Anda di halaman 1dari 48

24.

2/1999

International Rice Reasearch Notes

International Rice Research Institute IRRI home page: http://www.cgiar.org/irri Riceweb: http://www.riceweb.org Riceworld: http://www.riceworld.org IRRI Library: http://ricelib.irri.cgiar.org IRRN: http://irriwww/IRRIHome/irrn.htm http://www.cgiar.org/irri/irrn.htm

The International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) expedites communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and rice-based systems. The IRRN is a mechanism to help scientists keep each other informed of current rice research findings. The concise scientific notes are meant to encourage rice scientists to communicate with one another to obtain details on the research reported. The IRRN is published three times a year in April, August, and December by the International Rice Research Institute.

Contents
4 6
EDITORS NOTE MINI REVIEWS Economics of direct seeding in Asia: patterns of adoption and research priorities
S. Pandey and L. Velasco

12

Electronic information: new opportunities for rice scientists


I. Wallace

About the cover A farmer direct seeding rice in Los Baos, Philippines Cover photo: Lingkod Sayo

RESEARCH NOTES
Plant breeding

16 KHRS26 (KHP5) for upland direct-seeded conditions


Y.G. Shadakshari, H.M. Chandrappa, A. Manjunath, and S.C. Chandrasekharaiah

18 Performance of prototype rice lines from ideotype


breeding
A. Kumar, R.K.S. Tiwari, S.S. Parihar, K.S. Pandya, and M.P. Janoria

17 Grain quality characteristics of aromatic


and nonaromatic rice cultivars
M. Sakila, S.M. Ibrahim, C.R. Anandakumar, S. Backiyarani, and D. Bastian

19 VL Dhan 61, a new rice variety for the northwestern


Himalayan region
R.K. Sarma, V.S. Chauhan, J.C. Bhatt, K.D. Koranne, and P. Singh

Pest science & management

20 Feeding effects of rice leaffolder on flag leaf


gas exchange of rice plants at flowering
T. Watanabe

22 Usefulness of blast resistance genes and their


combinations in different blast-endemic locations in India
R. Sridhar, U.D. Singh, P.K. Agrawal, J.N. Reddy, S.S. Chandrawanshi, R.B.S. Sanger, J.C. Bhatt, Y. Rathaiah, and K.V.S.R.K. Row

21 Effects of Heterodera sacchari population density


on establishment and development of upland rice cv. IDSA6 under field and pot conditions
D.L. Coyne and R.A. Plowright

24 Usefulness of combinations of bacterial blight


resistance genes at Cuttack, Orissa, India
R. Sridhar, J.N. Reddy, U.D. Singh, and P.K. Agrawal

August 1999

25 Thrips infestation in relation to panicle stage in rice


S. Chander

28 Further testing of a yield loss simulation model


for rice in different production situations II. Focus on water-stressed environments
L. Willocquet, L. Fernandez, and S. Savary

26 Further testing of a yield loss simulation model


for rice in different production situations I. Focus on rice-wheat system environments
L. Willocquet, L. Fernandez, H.M. Singh, R.K. Srivastava, S.M.A. Rizvi, and S. Savary

Soil, nutrient, & water management

30 Nitrogen responsiveness of lowland rice varieties


under irrigated conditions in West Africa
K.L. Sahrawat, S. Diatta, and B.N. Singh

33 Biochemical studies on rice seedlings


under salt stress
M.P. Mandal, R.A. Singh, and J.K. Handoo

31 Relative efficiency of different N fertilizers applied


to rice at medium elevation
D. Jena

34 Chemical clearing of irrigation channels


a comparative evaluation
K. Joseph

32 Alleviating zinc deficiency in transplanted flooded


rice grown in alkaline soils of Pakistan
A. Rashid, M.A. Kausar, F. Hussain, and M. Tahir

Crop management & physiology

36 Allelopathic effects of weeds on germination


and seedling vigor of hybrid rice
P. Oudhia, N. Pandey, and R.S. Tripathi

38 Plant population requirement of hybrid rice


in the Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, India
P.S. Bisht, P.C. Pandey, and P. Lal

37 Equilibrium moisture content for sorption of


water vapor by milled rice
J.P. Pandey

38 Promising medium-duration varieties for


double-cropped areas of Assam
K.K. Sharma, P.K. Pathak, T. Ahmed, S. Hussain, D.K. Bora, S. Ali, H.C. Bhattacharyya, and A.K. Pathak

Socioeconomics

40 Weed meal from a rice plot for broiler chicks


N.M. Anigbogu

41 NOTES FROM THE FIELD 42 RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS

45 NEWS 47 INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTRIBUTORS

Editorial Board Michael Cohen (pest science and management), Editor-in-Chief Darshan Brar (plant breeding; molecular and cell biology) David Dawe (socioeconomics; agricultural engineering) Achim Dobermann (soil, nutrient, and water management; environment) Bao-Rong Lu (genetic resources) Len Wade (crop management and physiology)

Production Team Katherine Lopez, Managing Editor Editorial Bill Hardy and Tess Rola Design and layout The CPS Creative Services Team: Albert Borrero, Grant Leceta, Erlie Putungan, Juan Lazaro, Emmanuel Panisales Word processing Arleen Rivera

IRRN 24.2

EDITORS NOTE

year ago, the newly constituted IRRN editorial board and IRRIs Communication and Publications Services (CPS) decided to undertake a readership survey to gather concrete information about IRRN audience needs and preferences. The survey aimed to determine readers perceptions about the content and layout of IRRN. Results were used to transform the publication into a more dynamic and relevant scientific medium of communication among rice scientists throughout the world. The pretested questionnaire looked at three aspects: the sociodemographic characteristics of readers; distribution and subscription; and acceptability and readability of the journal. Questionnaires were distributed by post or e-mail to 4,000 individuals and institutions on the IRRN mailing list, randomly selected IRRI internationally and nationally recruited staff, and national agricultural research systems (NARS) collaborators. The survey questionnaire was also posted on the IRRI Web site to reach respondents who have access to the Web and to encourage online responses. Some 989 completed questionnaires, or 22% of the total sample, were returned to IRRN Central. Most were returned by post, and a handful via e-mail or the IRRI Web site. The results of the survey were compiled, collated, and analyzed. Early this year, the IRRN team designed a new look for IRRN. Specific design considerations; inputs from various sources such as the editorial board, IRRN editors, and CPS creative services team; and feedback from readers have helped shape this new look for the publication. Readers will note that many changes have occurred, beginning with the first issue of the year, not only in the appearance of IRRN, but also in the organization and scope of the publication. Survey results validated most of the decisions taken by the IRRN editorial board and its team of editors and designers in the make-over of IRRN. Results are summarized as follows.
IRRN covers 1976-1999

Who reads IRRN? Of 989 respondents, about a third describe themselves as primarily professors or teachers and one-fourth as scientists or researchers. Only 15% of the respondents are women. More than 60% of respondents are 4059 years old, and three-fourths have advanced degrees (53% PhD and 22% masters). Two-fifths work at academic institutions and one-fifth each are from research organizations or government agencies. About one-fourth each of the total respondents were from the Philippines and India. Thus, the average IRRN reader is a male researcher or professor, about 50 years old or less, with a PhD, and involved in rice research and development. Distribution and subscription Eighty-seven percent of the respondents are on the mailing list so they get copies of IRRN by subscription. Half (51%) have been subscribing to IRRN from 6 to 15 years. They usually pass on copies of the publication to their colleagues. Respondents read IRRN mainly for information on latest developments in rice research (61%) and for news about IRRI and its activities

The typical IRRN reader Male professor or researcher 50 years old with a PhD Works in an academic or research institution Specializes in agriculture, genetics/breeding, or plant pathology and entomology

(34%). Of the 25% who have published in IRRN, about half have published one to three times. Thirty-six readers (4%) report having published 710 times! Sixty-four percent of the respondents prefer a quarterly IRRN rather than a three issues-a-year publication (19%); 62% prefer to receive printed copies over electronic copies (via the Web, by diskette, or CD-ROM), and 88% say that they would like to continue receiving a printed copy even though IRRN is now available on the Web. About 40% of the respondents have access to the Internet. In addition, readers want free copies of the publication because they think that the subscription fee of US$24 for developed countries or $19 for developing countries is expensive (61%).

August 1999

A note about the IRRN masthead and logo


ince the inception of IRRN in 1976, its mission has been to expedite communication among scientists working on rice and rice-based systems. In designing the new IRRN masthead, we attempted to capture the breadth of rice research that is reported in the journal. This research is far wider than what can be represented by rice seeds, the somewhat overpopularized stand-alone icon that was the centerpiece of the previous IRRN cover. Each color in the new logo (one for each letter) represents a component of the rice ecosystem: blue for water, yellow for sun, brown for the earth or soil, and green for the

plant. A rice seed icon sits on the counter of the R for rice. In designing the typeface of the logo, we considered the multicultural nature of IRRN readers and their variable reactions to type use. The challenge for the design team was to develop a type that is simple and easily recognizable, and yet distinctive to IRRN. A third design concern was the versatility of use in diverse media, e.g., printed pages and Web pages. The white spaces and choice of colors help make the logo an attractive presence wherever it is placed.

How do the readers perceive IRRNs content and layout? Content. Most of the IRRN reader-respondents (80%) perceive IRRN as a credible, readable, understandable, citable, useful, accurate, timely, and relevant publication. More than half (57%) think that it is comparable with other peer-reviewed journals, but about a third think that it is not comparable because of its format and the brevity of the notes. Readers find notes on the following topics featured in IRRN very useful: crop management; resistance to various stresses; integrated pest management; and soil, nutrient, and water management. They suggest including items such as abstracts or summaries of important new papers, news about IRRI, new publications, training and scholarship announcements, and book reviews. To further improve the content of IRRN, respondents recommend that IRRN broaden its scope of coverage, include more details in the notes, and better organize the presentation of information. Layout. Most of the readers (72%) like the pre-1999 look of IRRN. They consider the layout and format as attractive, organized, and suitable for a scientific journal. They
IRRN 24.2

think the publication is organized, comprehensive, and meets the standard of a scientific journal. Those who did not like the pre-1999 format suggest that the IRRN look be improved by using more visual cues and graphics, better and bigger photographs, more organized page layouts, more readable type, and more attractive colors. Although many readers (64%) like the regular cover used by the journal, some suggest using a different photograph for the cover for each issue. Based on these results and comments, the IRRN team decided to introduce major changes in IRRNs substance and look. These included the inclusion of new departments or sections such as Mini reviews, Notes from the field, and Research highlights; addition of more references for research notesfrom two to five; and the use of more visual cuesicons for the various topics, more attractive and more readable type, color enhancements, and more visually appealing graphics or photographs. Discovering what IRRN readers had to say about the publication has greatly helped us in the transformation of IRRN. The IRRN team thanks all those who completed the survey. We will continue to refer to the survey results as we fine-tune the

Readers evaluation of the quality of IRRN


Content Readable Understand able Citable Credible Useful Accurate Timely Relevant 1* 560 491 488 389 570 403 343 491 2 266 345 307 301 270 372 336 312 406 371 3 110 102 130 181 94 134 199 116 184 119 4 19 13 22 58 14 21 45 19 32 21 5 5 6 8 17 8 6 20 7 11 5

Layout Attractiveness 286 Organization 405

*Note: 1 is the highest score, 5 is the lowest.

new IRRN and consider new features to add. We welcome feedback from IRRN readers on an ongoing basis and hope that we can continue to provide a rice science journal that youthe readerswant. The Editors

MINI REVIEWS

Economics of direct seeding in Asia: patterns of adoption and research priorities


S. Pandey and L.Velasco, Social Sciences Division, IRRI

Background lthough transplanting has been a major traditional method of rice establishment in Asia, economic factors and recent changes in rice production technology have improved the desirability of direct-seeding methods. The rising labor cost and the need to intensify rice production through double and triple cropping provided the economic incentives for a switch to direct seeding. Simultaneously, the availability of high-yielding, short-duration varieties and chemical weed control methods made such a switch technically viable. As the rice production systems of Asia undergo adjustments in response to the rising scarcity of land, water, and labor, a major adjustment can be expected in the method of rice establishment. This paper provides a brief overview of the patterns of changes in crop establishment methods that have taken place in Asia and their impact and implications for research and technology development. There are three principal methods of rice establishment: dry seeding, wet seeding, and transplanting. Although these methods vary, each is characterized by distinct salient features. Dry seeding consists of sowing dry seeds on dry (unsaturated) soils. Seeds can be broadcast, drilled, or dibbled. Wet seeding involves sowing pregerminated seeds in wet (saturated) puddled soils. Transplanting involves replanting of rice seedlings grown in nurseries to puddled soils. Because the seeds are sown directly, the dry- and wet-seeding methods are often jointly referred to as direct seeding. Dry seeding is probably the oldest method of crop establishment. Historical accounts of rice cultivation in Asia indicate that, during its early period of domestication, rice used to be dry sown in a mixture with other crops that were established under the shifting cultivation system (Grigg 1974). This extensive system of land use gave way to more intensive rice systems, especially in river valleys, as the population pressure on land increased with

August 1999

Table 1. Direct-seeded rice area (million ha) in various Asian countries by ecosystem.a Flood-prone + upland rice areab Irrigated + rainfed lowland areab 47.8 8.8 36.0 2.1 0.9 68.2 1.7 31.6 9.8 0.4 0.6 5.7 3.4 9.1 5.9 3.2 2.1 1.1 119.2 Irrigated + rainfed lowland area direct seeded 6.3 0.1 5.5 0.7 8.310.3 12.5 0.8 0.4 1.3 2.8 22.5 0.1 0.1 14.716.7 Area direct seeded (as a % of irrigated + rainfed lowland area) 13.0 1.0 15.0 78.0 1114 38 8.0 67.0 38.0 31.0 3442 3.0 9.0 1214 Total rice areab Total direct seeded % of total area direct seeded

Region/country

South Asia Bangladesh India Pakistan Sri Lanka Southeast Asia Cambodia China Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Thailand Vietnam East Asia Japan Korea Total

8.4 1.9 6.5

4.0 0.2 0.5 1.2 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.5

12.4

56.2 10.7 42.5 2.1 0.9 72.2 1.9 32.1 11.0 0.6 0.7 6.3 3.6 9.6 6.4 3.2 2.1 1.1 131.6

14.9 2.0 12.0 0.7 12.314.3 0.2 1.53 2.0 0.2 0.5 0.6 1.5 3.3 2.53 0.1 0.1 27.329.3

26.0 19.0 28.0 77.0 1720 10.0 59 18.0 33.0 71.0 9.0 42.0 34.0 3947 3.0 9.0 2122

a Sources of information on direct-seeded area: Bangladesh - Huke and Huke (1997), S. Bhuiyan, pers. commun.; India - Palaniappan and Purushothaman (1991); Sri Lanka - Pathinayake et al (1991); Cambodia - Helmers (1997); China - Lu Ping, pers. commun.; Indonesia - Huke and Huke (1997) and H. Pane, pers. commun.; Malaysia - Huke and Huke (1997) and own estimate; Myanmar - Huke and Huke (1997) and own estimate; Philippines - PhilRice-BAS (1995) and own estimate; Thailand - Dr. Booribon Somrith, pers. commun. and data from Agricultural Extension Office, Khon Kaen; Japan - Yujiro Hayami, pers. commun.; Vietnam - T.P. Tuong, pers. commun. and Agricultural Statistics of Vietnam (1998); Korea - Kim (1995); bHuke and Huke (1997).

Japan Java South Korea Lower Myanmar Bangladesh Thailand Philippines Malaysia Mekong Delta Sri Lanka 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1995 1950 90 100

% area transplanted

Fig. 1. Changes in rice establishment methods in Asia.

Wage rate Low Water availability High TP WS/TP High

population growth. Transplanting, weeding, fertilization, and elaborate water management systems evolved over time. The increased labor supply resulting from population growth made the use of labor-intensive methods of rice production possible. By the 1950s, transplanting had become the dominant method of crop establishment in most of Asia. Dry seeding was practiced only in those areas where low population density and/or severe climatic/hydrological constraints prevented intensification of rice systems. Accurate data on the proportion of rice area established by different methods are scanty. Published agricultural statistics in most countries do not include such data. As a result, information on this has to be culled from several data sources. Table 1 presents rough estimates for major rice-growing areas. The direct-seeded area in Asia is about 29 million ha, which is approximately 21% of the total rice area in the region. This estimate also includes upland and submergence-prone environments where opportunities for transplanting are limited. If only the rainfed lowland and irrigated rice ecosystems are considered, the total direct-seeded area is about 15 million ha. Compared with the 1950s, the importance of direct seeding in irrigated and rainfed lowlands increased during the past three decades mainly in Malaysia, Thailand, and the Mekong Delta (Fig. 1). Determinants of adoption of alternative crop establishment methods Generally, water availability and the opportunity cost of labor are the major determinants of crop establishment methods (Fig. 2).
7

Low

DS/TP

DRS

Fig. 2. Hypothesized effects of wage rate and water availability on the choice of crop establishment methods. TP=transplanting, DS=direct seeding,WS=wet seeding, DRS=dry seeding.

IRRN 24.2

Mechanical transplanting [Japan; Taiwan; Korea; part of China]

Table 2. Preharvest labor use (person-d ha-1) in different countries by crop establishment method. Country/province Dry seeding Wet Transplanting Dapog seeding 30 53 49 37 66 112 152 152 93 60 68 75g 29 Seedling throwing

Manual transplanting Dry seeding [Rainfed area: northeast Thailand; Central Luzon, Philippines] Wet seeding [Irrigated area: Suphanburi, Thailand; Muda, Malaysia]

Fig. 3. Alternative patterns of changes in crop establishment methods.

A low wage rate and adequate water supply favor transplanting. When the water supply is plentiful and the wage rate is high, the particular method adopted depends partly on the cost of weed control. Economic incentives are likely to be higher for wet seeding when the cost of weed control is low. On the other hand, transplanting may be economically more profitable. Farm-level studies have shown that transplanting tends to be the dominant method in bottom lands where water accumulates from neighboring fields while direct seeding is practiced in higher fields (Pandey and Velasco 1999). Similarly, farmers with smaller families in relation to the size of the farm they manage prefer direct seeding to deal with the labor shortage (Erguiza et al 1990, Pandey et al 1995). The transplanting method, although cost-effective in controlling weeds, may not be feasible when water availability is low or uncertain. The traditional system of direct seeding such as gogorancah in Indonesia and aus and beushani in Bangladesh evolved mainly in response to rainfall uncertainty. Economic incentives for direct seeding increase when labor scarcity and wage rates are high. Much of the recent spread of direct seeding in Southeast Asian countries has been in response to the rising wage rate. Even though a switch to direct seeding may have lowered rice yield slightly compared with transplanted rice, farmers have found such a change economically profitable. Labor scarcity and shifts in crop establishment methods Historically, two major adjustments in crop establishment methods have been made to deal with rising labor costs. In temperate Asian countries and territories such as Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the farm labor shortage led to a change from manual to mechanical transplanting (Fig. 3). On the other hand, in tropical countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, the labor shortage induced a shift to direct seeding. Several factors explain this difference in the way the two groups of countries have responded to labor shortages. Small farm size, a long history of transplanting culture, and a very intensive rice production system in Japan favored the continuation of this practice. In addition, high rice prices that farmers were
8

Philippines Iloiloa 40 22 Pangasinanb Lagunac India Uttar Pradeshd 72 Bihare 75 Orissaf 141 Tamil Nadug Myanmarf 19 Vietnam Long Anh 38 Indonesia Central Java 129f240g Thailandi 15
a

29

38

Pandey and Velasco (1998). bPandey et al (1995). cHayami and Kikuchi (2000). dPandey et al (1998). eSingh et al (1994). fFujisaka et al (1993). gSuyamto and Anwari (1995). hFarm survey data. iIsvilanonda (1990).

able to obtain in Japan reinforced the incentive to continue with the transplanting method because a switch to direct seeding may have resulted in income losses due to lower yields. Transplanting may have also helped farmers deal with the low temperature that can adversely affect the performance of direct-seeded rice at higher altitudes. In contrast, Thailand and Malaysia have a much more recent history of transplanting culture. In addition, production in these countries is characterized by a relatively landextensive agriculture, absence of a temperature constraint for direct seeding, and lower overall average yield and net returns to rice production. Thus, savings in labor cost from direct seeding outweighed the potential loss in income from rice and favored a shift to direct seeding. In addition to mechanical transplanting, farmers have used other types of labor-saving methods for transplanting. Farmers in irrigated areas of Laguna, Philippines, use the dapog method of seedbed preparation. In this method, seeds are sown on a raised seedbed that is covered with banana leaves, empty bags, or plastic sheets. The covering prevents the roots from coming in contact with the soil. Labor is saved as seedlings transplanted are younger (2 wk old), do not need to be uprooted, and are easily separated during transplanting. Similarly, farmers in some parts of China throw a bunch of 2-wk-old seedlings in the air so that they land scattered on puddled fields. This method can save about 25% on labor cost compared with normal transplanting (Table 2). Potential advantages and disadvantages of direct seeding Direct-seeding methods have several advantages over transplanting. First, direct seeding saves on labor (Table 2). Depending on the nature of the production system, direct seeding can reduce the labor requirement by as much as 50%. Second, in situations
August 1999

Table 3. Average rice yield (t ha-1) by crop establishment method. Site Nueva Ecija, Philippines Iloilo, Philippinesb Pangasinan, Philippinesc Faizabad, eastern Indiad Long An, Vietnam
a

Dry seeding 3.7 (1.0) 2.7 (1.1) 1.3 (3.7) 4.9 (0.9)

Wet seeding 4.1 2.7 (0.9) 1.3 (1.3) 5.0 (0.5)

Transplanting 4.3 3.3 (0.9) 2.9 (1.2) 1.6 (0.7) 5.0 (0.3)

Sources: aErguiza et al (1990). bPandey and Velasco (1998). cPandey et al (1995). dPandey et al (1998).

Table 4. Cost of crop establishment and weed control ($ ha-1), Iloilo, Philippines. Item Weed control Labor Herbicide Crop establishment Labor Dry seeding 71 51 20 17 Wet seeding 40 20 20 16 Transplanting 24 10 14 70

Table 5. Economic returns ($ ha-1) of different crop establishment methods in the wet season. Site Suphan Buri, Thailanda Cash costb Gross returnsc Gross margind Net returnse Pangasinan, Philippinesf Cash cost Gross returns Gross margin Net returns Iloilo (double-cropped), Philippinesg Cash cost Gross returns Gross margin Net returns
a

Dry seeding

Wet seeding 152 505 353 168

Transplanting

% difference 3 6 8 27 -16 -9 -4 17

148 476 328 132 273 666 393 247

230 608 378 288

736 1,627 891 695

441 904 464 382

67 80 92 82

et al 1993, Singh et al 1994). Direct seeding can also reduce the risk by avoiding terminal drought that lowers the yield of transplanted rice, especially if the latter is established late due to delayed rainfall. Fourth, direct seeding can facilitate crop intensification. In Iloilo, Philippines, the spread of direct seeding in the late 1970s led to double-rice cropping in areas where farmers grew only one crop of transplanted rice (Pandey and Velasco 1998). Similarly, in the Mekong Delta, cropping intensity increased rapidly over the past decade as farmers switched to direct-seeding methods. Finally, irrigation water use can be reduced if direct-seeded (especially dry-seeded) rice can be established earlier by using premonsoon showers. In the Muda Irrigation Area of Malaysia, farmers have been able to establish successful rice crops by dry seeding when the irrigation water supply was low (Ho 1994). Similarly, water use in wet-seeded rice in the Philippines has been substantially lower than in transplanted rice (Bhuiyan et al 1995). Direct seeding, however, also has several potential disadvantages. The yield of direct-seeded rice under farmers field conditions tends to be lower than that of transplanted rice (Table 3). Poor and uneven establishment and inadequate weed control are the major reasons for its poor performance (De Datta 1986, Moody 1982). Farmers may end up using most of the labor saved by direct seeding to control weeds. In addition, the chemical cost of weed control tends to be higher than that of transplanted rice. Farm survey data from Iloilo indicated that the weed control cost for direct-seeded rice can be as high as 20% of the total preharvest cost (Table 4). More use of chemical weed control methods in direct-seeded rice can also be potentially damaging to human health and the environment. Other major problems with directseeded rice include difficulties in controlling snails and quality deterioration resulting from harvest that may occur during the rainy season. Impact of the shift to direct seeding Although the direct-seeding method has both advantages and disadvantages, its rapid spread in various parts of Asia indicates that the net economic benefit has been positive. Despite a lower average yield, direct-seeded rice has a higher net profit, with the savings in labor cost outweighing the value of loss in output (Table 5). This has occurred especially in areas where labor cost has risen rapidly in relation to the rice price. In addition, total farm income has increased because direct seeding facilitated double cropping of rice in areas where only one crop of transplanted rice would have been grown otherwise. For example, in Iloilo, farmers income almost doubled as a result of the doubling in cropping intensity made possible by direct seeding. Total labor employment also increased because of crop intensification even though the amount of labor used per crop declined. The likely future pattern Despite the rapid spread of direct seeding in several Southeast Asian countries, transplanting remains the dominant method of
9

Source: Isvilanonda (1990). All values converted to US$ using the exchange rate $1 = B20. bCost of all purchased inputs. cGross value of output. dGross value of output minus the cost of purchased inputs. eGross value of output minus the cost of purchased and family-owned inputs. fPandey et al (1995). gPandey and Velasco (1998). Comparison between two crops of wet-seeded rice vs only one crop of transplanted rice.

where no substantial reduction in labor requirement occurs, direct seeding can still be beneficial because the demand for labor is spread out over a longer time than with transplanting, which needs to be completed within a short time. The traditional dryseeding system (beushani) in rainfed areas of eastern India is a good example. Land preparation, laddering, and weeding operations in this system are spread over several months, thus allowing farmers to make full use of family labor and to avoid labor bottlenecks (Singh et al 1994). Third, when rainfall at planting time is highly variable, direct seeding may help reduce the production risk. The traditional system of direct (dry) seeding in some rainfed tracts of eastern India evolved partly in response to rainfall uncertainty (Fujisaka
IRRN 24.2

crop establishment. Because of differences in rice production systems and economic conditions, it is convenient to examine the likely scenario for East, Southeast, and South Asia separately. In East Asia, where rice production systems are input-intensive, a major shift to direct seeding in response to a further escalation of the wage rate is unlikely to occur. Compared with other Asian countries, these countries are more industrialized and have higher per capita incomes. Farm incomes are maintained at a higher level through policies that keep the rice price high compared with the international market price. Under this situation, the potential threat to farmer income because of a wage increase is likely to be addressed by policy changes that compensate farmers for a loss in profits rather than by changes in crop establishment method. Direct seeding is likely to expand further in Southeast Asian countries with low population densities, especially in areas where the labor cost is escalating. Mechanization of land preparation, harvesting, and threshing along with a shift from transplanting to direct seeding are likely to be increasingly adopted. An expansion of irrigation and drainage would further reinforce a shift toward direct (wet) seeding. This type of wage-induced shift, however, is a function of the growth rate of the economy. The recent economic crisis in the region may have slowed down the growth in rural wages and, to a certain degree, may result in some shift back to transplanting. In very densely populated areas such as Java, western China, and the Red River Delta of Vietnam, transplanting is likely to remain the dominant culture. In South Asia, where population density is high and overall economic growth is slow, economic incentives for a shift to direct seeding are likely to remain weak. The adoption pattern of direct seeding in Southeast Asia shows that it is first adopted in the dry season probably because of better water control than in the wet season. In South Asia, dry-season rice accounts for only about 12% of the total rice area compared with 22% in Southeast Asia. In addition, the overall proportion of rainfed rice area in South Asia is higher. These features of rice systems may contribute to the slower adoption of direct seeding in South Asia. Even when wage rates rise high enough, drainage constraints in rainfed areas may encourage a shift toward mechanical transplanting instead of direct seeding. Research implications The primary economic motives for a shift to direct seeding are the savings in labor cost and the possibility of crop intensification. The priority research issue depends on which of the two motives is likely to play a more important role in a particular ecoregion. If the main driving force for the transition to direct seeding is the rapidly rising wage rate, research to generate labor-saving technological innovations would have a high priority. These include mechanical tillage and labor-saving weed control methods. Where drought and early submergence impede the adoption of direct seeding, research to develop varieties and crop management practices to relax these constraints is also needed.
10

If crop intensification is the major reason for direct seeding, however, research to facilitate early establishment and early harvest of the direct-seeded crop would have a higher priority because this will permit timely planting of the subsequent crop. Developing short-duration varieties would be important in this case. Even though the cost of labor may be low initially in these areas, intensification of land use may lead to labor shortages because of the peak labor demand during the previous crops harvest and establishment of the succeeding crop within a short period. Suitable mechanical devices for land preparation that can reduce turnaround time between crops could help achieve a higher and more stable yield of the second crop. The high costs of weed control could be a major constraint to the widespread adoption of direct-seeding methods, especially dry seeding. The key to the success of direct-seeded rice is the availability of efficient weed control techniques. Varieties with early seedling vigor and crop management technologies that help reduce the competitive effects of weeds on crops are needed. It is essential, however, to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of potential technologies that are based on chemical means of weed control. Empirical analyses have indicated that the technical efficiency of rice production is lower and more variable for directseeded rice than for transplanted rice (Pandey and Velasco 1999). This suggests the existence of a higher yield gap between the best practice farmer and the average farmer when rice is directseeded. A greater variability in the technical efficiency of directseeded rice could be partly due to the use of varieties that were originally developed for transplanted culture. Varieties that are specifically targeted for direct-seeded methods could help reduce such yield gaps. Better crop management practices, especially those that facilitate early and more uniform establishment, can be similarly helpful. Precise water management is a critical factor for high productivity of wet-seeded rice (De Datta and Nantasomsaran 1991). Greater control of water flow on irrigated fields is hence desirable. Most irrigation systems in Asia, however, have been designed to supply water to transplanted rice for which precision in water management is not as critical. Suitable modifications of irrigation infrastructure may not only ensure high yield of direct-seeded rice but also improve water use efficiency. In addition, appropriate mechanical systems of field leveling that ensure uniformity in field-water level are needed. In dry-seeded rice, land preparation under dry conditions may require mechanical power, especially for hard clayey soils. Large four-wheeled tractors have been used extensively in large flat tracts of northeast Thailand and the Mekong Delta. It is essential to identify the conditions that led to the evolution of rental markets for tractors in these areas so that appropriate policies to develop such markets in other similar areas could be made. Small devices such as power tillers may be more suitable in rainfed areas where fields are too small for effective operations with large tractors.
August 1999

Although direct seeding is likely to be more widely adopted in the future, transplanting will probably continue to be used, especially in poorly drained rainfed areas. As labor costs rise, farmers would seek labor-saving methods for establishing rice in these poorly drained areas. Without these labor-saving transplanting methods (or heavy investments in drainage), these areas may stop producing rice as labor costs keep rising. Mechanical transplanting could play an important role in these environments, but it is currently not popular in South and Southeast Asian countries. Research to develop cost-efficient mechanical transplanters that would be more suitable to the farming conditions of South and Southeast Asia could have high payoffs. In addition, other methods of transplanting such as the dapog method practiced in irrigated areas of the Philippines and seedling throwing practiced in some parts of China could have high potential returns. Available evidence indicates that a shift to direct seeding has had a favorable impact on farmer income because it has helped reduce the cost of labor. Where farmers have been able to grow more than one rice crop as a result of direct seeding, the benefits have been even more pronounced. The incomes of landless and marginal farmers, however, could be adversely affected because they are the major sources of hired labor for farm activities including transplanting. If direct seeding leads to an increase in cropping intensity, the net effect on labor demand tends to be positive, as indicated by experiences in Iloilo, Philippines, and the Mekong Delta. If cropping intensity does not increase adequately to fully absorb the displaced labor, or if other nonfarm employment opportunities are not available, direct seeding can have an unfavorable impact on income distribution. Rural industrialization and other policies that help generate additional employment in rural areas may be needed to counteract any negative distributional consequences that may result from a shift to direct seeding. References
Bhuiyan SI, Sattar MA, Tabbal DF. 1995. Wet-seeded rice: water use efficiency, productivity and constraints to wider adoption. In: Moody K, editor. Constraints, opportunities, and innovations for wet-seeded rice. IRRI Discuss. Pap. Ser. 10. De Datta SK. 1986. Technology development and the spread of direct seeded rice in Southeast Asia. Exp. Agric. 22:417426. De Datta, Nantasomsaran P. 1991. Status and prospects of direct-seeded flooded rice in tropical Asia. In: Direct-seeded flooded rice in the tropics: selected papers from the International Rice Research Conference. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. Erguiza A, Duff B, Khan C. 1990. Choice of rice crop establishment technique: transplanting vs wet seeding. IRRI Res. Pap. Ser. 139. Fujisaka JS, Moody K, Ingram K. 1993. A descriptive study of farming practices for dry-seeded rainfed lowland rice in India, Indonesia and Myanmar. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 45:115128. Grigg DE. 1974. The agricultural systems of the world: an evolutionary approach. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. Hayami Y, Kikuchi M. 2000. A rice village saga: the three decades of Green Revolution in the Philippines. Makati City (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. (in press) IRRN 24.2

Helmers K. 1997. Rice in the Cambodian economy: past and present. In: Nesbitt HJ, editor. Rice production in Cambodia. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. Ho NK. 1994. Management innovation and technical transfer in wet-seeded rice: a case study of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia. In: International Workshop on Constraints, Opportunities and Innovation for Wet-Seeded Rice, Bangkok, Thailand. Huke RE, Huke EH. 1997. Rice area by type of culture: South, Southeast and East Asia. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. Isvilanonda S. 1990. Effects of pregerminated direct seeding technique on factor use and the economic performance of rice farming: a case study in an irrigated area of Suphan Buri. In: Fujimoto A, editor. Thai rice farming in transition. Tokyo: World Planning Commission. Kim SC. 1995. Weed control technology of direct seeded rice in Korea. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Weed Control under Direct Seeded Rice, 31 Jul 1995, Omagari, Akita, Japan. Moody K. 1982. Weed control in dry-seeded rice. In: Report on Workshop on Cropping Systems Research in Asia. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. Palaniappan SP, Purushothaman S. 1991. Rainfed lowland rice farming system in Tamil Nadu (India): status and future thrust. In: Proceedings of the Rainfed Lowland Rice Farming Systems Research Planning Meeting, Myanmar, August 1991. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. Pandey S, Velasco L, Masicat P, Gagalac F. 1995. An economic analysis of rice establishment methods in Pangasinan, Central Luzon. Social Sciences Division. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. Pandey S, Velasco LE. 1998. Economics of direct-seeded rice in Iloilo: lessons from nearly two decades of adoption. Social Sciences Division Discussion Paper. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. Pandey S, Velasco LE. 1999. Economics of alternative rice establishment methods in Asia: a strategic analysis. Social Sciences Division Discussion Paper. Makati City (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. Pandey S, Singh HN, Villano RA. 1998. Rainfed rice and risk-coping strategies: some micro-economic evidences from Uttar Pradesh. Paper presented at the Workshop on Risk Analysis and Management in Rainfed Rice Systems, 2123 Sep 1998, New Delhi, India. Pathinayake BD, Nugaliyadde L, Sandanayake CA. 1991. Direct seeding practices for rice. In: Sri Lanka in direct-seeded flooded rice in the tropics. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. PhilRice-Bureau of Agricultural Statistics. 1995. Provincial rice statistics. Muoz, Nueva Ecija: Philippine Rice Research Institute. Singh RK, Singh VP, Singh CV. 1994. Agronomic assessment of beushening in rainfed lowland rice cultivation, Bihar, India. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 51:271280. Suyamto AM, Anwari. 1995. Improvement of gogorancah rice production systems and introduction of dry-seedbed nursery system on rainfed lowlands. In: Fragile lives in fragile ecosystems. Proceedings of the International Rice Research Conference. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. p 407420.

11

Electronic information: new opportunities for rice scientists


I.Wallace, Information Center, IRRI
DR. ORYZAS DILEMMA Dr. Oryza, chief scientist of the National Rice Institute, is in a dilemma. The Global Bank is after him again for a report about how the special grant of $25,000 had been spent. The money was to have paid for attendance at international conferences by senior research staff. But not a single dollar has been spent and the financial year is drawing to a close. Of course, the last thing he wants is to return the grant unspent, but he has no idea about upcoming conferences and meetings, and by the time announcements of such meetings usually reach him, the conference is often already over. In addition, the International Subscriptions Agency has just sent him a bill for next years subscriptions to five international journals and his tiny operating budget would be slashed again. He has no recourse but to cut these last few international subscriptions and rely on national journals only. He would surely incur the wrath of his fellow scientists who would be bitterly angered by this cutback in subscriptions. To top it all, Dr. Sativa, the fiercest critic of the Institute library which Dr. Oryza also manages, has been complaining about the lack of information resources in the library, which makes it problematic for him to work on collaborative projects with other national program scientists in other countries. Dr. Oryza would just have to see what could be done about strengthening the library. Many scientists in the national programs have this common problem: lack of ready access to current scientific information. What can be done about it? This review enumerates the various options available to national program scientists who have access to the Internet.

cientists are now offered a vast array of new, electronic possibilities, most of which fall under the general heading of ICTs (information and communication technologies). Basically, what this means is that information is increasingly being packaged in new electronic formats that make storage, retrieval, and transfer far easier than in the case of paper. Some say that the arrival of these ICTs is the most important advance in information dissemination since the invention of the printing press more than five centuries earlier. Lets review some of the exciting new options now available to scientists, starting with libraries. Virtual libraries Libraries are gradually being transformed from quasi-warehouses of books and journals, where the emphasis was on ownership of information, to electronic clearinghouses that focus on access to information. It is important to note that these new virtual libraries have not abandoned information in the traditional formats. Books and journals will not disappear overnight,1 in fact, they will endure for a long time to come. Nonetheless, they are being supplemented by online, electronic resources, which are not acquired in the traditional sense. Instead, computer links are established to these electronic resources, making them locally available, even when the host computer site may be located on the other side of the planet.
1

In 1996, the IRRI Library launched its Web site2 and, for the first time, users could consult many of the resources of the Library without having to travel to Los Baos. Formerly, to use the card catalogue, users would have to actually be physically present in the library building. For access, this change is nothing short of revolutionary and the Library is now regularly visited by clients based in such far-away countries as Cuba, India, and Mozambique. Distance, always a barrier to information access, has thus been at least partially eliminated. New computer technology has brought many other advantages to the library world. For example, complicated literature searches are now far easier to perform. Consider this hypothetical library search: Subject: weed control in rice Exclusion: chemical herbicides Dates: 1995 onwards Languages: English or Japanese Type of document: books only Such a search would take a long time in a traditional card catalogue but can be performed in seconds in an electronic catalogue, even in one located thousands of kilometers away. Furthermore, references can be saved for later use or even sent to an e-mail address. Thus, scientists are no longer obliged to write down references of interest; they can be saved electronically, even several hundred at a time.

At an international conference in Singapore, in March 1998, Brian Land, director of the British Library, stated that if the book were to be invented today, it would be proclaimed as a marvel of ingenuity and practicality. 2http://ricelib.irri.cgiar.org

12

August 1999

Today, there are more than 6,000 electronic libraries accessible from scientists computers, and most of these are accessible through a central Internet-based service, WebCats,3 which is maintained in Canada. Users can connect to WebCats and then search for libraries by country/city or by type of library, e.g., special or university. Libraries offering electronic access include the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,4 the University of Tsukuba (Japan),5 the National Library of Malaysia,6 and the University of Chiang Mai,7 in Thailand. Not surprisingly, most electronic libraries are in developed countries. Three good agricultural libraries are the University of Queensland,8 in Australia, the Wageningen Agricultural University,9 in the Netherlands, and OhioLink,10 in the United States, which is a consortium of 18 large libraries, including that of Ohio State University. Anyone with an Internet connection can visit these libraries and see what has been published recently about rice or other subjects. Electronic journals As the century ends, a revolution is taking place in journal publishing: more and more journals are appearing in electronic format.11 These e-journals, as they are known, have several advantages over traditional paper journals: (1) production costs are very low, there being no significant paper or delivery expenses; (2) they are available almost instantly through the Internet, whereas, with print journals, subscribers have to wait for delivery in the mail; (3) text and figures can be modified or augmented at any time; (4) content is electronically searchableeven many years issues in a single search; and (5) issues do not need to be bound or shelved, nor are they ever lost or mutilated. Undoubtedly, e-journals will become increasingly important in the coming years.
3

How does one access an e-journal? In the case of commercial journals, a fee of one kind or another must be paid before access is possible and, usually, this fee is about the same as the cost of a print subscription, except in the case of pay per view (PPV), where a smaller amount is paid to read a single article or journal issue. Of course, most scientists would prefer free access and this may indeed come to pass, but probably not very soon. Virtually all of the major scientific journals now offer electronic access. Many noncommercial journals are also available through the Internet and access is free. Increasingly, libraries such as IRRIs offer their readers a selection of online journals, in addition to their traditional print subscriptions. Listed below are a few examples of noncommercial e-journals of possible interest to rice scientists: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology12 Farm Journal Today13 Food Outlook14 Integrated Crop Management15 International Rice Research Notes16 New Agriculturalist17 Rice Journal18 Weeds World19 The advantages of e-journals are so many that, increasingly, scientists will be reading them on a computer screen, rather than awaiting the arrival of a paper journal from New York, Amsterdam, or Bangkok. E-journals also offer new possibilities to scientists, many of who are unable to publish in traditional journals because of high page charges and a preference by some of the leading journals for established authors from advanced countries. With the arrival of e-journals, the old power structure may find its hold on scientific publishing somewhat weakened if only because unpublished scientists now have new alternatives. They can publish their articles in an e-journal or even start one of their own! Given the very low cost of electronic publishing, launching a new journal is not such a daunting task as it would have been a few years ago. Meanwhile, major newspapers have also taken the plunge and are offering free electronic access to their readers. Some popular Asian titles are: Bangladesh The Daily Star20 China South China Morning Post21 India The Times of India22 Korea Korea Times23 Philippines Manila Bulletin24 Vietnam Saigon Times Daily25 Thailand Bangkok Post26

http://www.lights.com/webcats 4http://library.ust.hk 5http://www.tulips.tsukuba.ac.jp/welcome.english.html 6http://www.infomal.com.my/library/virtua/index.html 7http:// www.cmu.ac.th 8http://www.library.uq.edu.au/iad/mainmenu.html 9http://www.agralin.nl/desktop 10http://olc1.ohiolink.edu 11A good overview of electronic journals and their future is provided by Thomas J. Walker, The future of scientific journals: free access or pay for view?, American Entomologist, Fall 1998, p 135-138. A much longer Web-published article by the same author features illustrations and abundant hyperlinks to relevant literature and examples. Titled The electronic future of scientific journals, this article can be viewed at the following Web address: http://csssrvr.entnem.ufl.edu/~walker/fewww/aedraft.htm 12http://www.ejb.org 13http://www.FarmJournal.com 14http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/economic/ giews/english/fo/fotoc.htm 15http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm 16http://www.cgiar.org/irri/irrn.htm 17http://www.new-agri.co.uk 18http://www.ricejournal.com 19http:// nasc.nott.ac.uk:8300/home.html 20http://www.dailystarnews.com 21http://www.scmp.com 22http://www.timesofindia.com 23http://www.koreatimes.co.kr 24http://www.mb.com.ph 25 http://www.saigon-news.com 26http://www.bangkokpost.net

IRRN 24.2

13

Similarly, newspapers published in other parts of the world are also available on the World Wide Web. Electronic document delivery One difficulty faced by most scientists in developing countries is how to obtain print copies of journal articles that cannot be found online or where electronic access to them is expensive. This is no longer so daunting an undertaking as before and libraries such as IRRIs offer fast and inexpensive document delivery services to their clients. Under optimum conditions, a scientist could easily receive a copy of a requested article in less than an hour, even if she or he happened to live thousands of kilometers away from the IRRI Library. Here is an example of how this works: 1. A scientist in New Delhi searches IRRIs online Rice Bibliography,27 selects references of interest, and sends them to her local e-mail account 2. The scientist then sends the saved references back to the IRRI Library by e-mail28 3. The IRRI Library sends the complete article to the scientist in New Delhi, using Ariel software A new software package designed to deliver short texts over the Internet, Ariel29 works quickly and inexpensively. Text transmitted by Ariel is very clear and, of course, there are no fax or mail charges. Best of all, texts can be sent in a few seconds, either across the street or to the other side of the world, to anyone with an Internet connection. Once again, distance is becoming less of an obstacle to fast access to information. The IRRI Library will provide copies of articles about rice, but what about other subjects? Here, too, there are some good electronic possibilities. One of the most interesting is UnCover,30 which stands out in what is becoming a very competitive field.31 UnCover is based in the United States and offers online access to the tables of contents of more than 17,000 journals covering most subject areas. Anyone can connect to UnCover and search by author, subject, journal title, and so on. Thus, a search by author would retrieve articles written by a particular author and published in one or more journals. Users can search for as long as they like with no charges being imposed by UnCover. Obviously, this is quite advantageous for scientists, but, not unsurprisingly, UnCover needs to make money and it does this mainly through its document delivery service. Here is how it works. After a user has identified articles of interest, these are marked for overnight delivery by fax. Costs are quite high, unfortunately, usually more than $15 for a single article, but the service is quick and easy to use, not to mention far less expensive than subscribing to costly journals. A companion service, UnCover Reveal, will send to any

e-mail address the tables of contents of up to 50 journals, as they are published, for an annual charge of only $25. Although very popular with some users, commercial services such as UnCover are usually too expensive for scientists in developing countries where, in any case, more affordable local alternatives are often available. A good example is the Indian National Scientific Documentation Service (INSDOC),32 which routinely provides photocopies of articles from Indian journals. An equivalent service in China is offered by the National Library of China,33 while in Pakistan, inquiries should be addressed to the National Agricultural Research Centre in Islamabad.34 Many other Asian countries offer similar services, although electronic access is not always available. Electronic bibliographic databases In earlier times, scientists looking for articles on a particular subject usually had to wade through stacks of journals or abstract bulletins. Happily, this time-consuming task is now mostly in the past, thanks to electronic bibliographic databases such as IRRIs Rice Bibliography, a file containing about 180,000 references on rice and fully searchable online. Larger, more general agricultural databases can also be searched electronically, e.g., AGRICOLA, which is produced by the U.S. National Agricultural Library and is freely available on the Web.35 Two other electronic databases also provide good coverage of agriculture: AGRIS, produced by FAO, and CAB Abstracts, from CAB International in the United Kingdom. Both are available on CD-ROM from SilverPlatter Information, Inc.36 and on other platforms as well by arrangement with each vendor. At the IRRI Library, for example, AGRICOLA, AGRIS, and CAB Abstracts are all mounted in CD-ROM towers that provide instant network access to these databases to about 900 networked computers at the Institute. IRRI scientists can thus search these vast files without even having to leave their office or laboratory, 24 hours a day if need be. Meanwhile, a popular option with scientists these days is to set up their own electronic databases with a product such as ProCite.37 With this software, scientists can build up personal bibliographies by either typing in references themselves or by electronically importing them from other databases, such as the IRRI Rice Bibliography or CAB Abstracts. This is an ideal way to keep track of office reprint collections. Other electronic possibilities Almost limitless amounts of electronic information can now be accessed by anyone with an Internet connection. Examples are:

http://ricelib.irri.cgiar.org 28E-mail address: c.austria@cgiar.org 29For more information about Ariel, visit this Web site: http://www.rlg.org/ariel.html 30Web address: http:// uncweb.carl.org 31The Document Solution is another well-known service. It is offered by the publishers of Current Contents and the Web address is http://ids.isinet.com 32Contact Mrs. Alicja Shrivastava. E-mail: mcs@sirnetd.ernet.in 33Contact Mrs. Wu Jingsheng. E-mail: dcjyb@public.nlc.gov.cn 34Contact Shahnaz Zuberi, Sr. Information Officer, NARC. E-mail: SIU@DSI-NARC.sdnpk.undp.org 35http://www.nal.usda.gov/ag98 36http://www.silverplatter.com 37http://www.risinc.com

27

14

August 1999

38 45

http://www.cabi.org 39http://www.fao.org 40http://www.cgiar.org/irri 41http://www.mssrf.org 42http://www.cau.edu.cn 43http://www.cnn.com/WEATHER 44http://www.riceworld.org http://www.riceweb.org 46http://www.amazon.com 47http://www.waterstones.co.uk 48http://thorplus.lib.purdue.edu/reference/index.html 49http://www.agbioforum.missouri.edu 50 http://agrinet.tamu.edu 51http://www.agry.purdue.edu/agronomy/links

About IRRIs Library and Documentation Service


Did you know... ...that IRRI has the worlds biggest rice library? ...that it provides a free photocopy service1 to rice scientist everywhere? ...that its catalogue and rice bibliography are available on the World Wide Web for searching, 24 hours a day2? ...that IRRI Library staff are waiting right now to receive your requests3? We hope to be of service to you soon!
15

Maximum of 50 pages per request Web address: http://ricelib.irri.cgiar.org 3 Write to Carmelita Austria at this address: Library and Documentation Service, International Rice Research Institute, MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines. E-mail address: c.austria@cgiar.org
2

IRRN 24.2

Institutes, organizations, universities. Most of these now have their own Web sites that offer visitors vast amounts of information about personnel, programs, services, and the like. A selected list is available at the IRRI Library Web site and includes one such as CAB International, 38 FAO, 39 IRRI, 40 the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation,41 and the Chinese Agricultural University.42 Meteorological information. Is it hot or cool in Kathmandu? Will it rain in Nairobi? CNN43 and other organizations have the answers at their Web sites. Cultural visits. More and more museums are establishing electronic sites and IRRIs Riceworld Museum and Learning Center is one of them.44 A related Web site, known as Riceweb,45 links visitors to dozens of rice-related sites worldwide. Books and publishing. A phenomenon of the late 1990s is the electronic bookstore, which offers customers a huge selection of books at very competitive prices. Thus, a rice scientist in Hyderabad or Jakarta can now buy the latest books without leaving home. Two well-established e-bookstores are Amazon46 in the United States and Waterstones47 in the United Kingdom. Similarly, all the major international publishers have now posted their complete catalogues on the Web. Reference information. Virtually any subject can now be explored on the Internet, from airline timetables to software products. Many universities have assembled on their Web sites wide-

ranging selections of electronic reference information, and one of the best is offered by Purdue University48 in the United States. Web sites with an agricultural focus. There are many of these and a small selection can be found at the IRRI Library Web site, such as AgBioForum,49 AgriNet,50 and Agronomic Links across the Globe.51 These handy sites are open 24 hours a day and are free to users. The importance of information Without information, there can be no development. This adage has been around for decades and it is as true today as it has ever been. Rice scientists understand all too well the importance of information as no research project can go very far without the appropriate facts and figures. Experimental data are vital in the research process, whether they come from the scientists own field and laboratory investigations or whether they appear in journals, reports, and books. Until very recently, however, information has often been difficult to acquire, especially for scientists in developing countries where really good science libraries are few and far between. We have seen, though, that new electronic technologies are changing the world fast and scientists who formerly suffered from a paucity of information may soon be complaining of information overload! This can only bode well for rice research in developing countries.

Plant breeding

KHRS26 (KHP5) for upland direct-seeded conditions


Y.G. Shadakshari, H.M. Chandrappa, A. Manjunath, and S.C. Chandrasekharaiah, Regional Research Station (RRS), Mudigere 577132, Karnataka, India

Rainfed kharif rice is the major field crop in the hill zone of Karnataka (1156' and 1546' N latitude and 7431' and 764' E longitude). Rainfall in the zone ranges from 1,363 to 3,426 mm, with an average of 2,173 mm. Rice is grown as a drill-sown crop in the uplands and, to some extent, in the midlands, where rainfall is medium to low; it is mostly a transplanted crop in the lowlands. Crop area in the zone is 284,700 ha, with an annual production of 723,000 t. It represents nearly 23% of the rice area in the state. The average production in the zone is lower (2.5 t ha-1) than that of the state (3 t ha-1). Jaya, G318, and Karna are the three varieties recommended for direct sowing in the hill zone. Attempts were made at the RRS during the mid-1980s to identify a suitable variety for the region. Of the selections obtained from the cross Intan/ IET7191, KHRS26 was the most promising in station trials. It was further tested in farm trials for 3 yr. Based on its superior performance, the variety was released for commercial cultivation in 1998. Farmers usually prefer semitall varieties with medium bold grain for drill-sown situations in the uplands. KHRS26 was readily accepted because it yielded 17 27% more grain and 1314% more fodder in the station (Table 1) compared with the checks, in addition to meeting farmers preferences for plant height and grain quality. KHRS26 is suitable for upland directseeded situations, having an optimum duration of 150155 d (Table 2). Early maturing varieties are usually harvestable during the rainy season and are also more attractive to birds. The variety had an 11% higher yield than the checks (Table 3) in farmers fields (tested in 19 locations across 4 districts).

Table 1. Performance of KHRS26 in upland rice variety trial (direct-seeded) at the Regional Research Station, Mudigere, 1991-96. Grain yield (t ha-1) Entry 1991 KHRS26 G318a Karnaa Jayaa Mean CD (5%) CV (%)
a

Av 1992 1993 1994 4.8 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.6 0.62 10 1995 2.6 2.8 2.4 3.1 2.8 0.45 10 3.2 2.4 2.4 2.7

% Straw % increase yield increase -1 b over check (t ha ) over check 4.3 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.7 0.40 7

1.3 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.3 0.17 6

3.9 3.6 2.6 1.6 2.6 1.9 2.8 2.8 3.5 2.5 0.82 0.36 14 9

27 27 17

13 13 14

Recommended varieties used as checks. b1996 data.

Table 2. Comparison of KHRS26 with check varieties for yield attributes in upland rice variety trial (direct-seeded), 1991-96. Entry Days to flowering 125 110 115 115 Plant height (cm) 8590 6065 6570 6570 Panicles m-2 (no.) Panicle length (cm) 19.1 17.7 18.2 18.1 Grain type 1,000grain weight (g) 27.6 26.2 25.0 27.5

KHRS26 G318a Karnaa Jayaa


a

260 265 260 265

Medium bold Long bold Medium bold Medium bold

Recommended varieties used as checks.

Table 3. Performance of KHRS26 in farm trials (direct-seeded), 1994-96. Grain yield (t ha-1) Entry 1994 (5)a 3.9 3.2 1995 (8) 4.2 3.9 1996 (6) 5.3 4.9
b

Av (19) 4.5 4.0

% increase over check 11

KHRS26 Checkb
a

Numbers in parentheses represent number of test locations. Recommended varieties used as checks.

International Workshop on Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Rice Environments scheduled for December 1999
IRRI, in partnership with national agricultural research systems in several Asian countries, has been carrying out studies to understand rainfed rice environments as well as evaluate cropping practices to translate research into appropriate technological interventions. This research ranges from broad, regional-scale characterization to detailed farm-level studies. Studies have been and are being carried out in different geographical areas by different institutions. Different methodologies have been tested, and several cross-cutting issues have emerged. These and other findings and conclusions will be discussed in the Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Consortium (RLRRC) workshop to be held on 6-10 December 1999 at Bali, Indonesia. The workshop aims to bring together researchers involved in characterizing rainfed rice environments, to review the progress in research related to characterization of the rainfed rice environment, including work carried out at RLRRC sites, and identify needs and opportunities for using characterization work for research prioritization and planning of the Consortiums future research activities. Characterization was chosen as the theme for this years workshop. For more information, contact Dr. T.P. Tuong, IRRI, (e-mail: t.tuong@cgiar.org) August 1999

16

Grain quality characteristics of aromatic and nonaromatic rice cultivars


M. Sakila, S.M. Ibrahim, C.R. Anandakumar, S. Backiyarani, and D. Bastian, Department of Agricultural Botany, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai 625104, India

Milled rice is judged by its appearance, which depends on grain size and shape, whiteness, and translucency. Broken and unattractive grains diminish the economic value of rice that is consumed as whole grain. Rice consumers want products with the best qualities. Selection for quality characters therefore leads to varieties more readily accepted by farmers and consum-

ers. We therefore aimed to develop highyielding varieties with these grain quality characteristicslong slender or mediumlong slender translucent grain with high milling recovery, intermediate gelatinization temperature (GT), and very good grain elongation. Grain elongation is a special characteristic of several high-grainquality varieties such as Basmati 370 and

Nga Kywe. This polygenically controlled trait is difficult to transfer. In the wet season (June to September), we evaluated 12 high-yielding varieties, 11 IET (Initial Evaluation Trial) lines, and scented rice for hulling, milling, head rice recovery, and quality parameters such as amylose content (AC) and gel consistency (GC) (see table). Each genotype was

Grain quality characteristics of aromatic and nonaromatic cultivars. Genotype High-yielding varieties ADT36 ADT42 ADT43 ADRH1 CORH1 ASD16 ASD17 ASD20 TKM9 MDU5 IR50 IR64 IET linesb JGL496 CB96073 CB(DH)95299 MTU1029 HKR95-219 CSR27 NWGR9 NWGR13 RR380-10-3 RR389-8-2 RNRM 22 Basmati 370c Basmati 385c Pusa Basmat 1c Kasturic Pak. Basmatic Har. Basmatic Meenambur Local Jeeragasamba Nepaljeeragas Amba White ponni TM95005 ACM 95132 Mean SE
a

% total milled rice 64.4 73.2 62.7 69.5 72.2 70.7 70.6 64.6 71.9 72.6 72.5 68.9 68.6 72.5 66.0 74.2 70.6 70.7 72.3 71.0 75.6 68.6 62.3 60.3 64.5 62.4 63.4 61.2 58.7 77.1 67.4 63.4 63.2 72.1 70.2 68.3 3.76

Head rice recovery (%) 44.2 44.3 44.7 36.6 43.0 44.5 48.1 50.5 45.4 49.1 51.1 42.5 46.4 44.6 42.7 51.3 44.6 50.4 46.0 43.8 32.1 36.6 33.9 49.6 31.1 44.4 38.9 46.6 36.6 39.9 45.5 32.3 48.8 49.9 34.5 43.2 4.88

Kernel length (mm) 6.7 6.6 5.7 6.8 5.6 5.2 5.4 6.8 5.7 5.8 6.7 6.8 5.5 5.6 5.0 5.6 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.8 7.0 6.8 7.0 5.7 6.9 6.7 4.1 4.2 4.0 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.8 0.75

Kernel width (mm) 1.9 1.9 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.7 2.8 2.0 2.6 2.5 2.0 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.6 2.0 3.3 2.0 2.0 3.6 1.9 3.3 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.1 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.2 0.43

Length/ breadth ratio 3.5 3.5 2.4 3.1 2.4 1.9 1.9 3.4 2.2 2.4 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.4 2.0 3.4 3.4 1.8 3.4 2.0 3.2 3.1 3.2 2.3 2.8 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.9 0.51

Linear elongation ratio 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.4 0.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.07

Alkali spreading value 3.3 3.7 6.8 3.8 7.0 7.0 6.9 3.8 6.6 7.0 3.2 3.6 6.0 6.0 7.0 6.4 3.5 6.4 3.6 3.9 3.6 7.0 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.2 7.0 3.4 3.2 7.0 6.8 6.7 7.0 7.2 7.0 5.3 1.57

Gelatinization temp.a I I L I L L L I L L I I L L L L I L I I I L I I I I L I I L L L L L L

Amylose content (%) 28.4 27.3 26.2 24.3 25.1 24.3 28.1 27.3 30.4 26.3 23.1 21.3 21.3 26.4 24.7 23.1 22.3 21.8 24.4 20.0 24.3 26.1 23.7 19.2 19.3 19.6 19.9 21.3 20.4 22.3 24.1 23.1 22.4 26.5 28.1 23.9 1.5

Type

Grain yield (t ha-1) 5.0 6.0 5.9 6.4 6.0 5.6 5.4 6.7 6.0 4.9 6.0 5.8 6.0 6.2 5.4 5.2 5.6 5.3 5.2 5.7 5.6 5.3 5.8 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.0 3.9 3.7 5.0 5.4 5.9 5.2 0.77

Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard

L = low, I = intermediate. bIET = Initial Evaluation Trial. cAromatic rice.

