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Glass in Architecture

Building Construction report

Aditi Veena . Uzair Siddiqui .

Tuesday 27 September 2011

Glazing What is Glazing?


Glazing refers to glasswork or Glass set in a framework Common types of glass used in architecture: Clear and Tintedfloat glass Tempered glass Laminated glass Coated glasses which can be glazed as single, double or even tripleglazing units Types of Glazing: Glass windows Glass partitions Structural Glazing Curtain walls Three types of glazing systems: Wet glazing systems are gunned-in-place sealants. Dry glazing systems use pre-formed gasket materials. Combination uses both sealants and gaskets.

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Traditional Glazing
Windows and Partitions
Glass held in place with a beading Glass slides into grooves in the metal or wooden frame Sealed units with aluminium spacers incorporating moisture absorbing sieve or silica gel. Generally sealed with silcone and a protective cap to prevent leakage.

Double glazing Silica gel Beading (wooden)

Wooden frame section

Double glazing section (metal with wood veneer)

Wood window section with double glazing

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Fixing Details
Traditional Glazing Planar Faades or window glazing in which glass is fixed into the neoprene gasket, hence getting protected from vibrations and water infiltration. This kind of joinery is also used in partition walls and windows, especially those with metal frames

Gasket Made of Neoprene (rubber) Shock absorber, Hence cushioned Waterproofing and Sound proofing fire resistant

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Curtain Glazing
Acurtain wallis an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural and merely support their own weight, serving as a barrier from wind, rain etc. Why a curtain wall? ample natural light Extremely lightweight lowering costs and time of construction anti-UV rays, insulation, etc Fire-proof Filters out wind, sounds and odors

Frame of aluminium with mullions and transoms Independent envelope around the main structure Generally not resting on the concrete structure but only connected to it. Glass is kept in place by placing it in the sash and fixing with a pressure plate & screws.

Considerations for curtain walls Expansion and contraction of the building facade Wind loading Condensation of moisture Earth quakes, hurricanes

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Fixing Detail
Curtain Wall Planar Faade with visible joints between glasses defined by thicker strips of metal serving as a cover plate.

Joinery for double glazed facade

Cover plate Pressure plate Bristles Glass Screw

Cover Plate Made of metal Used to hide the pressure plate Give More Definition To The Faade Prevents seepage of water and dust

Pressure Plate Made of metal Used to secure the glasses in place and hide the joinery Fits into the groove of the section

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Structural Glazing
Bonding glass to an aluminium window frame utilizing a high-strength, high-performance silicone sealant. Silicone seal along the edges of the internal surface without the necessity of any mechanical retention such as beads, clips or bolt fixings. Uniform large glazed surfaces Glass is fixed to a support, which in turn is attached to a structural element of the building Tightness of the whole system being obtained by a silicone seal.

Stick Built System


Structural framework of metal sections etc for supporting the glazing are cut and assembled on site. The framework is then connected to the concr ete slabs in the building. After this the glass panes are fixed on the support Finally the silicon sealant is used to seal the joints in the glazing.

Disadvantages
Not time efficient as it takes quite long to actually assemble. Unitized and semiunitized systems are both economically and time-wise, much more viable.

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Structural Glazing
Unitized System
Prepared in a factory by mounting a structural support frame onto the glass, complete with appropriate setting blocks etc. On site, the support frame is attached to the building structure by mechanical means Vertical and horizontal mating joints can either be dry sealed with gaskets or wet-sealed with field-applied sealants.

Advantages of Prefabricated systems


Pre-fabricated, hence higher performance than stick-built curtain wall, in terms of movement, load bearing capacity and water penetration. Requires about 5 times less labour than stick-built curtain wall. Little time to install as shipping and erecting Customizable as individual panels can be replaced with a variety of other panels. Easier to maintain

Semi Unitized System


Glazing panels are made in the factory with the glass as well as sealants The support frame is made and attached to the building structure at the site itself The glazing panels are then clipped on to the framework

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Fixing Detail
Structural Glazing Planar Faade with neat joints between glasses defined by slim black or translucent silicon strips. Glass Single or Double glaze Ranging from 6mm to 24mm Acrylic foam structural glazing tape Double sided Extremely strong About 1-3mm thick, the thicker the better Silicon sealant/Adhesive Inertness Toward U.V., Radiation, And Ozone Very Low Water Absorption High Compressibility And Low Compression Set Over A Wide Temperature Range Good Acoustic And Thermal Insulation Properties

Metal section Backer Rod Metal tube Adhesive tape Double Glazing Silicon sealant

Backer Rod Vibratory absorption Non- Corrosive metal body Wrapped with silicon, gives the cushioned effect

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Bolted Glazing
An alternative to structural glazing, which holds the glass by means of visible metal parts and covers a small part of the glass surface. The fixing holes can be drilled and countersunk, so that the bolts are embedded in the thickness of the glass itself.

Rigid Bolted This traditional system consists of attaching the glass panels and the structure with rigid bolts and steel plates.

Spider Bolt Consists of a multi-bolt system which is attached to 4 glass panes at the corners, as well as to the structural support of the faade.

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Fin + Cable Supported Glazing


Fin System Fin systems create greater visibility in facades and increase levels of natural light in interiors while meeting the structural requirements of the glazing system. The fin is securely fixed or supported at the head and sill. Any loading applied to the glass faade is transferred to the fin and then to the top and bottom fin by way of a reaction load. The fins must be adhered to the faade glass cope with positive and negative loads using : I. Silicone sealant II. Bolts

Cable-supported glazing Stainless steel or carbon fibre high strength cables are used to transfer loads to the main structure. Cables systems create greater levels of openness, visibility & natural light and enhance the dramatic appearance of the building.

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report

Cable Supported Glazing


Suspended Glazing A matrix of toughened glass panels, used to glaze large openings in buildings, without using metal frames or mullions hung from the building structure like a curtain. The top tier panels are connected to the structure by adjustable hanger brackets lower panels are connected by special fittings at their corners. all glass joints and channels are sealed with silicone sealant. stabilized against wind load by glass fins fixed to the support structure Advantages Avoids flexing or buckling, which may happen if the panes would rest on their bottom edge. Double glazed units, which cannot sustain pressure, are suspended by means of hooks.

Glazing
Tuesday 27 September 2011

Building Construction Report