be dependent on review and reformulation


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B. Green Architecture in Africa In the last decade, African architects are leaning towards making greener buildings that are ecologically sound and the drive and quest for desire not to be left behind has been seen in the several seminars and symposiums that deal with green issues on the rise. This change has come about as a reaction to the demands of customers who want to lead a life that has a less negative effect upon the environment. The challenges that are faced by African Architects are numerous and in some Nations, insurmountable, and poses a challenge to environmental professionals and legislation bodies. The following are some serious issues that green designers have to address in Africa: (a) Government awareness: - Most governments have just started to be aware of international green issues and to apply the International Standards and Regulations in the past decade. According to Shafik (2009), some African governments like Egypt are even beginning to consider providing support for Green Initiatives whether by Subsidies or Tax reduction to organizations that promotes green design in the industry. (b) Community awareness: - Most African communities are unaware of the impact of the built environment on the sustainability of the ecological and environmental stability of the future of the built environment. There is need for more awareness campaigns to allow the community to get involved in the global movement to have sustainable environment. (c) Lack of regulations, standards or codes to be guidelines: - green design is not considered as a cardinal part to design requirements in most African countries. Due to the format of most African design regulatory frameworks, green architecture is remotely considered as one of the essential design requirements. (d)Unavailability of local Green Product Components and materials: - Design Solutions that address green issues are not readily available in most African Countries and as such the ideas dissipate before implementation is even considered. Materials that are required to define a structure to be a green structure are not found readily in African building materials shops and can constitute a fake construction process problem if the designer insists on finding the material in question. (e) Not profitable: the immediate savings in Materials and Resources just to implement green architecture does not encourage alternatives. Most design solutions in low

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economy areas like African communities have costs as a major factor in determining design solutions. Architects and clients regularly agree on solutions that are cost effective and functionally appropriate for the current design brief. Unlike developed nations where regulations exist as a guide when design solutions, African design solutions have concentration on costs rather than anything else. (f)Trained Personnel: The lack of trained environmental designers and professionals has acted as a barrier to environmental concerns in majority of African built environment initiatives. African Universities are rising to the challenge at the moment as can be seen in the nature of design theories and courses being offered to new students.

DESIGN STRATEGY AND CONSIDERATION 1. Location of buildings and heat issues As in most green architecture projects, Woodson (2009) explains that location of buildings and surroundings can impact not only the visual and ecological benefits for the environment but also the future of the built environment. It is a well known factor that erecting a structure close to other tall buildings and vegetation can cut out daylight and sunlight, both of which can be used to the structure and end user holders advantage if in good supply. Most African landscapes are sparsely populated with buildings and such consideration is regarded as being negligible and does not affect most green designs. The expansive landscapes available to 10 designers in African design schemes influence explorative green architecture and the use of natural sunlight is used extensively in collaboration with building orientation to devise the best green effects for the structure. Brown et al (2000), states that in addition to the natural use of sunlight, the use of solar panels in modern structures has now become common. Sunlight is captured by solar panels and is used to heat water for the environmentally designed structure for water heating and other uses that have less green house gas emissions. The principle behind the concept is that these solar panels are generally laid on the roof of such structures and specially designed pipes inside the panels are heated by the sun and the water is pumped to the house out of the pipes. Denyer (1978) writes that African environments are richly endowed with clear skies and the use of this technology is irrepressible if pursued by green projects.


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In essence, Architects make use of the natural light available by making cylindrical windows in the roof of the house, as well as the usual ones around the sides to capture as much sunlight as possible. Woodson (2009) states that warm environments do not require the conventional radiators that are used to heat structures in the northern hemisphere, Natural heat energy transfer is naturally relied on and any green design concepts can highly be enhanced by the natural existence of natural heat energy resident in the environment. Brown et al (2000) explains that Instead of the conventional radiators, which is high on energy consumption, radiant heat is trapped and redirected for heating, cooking and cooling inside the home. Green design concepts here rely on radiant heat transfer. The design of floors or ceiling panels circulates either chilled or heated water to condition the space. This system requires less energy to run and can help boilers to operate more effectively because of the low temperature. Architecture in Africa has come a long way in energy efficient designs and is poised to go further as more and more awareness is encouraged through legislation and statutory initiatives of how the built environment are affects global warming. Environmental researchers Moughtin and Shirley(2005), assess that building construction and usage of the structures is responsible for nearly half of the worlds greenhouse gas emissions and close to a third of its solid waste stream. Buildings are also significant emitters of particulates and other air pollutants that have to be taken into design considerations by designers. In short, building construction and operation cause many forms of environmental degradation that place an increasing burden on the earth's resources and jeopardize the future of the building industry and societal health and welfare 2. Solar Energy Solar heating is becoming a tech idea that is fast taking storm within sustainable design forums. The idea behind is the fact that there is nothing more comfortable for body and mind than living in a good solar-heated house, with full control of climate control parameters. When structures are designed ecologically, good passive solar energy is capable of providing just enough sunlight into the rooms to be absorbed by the surrounding thermal mass which acts as a heat battery and gives the warmth back into the room when the sun goes down. Crushed volcanic rock and straw bales make for good thermal mass insulation and designs in a green house


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3. Renewable Energy According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the term renewable energy generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, geothermal, hydropower and various forms of biomass. These energy sources are considered renewable sources because their fuel sources are continuously replenished. Under Virginia law, renewable energy refers to "energy derived from sunlight, wind, falling water, sustainable biomass, energy from waste, wave motion, tides, and geothermal power and does not include energy derived from coal, oil, natural gas or nuclear power." Among the several ways to conserve fossil fuel and produce electricity are using the natural powers of the sun, wind, or water.


Conserving water

Incidentally, African green design has not yet developed the conserving of water as a serious green design factor because there are areas that are not yet supplied with tapped water. The use of low water capacity toilets, flow restrictors at shower heads and faucet aerators are now being used as a part of sustainable architecture. More radical water conservation approaches include diverting gray water from bathing, clothes washing and bathroom sinks to watering plants; catching rain water from roofs and paved areas for domestic use. Landscaping with drought tolerant plants can also save water.

5. Using local and natural materials Green experts insist that nature has been benevolent enough to provide earth with several materials to build with, no matter the geographical location. When local materials are used for construction, processing and transporting costs and processes are minimized. From both, an aesthetic, health and ecological point of view, building with natural local materials enhances and promotes sustainable development. By using these local materials which are native to the area, it reduces the use of more expensive imported materials. More importantly, vernacular materials are part of cultural manifestations.


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Recommendation and Conclusion: African green issues particularly in housing have peaked in the past decade. Sustainable design (environmental design, environmentally sustainable design (ESD), environmentally-conscious design) that encompass the philosophy of designing building structures, objects, and services to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability has become a repeated issue in African design corridors.. Green African designers have shown desire to design and manage the built environment in a responsible manner. Architects and designers are currently aware that solutions to sustainable designs require no non-renewable resources, impact on the environment minimally, and relate people with the natural environment.


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REFERENCES: Adebayo A and Adebayo P. 2000. Towards the Development of Humane Architecture and Habitat a Critique of African Cities. Paper presented at the Urban Future 2000 International Conference on Issues Confronting the City at the Turn of the Millenium, Johannesburg. Adebayo P. 2000. Enabling the Enabling Approach to Work: Creating the Conditions for Housing Delivery in South Africa. Paper presented at the Urban Futures 2000 International Conference on Issues Confronting the City at the Turn of the Millenium, Johannesburg. Adebayo A and Adebayo P. 2000. The Future African City. Paper presented at the Urban 21 Global Conference on the Urban Future, Berlin Germany. Anderson R. 1999. Divided Cities as a Policy-based Notion in Sweden. Housing Studies Vol 14 No.5, UK : Taylor and Frances Oxfordshire.

ANC. 1994. The Reconstruction and Development Programme, Johannesburg : Umsanyano Publications. Burns LS and Ferguson. 1987. Criteria for Future and Settlement Policies in Developing Countries. Shelter Settlement and Development, ed Rodwin L: Nairobi,UNCHS (Habitat). Bond P and Tait A. 1997. The Failure of Housing Policy in Lost Apartheid South Africa.Urban Forum Vol 8 No.1.