IRRN 24.2

17

transplanted in a randomized block design with three replications at 20 15-cm spacing. Observations from 10 randomly selected plants per replication in each genotype were recorded. Aroma was determined by using chopped leaves collected at 50% flowering stage. GT is a measure of cooking ease and is indexed by the alkali digestibility test (Little et al 1958). It is measured by the alkali spreading value (ASV) of individual milled rice soaked in 1.7% KOH solution for 23 h at 30 C using a 17 scale. A high rating indicates more disintegration and is classified under low GT. Rice varieties with intermediate GT (ASV of 35) are usually preferred over those with low GT (ASV of 67). The AC determines cooking behavior and eating quality of cooked rice. This was estimated and classified using a modi-

fication of Shens method (1990), which was developed at the Cuttack Rice Research Institute (Swain and Nagaraju 1997). The GC test is a reliable index for cooked rice texture. A method modified by Cagampang (1973) was used to analyze the GC of 35 varieties. Length is classified as hard (610 mm), medium (1120 mm), and soft (>20 mm). Milled rice percentage was high for ADT42 (high-yielding variety RR380-10-3 (IET line), and Meenambur Local (scented rice). Percent head rice recovery was highest in IR50, TM95005, (MTU1029), and CSR27. ADT36 had the highest linear elongation among all genotypes. All scented varieties had intermediate (1722%) AC and medium (1120 mm) GC (data not shown), while the high-yielding, nonscented, and IET lines recorded higher

(>22%) AC and hard (610 mm) GC (data not shown). ADT36, ADRH1, HKR95-219, NWGR9, and NWGR13 showed normal milled rice percentage and head rice recovery, long slender grains, intermediate GT, hard GC, and high AC. References
Cagampang GB, Perez CM, Juliano BO. 1973. A gel consistency test for eating quality of rice. J. Sci. Food Agric. 24:15891594. Little RR, Hilder GB, Dawson EH. 1958. Differential effect of dilute alkali on 25 varieties of milled white rice. Cereal Chem. 35:111126. Shen YZ. 1990. Genetical studies on amylose content of rice grain and modification of the determination method. Sci. Agric. Sin. 23(1):6068. (in Chinese). Swain BR, Nagaraju M. 1997. Modified method for determination of amylose content using a single rice kernel. Int. Rice Res. Notes 22(1):48.

Performance of prototype rice lines from ideotype breeding


A. Kumar, R.K.S. Tiwari, S.S. Parihar, K.S. Pandya, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Bilaspur, Madhya Pradesh 495001; and M.P. Janoria, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University (JNAU), Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482004, India

18

Several new plant type (NPT) rice breeding lines for the irrigated ecosystem have been developed at JNAU from crosses IR47705-AC5/ChIR87-3-1//Kranti (the 57K series), IR47705-AC5/IR32307-75-1-3-1// Kranti (the 63K series), and IR47705-AC5/ IR28211-45-1-1-2//Kranti (the 72K series). These were based on a basic ideotype of rice (Janoria 1989). We evaluated 16 NPT lines with three checksMW10, IR36, and Kranti during the 1996-97 dry (December-May) and wet (June-November) seasons at RARS. The two field experiments were laid out in a randomized block design with three replications, 6 1.2-m net plot size, and 20 20-cm spacing, and with 100-6040 kg NPK ha-1. Five plants were randomly sampled per plot for plant height, panicle number

plant-1, and grain number panicle-1. Grain yield (t ha-1) was estimated from net plots of 7.2 m2 and days to maturity and 1,000grain weight on a plot basis. The top-yielding NPT lines in the early and medium maturity groups NPT63K-1-20 and NPT63K-12-51, respectivelysignificantly (P = 0.05) outyielded the respective checks (see table) in both seasons. NPT57K-3-6 (very early) had a yield similar to its check MW10 during the wet season. NPT lines generally had a much higher grain number panicle -1, lower panicle number plant-1, and greater plant height than the semidwarf checks in accordance with the ideotype design. The top-yielding NPT line (NPT63K12-51) was resistant to bacterial leaf blight (caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and sheath blight (caused by

Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii), the two major constraints to yield in Madhya Pradesh under artificial inoculation. The longer duration of experimental entries in the dry season was due to lower temperatures during December and January, which slowed seedling growth in the nursery. Hence, seedling age at transplanting was 50 d in the dry season compared with 21 d in the wet season. Similarly, higher photothermal regimes during the postplanting phase reduced plant height and increased yields in the dry season. Reference
Janoria MP. 1989. A basic plant ideotype for rice. Int. Rice Res. Notes 14:1213.

August 1999

Performance of top new plant type breeding lines of very early, early, and medium maturity groups, RARS, Bilaspur, India, 1996 wet season (WS) and dry season (DS). Days to maturity WS Very early NPT57K-3-6 MW10 (check) Early NPT63K-1-20 IR36 (check) Medium NPT63K-12-51 Kranti LSD (0.05) 107 105 118 116 127 128 DS 137 138 143 142 152 146 Plant height (cm) WS 114 92 107 82 117 106 8.6 DS 85 79 86 72 100 86 6.5 Panicles plant-1 (no.) WS 6.7 9.3 6.7 10.0 9.3 11.3 2.0 DS 8.7 10.0 7.3 11.0 9.3 11.3 2.3 Grains panicle-1 (no.) WS 163 111 205 126 228 129 40.4 DS 207 121 260 139 271 164 46.1 1,000-grain weight (g) WS 25.1 22.7 28.2 22.8 28.6 28.1 Grain yield (t ha-1) WS 6.4 5.2 7.4 5.7 9.2 6.5 1.5 DS 7.7 5.6 8.2 7.2 9.9 7.5 1.6

Entry

VL Dhan 61, a new rice variety for the northwestern Himalayan region
R.K. Sarma,V.S. Chauhan, J.C. Bhatt, K.D. Koranne, and P. Singh,Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Almora 263601, Uttar Pradesh, India

A new rice variety, VL Dhan 61, was released by the Central Varietal Release Committee in 1997 for cultivation under irrigated transplanted conditions of hilly and valley areas (up to 1,150 m) of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. VL Dhan 61 was developed to combine high yield and blast resistance from the cross Jaya/ Ta-poo-cho-z, using the pedigree method. Eighty-two desirable plants were selected in the F2 generation in 1986. Further selection was made until uniformity was achieved. VL Dhan (IET13485) was tested in the 1992-95 All-India Coordinated Trials at different hill sites. It yielded an average of 4.9 t ha-116% higher than zonal check Himdhan, 22% higher than the state/local check, and 6% higher than the high-yielding test genotype (Table 1). It is a nonlodging, semitall (110 cm) variety with 130-135 d duration. It has compact, wellexserted long panicles with good spikelet fertility and long bold grains (length/ breadth, 2.65). It has also shown resistance to/tolerance for prevailing biotic stresses (leaf and neck blast, stem borer) and tolerance for abiotic constraints (low temperature) (Table 2).
IRRN 24.2

Table 1. Grain yield (t ha-1) of VL Dhan 61, All-India Coordinated Trials, hill zone, 1992-95. Genotype VL Dhan 61 (IET13485) Himdhan (zonal check) State check VL 89-1167 (IET13483) VL 89-1177 (IET13484) 1992 4.8 4.2 3.7 4.1 4.6 1993 3.6 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.4 1994 5.0 2.7 4.1 4.8 5.0 1995 6.2 4.8 5.3 5.6 5.5 Mean 4.9 4.2 4.0 4.4 5.6 Gain (%) 16 22 11 6

Table 2. Comparison of newly released variety VL Dhan 61 with its parents. Character Days to 50% flowering Days to maturity Plant height (cm) Panicle type Panicle length (cm) Awn Panicle exsertion Threshability 1,000-grain weight (g) Milling (%) Kernel length (mm) Kernel breadth (mm) L/B (length/breadth) Grain shape Alkali digestion value Disease and insect score (09 score)a Leaf blast Neck blast False smut Stem borer Leaffolder
a

VL Dhan 61 103105 130135 110 Compact 25.5 Tip awned Well Easy 23.4 65.8 6.68 2.52 2.65 Long bold 5.2 4 3 3 3 5

Jaya 100 131 85 Compact 25.2 Awnless Well Moderate 25.0 74.0 6.27 2.54 2.47 Long bold 7.0 5

Parents Ta-poo-cho-z 109 140 90 Compact 22.0 Awn Well Hard 23.0 60.3 5.14 2.69 1.91 Short bold 2 3

Maximum score recorded using Standard evaluation system for rice.

19

Pest science and management

Feeding effects of rice leaffolder on flag leaf gas exchange of rice plants at flowering
T. Watanabe, Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station, Nishigoshi, Kumamoto, 8611192 Japan Email: tomoya@narc.affrc.go.jp

The rice leaffolder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guene) folds leaves and scrapes off the green tissues. LF infestations are apparent after flowering. The folding of leaves and tissue removal result in a loss of effective leaf area for photosynthesis. The relationship between infested leaf area and photosynthetic activity is not yet fully understood (de Jong 1992, Yamamoto et al 1997). Leaf gas exchange of infested flag leaves was measured to quantify this relationship, which is important for simulating changes in assimilate production and yield. The study was conducted from 30 Aug to 16 Sep 1995 on an experimental field subjected to standard cropping management at the Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station, Kumamoto, Japan (3251' N, 13044' E). Two japonica cultivars (Hinohikari and Reiho) and one indica cultivar (IR24) were used in this study. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured after flowering by using a LI-COR 6200 portable photosynthesis system with a 0.25-L chamber. Flag leaves folded by LF were unfolded and larvae were removed before measurement. A portion of the flag leaf blade that included the injured part was inserted into the chamber. Measurements were carried out under clear sky conditions (14501950 mol PAR m-2 s-1). The leaf blades were measured and cut, and then the leaf area was measured by gas exchange with a LICOR 3100 leaf area meter. Infested leaf area was traced with black ink onto a transparency film and measured with a leaf area meter. The photosynthetic rate of healthy flag leaves in the same plant with infested leaves was measured as the control. No differences were observed in the reduction pattern of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance among culti20

vars. There was a negative linear relationship between net photosynthesis and leaf area infested by LF (Fig. 1). The regression coefficients were significantly lower than 0 (P<0.0001). A 10% loss in leaf area resulted in a 1419% reduction in net photosynthesis. These values suggested that the effect of LF injury caused by the reduction in photosynthetic rate was larger than the effect of LF injury caused by reduction in leaf area. The greater effect of LF injury on net photosynthesis was probably caused by a combination of factors such as an increase in dark respiration, a reduction in stomatal aperture, and a reduction in photosynthetic activity in the mesophyll tissue. There was a negative linear relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf area infested by LF (Fig. 2). The reduction

rate in stomatal conductance, however, was nearly the same as the reduction rate in leaf area consumed by LF. The leaf temperature of infested leaves was 0.61.0 C higher than that of the control. The linear relationship between leaf area infested by LF and an increase in leaf temperature (r2 = 0.22 to 0.36, P<0.01) suggest an increase in dark respiration. On an infested leaf, LF feeding reduces the leaf area and photosynthetic activity of undamaged tissues. LF feeding effects on leaf photosynthesis at flowering have not yet been introduced in simulation models to evaluate LF infestation (Benigno et al 1988, de Jong and Daamen 1992, Graf et al 1992). The effects of leaf removal by LF on total canopy photosynthesis and total assimilate production should be investigated.

Net photosynthesis ( mol m-2 s-1) 30


IR24 Reiho Hinohikari Y=25.2-0.32X (r2=0.55) Y=23.2-0.38X (r2=0.68) Y=23.4-0.39X (r2=0.79)

25

20

15

10

10

20

30

40

50

Infested leaf area (arcsine-transformed)


Fig. 1. Relationship between percentage of leaf area infested by leaffolder larvae and net photosynthesis of flag leaf.

August 1999

Stomatal conductance (mol m-2 s-1) 2.0


IR24 Reiho Hinohikari Y=1.21-0.013X (r2=0.29) Y=0.88-0.009X (r2=0.29) Y=1.27-0.014X (r2=0.26)

References
Benigno EA, Shepard BM, Rubia EG, Arida GS, Penning de Vries FWT, Bandong JP. 1988. Simulation of rice leaffolder population dynamics in lowland rice. IRRI Res. Pap. Ser. 135, 8 p. de Jong PD. 1992. Effects of folding and feeding by Cnaphalocrocis medinalis on photosynthesis and transpiration of rice leaves. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 63:101102. de Jong PD, Daamen RA. 1992. Simulation of yield loss by the rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis under different growing conditions. J. Plant Prot. Trop. 9:117123. Graf B, Lamb R, Heong KL, Fabellar L. 1992. A simulation model for the population dynamics of rice leaffolders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their interactions with rice. J. Appl. Ecol. 29:558570. Yamamoto H, Honda Y, Hayakawa S, Ohgata Y. 1997. Photosynthetic and respiration rates of leaves damaged by rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guene. Jpn. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 41:115119.

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Infested leaf area (arcsine-transformed)


Fig. 2. Relationship between percentage of leaf area infested by leaffolder larvae and stomatal conductance of flag leaf.

Effects of Heterodera sacchari population density on establishment and development of upland rice cv. IDSA6 under field and pot conditions
D.L. Coyne, Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB; R.A. Plowright, CABI Bioscience, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey TW20 9TY, UK Email: dannycoyne@compuserve.com

In West Africa, the cyst nematode Heterodera sacchari is known to cause stunting and chlorosis of upland rice. Studies have also demonstrated its high pathogenicity on susceptible cultivars (Babatola 1983, Coyne and Plowright 1998). We studied the effect of the nematode on rice (cv. IDSA6) development in a naturally infested field site at the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), Cote d Ivoire, and in 100-mL pots in the screenhouse. In the field, rice was sown at 5 seeds hill-1, spaced 25 cm apart, on 60 m2 of sandy soil (10% clay, 27% silt, and 63% sand) in June 1997. The area had been sown to rice cv. IDSA6 the previous year and was known to be infested with H. sacchari. Because of the heterogeneity of nematode occurrence, a range of infection densities over the area was expected. Other nematodes
IRRN 24.2

present were Pratylenchus zeae, Meloidogyne incognita, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Mesocriconema tescorum. Cyst-infested soil from rice cultures was also incorporated evenly into the soil surface. Fertilizer was applied at 60 kg NPK ha-1 (10:18:18) at sowing and 40 kg urea ha-1 at 56 d after sowing (DAS). The experiment was maintained weed-free. At 90 DAS, 189 single hills were randomly selected and height and tiller number were recorded. Root and leaf fresh weights were measured and nematode population densities were determined from 5 g of root tissue + 100 mL of soil. In a pot experiment replicated 10 times, seeds were sown singly into 100 mL of steam-sterilized sandy soil. Freshly hatched H. sacchari juveniles were inoculated in a water suspension at nine densities (see table) at sowing. Plant height was

recorded at 7 and 14 DAS and fresh root and leaf weight at 40 DAS. In the field, H. sacchari reduced the growth of IDSA6. There was a negative correlation between leaf weight and H. sacchari juvenile population density at 90 DAS (see figure) (r = 0.4; P<0.001). Negative correlations were also observed with root weight (r = 0.27; P<0.05) and tiller number (r = -0.23; P<0.05). There was no relationship between nematode population density and plant height. In pots, very low inoculation densities appeared to have an initial stimulatory effect on plant development, but densities of 8 juveniles mL-1 of soil at sowing suppressed the development of emerging seedlings. Hatching H. sacchari juveniles, however, emerge from their protective cysts over an extended period (Ibrahim et al 1993). Seeds germinating in the pres21

ence of cysts will therefore likely be continually exposed to invading juveniles. The suppression of emerging seedlings and reduced leaf weight, root weight, and tiller number of susceptible upland rice in the presence of H. sacchari would likely affect the crops ability to cope with additional stresses such as weeds and drought, thereby exacerbating potential losses. Acknowledgments This paper is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) (Project No. R6658, Crop Protection Programme) for the benefit of developing countries. The views expressed are not necessarily those of DFID. References
Babatola JO. 1983. Rice cultivars and Heterodera sacchari. Nematol. Mediterr. 11:103105. Coyne DL, Plowright RA. 1998. The cyst nematode Heterodera sacchari in rainfed rice production in West Africa: distribution, crop loss assessment, and management. Paper presented at the European Society of Nematologists meeting, 48 Aug 1998, St. Andrews, Scotland. Ibrahim SK, Perry RN, Plowright RA, Rowe J. 1993. Hatching behavior of the rice cyst nematodes Heterodera sacchari and H. oryzicola in relation to age of host plant. Fund. Appl. Nematol. 16:2329.

Effect of H. sacchari inoculation density at sowing on mean height of rice cv. IDSA6 at 7 and 14 d after sowing (DAS), and root and leaf fresh weights at 40 DAS. Initial inoculation density seed-1 0 10 20 40 80 100 200 400 800 LSD (P<0.05) (P<0.01) (P<0.001) Height (mm) 7 DAS 40.6 51.0 46.9 50.4 38.9 43.8 44.2 41.0 27.9 10.7 14.3 ns 14 DAS 175 220 212 210 187 214 180 185 132 37.8 50.3 65.4 Fresh weight (g) Root 0.25 0.35 0.35 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.25 0.14 ns Leaf 0.36 0.51 0.48 0.43 0.43 0.41 0.33 0.36 0.22 0.16 ns -

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500 r = -0.4 P < 0.001 n = 189

Nematode density (5 g root + 100 mL soil) Relationship between fresh leaf weight of IDSA6 at 90 d after sowing and H. sacchari population density under field conditions in sandy soil.

Usefulness of blast resistance genes and their combinations in different blast-endemic locations in India
R. Sridhar, U.D. Singh, P.K. Agrawal, and J.N. Reddy, Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006; S.S. Chandrawanshi, Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), Indira Gandhi Agricultural University (IGAU), Jagadalpur 494005; R.B.S. Sanger, ZARS, IGAU, Ambikapur 497001; J.C. Bhatt, Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora 263601; Y. Rathaiah, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013; and K.V.S.R.K. Row, J.S.S. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Suttur 571129, India Email: rsridhar@crri.ori.nic.in

Identification of functional blast (caused by Pyricularia grisea) resistance genes for a particular region is a prerequisite for their meaningful deployment. In a mini-network program, we evaluated some blast resistance genes in six blast-endemic locations
22

spread over five different states in India (Cuttack in Orissa, Jagadalpur and Ambikapur in Madhya Pradesh, Almora in Uttar Pradesh, Jorhat in Assam, and Suttur in Karnataka). Plants were raised from seeds sown thickly (650700 seeds m-2)

under Uniform Blast Nursery conditions during the 1998 wet season. Local susceptible cultivarsKaruna (Cuttack), HR12 (Jagadalpur, Ambikapur, Almora and Suttur), and Mahsuri (Jorhat) were used in spreader rows. A single row
August 1999

of the susceptible check was planted alternately between two rows of the test entry, providing a spreader row on either side of each test entry in addition to two spreader rows around the bed. The rows were not replicated because the plant population in each row was very high for a qualitative assessment of the disease. Uniform incidence of leaf blast occurred in all test locations at the seedling stage. Leaf blast reaction was recorded at 30 and 45 d after sowing (DAS). Results in the table are those from the second observation, when the disease was at its peak. The disease was scored using a 05 scale (0 = no visual symptoms; 1 = brown specks smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter; 2 = brown specks about 0.51 mm in diameter; 3 = roundish to elliptical lesions

about 13 mm in diameter with gray centers and brown margins; 4 = typical spindle-shaped blast lesions, 3 mm or longer with little or no coalescence of lesions; 5 = same as 4 but half of one more leaf killed by coalescence of lesions) (Mackill and Bonman 1992). Plants rated 13 were considered resistant, and those rated 45 were considered susceptible. The susceptible checksKaruna, HR12, and Mahsuriand the two recurrent parentsKalinga III and Vandana (being used at CRRI for improving blast resistance)were highly susceptible to blast in all locations (see table). Another susceptible cultivar, