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# CONFIDENTIAL

AS/APR 2009/PHY544

## ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS PHY544 APRIL 2009 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1. 2. 3. 4. This question paper consists of seven (7) questions. Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator. Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of: i) ii) the Question Paper an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty

## DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

This examination paper consists of 3 printed pages
Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

AS/APR 2009/PHY544

QUESTION 1 a) Use the energy band diagram to describe the electrical properties of a semiconductor. (10 marks) b) Explain briefly about extrinsic semiconductor. (7 marks) QUESTION 2 a) Describe the band structure of a P-N junction when it is : i) At equilibrium state ii) Forward - biased iii) Reverse- biased (14 marks) b) Explain how to generate the reverse - biased portion of the characteristic curve. (5 marks) c) Draw and labels the voltage - current characteristic of a Diode. (3 marks) QUESTION 3 a) Sketch the waveform for each output as states below: i) ii) iii) iv) Transformer only Transformer and rectifier Transformer, rectifier and smoothing Transformer, rectifier, smoothing and regulator

(6 marks) b) The reverse saturation current of an NPN transistor in common-base circuit is 12.5 uA. For an emitter current of 2 mA and collector current of 1.97 mA. Determine the current gain and base current. (5 marks) QUESTION 4 a) Develop the truth table for 3 input AND-GATES. (4 marks) b) Convert 4A8C16 to binary. (4 marks) c) Convert 423 to hexadecimal. (4 marks) QUESTION 5 a) State two (2) DeMorgan's theorem. State the formula expressing this theorem for two (2) variables. (8 marks)

## Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

AS/APR 2009/PHY544

b) The S-R flip-flop is versatile and widely used as type of flip-flop. Draw a simplified logic diagram for a positive-edge-triggered S-R flip-flop and the truth table. (5 marks) QUESTION 6 a) Flip-flop is a kind of multivibrator. There are two (2) types of multivibrators. Explain each type and state two (2) criteria of each type. (4 marks) b) Define a clock. (2 marks) c) Describe the operation of a 2-bit asynchronous binary counter. (7 marks) QUESTION 7 a) What do you understand by Karnaugh Map? (2 marks) b) Map the following standard SOP expression on a Karnaugh map.
ABC + ABC + ABC+ ABC

(5 marks) c) Show the derivation to the simple equation by applying DeMorgan's theorem and Boolean algebra.
X = (A B C )C + ABC + D

(5 marks)

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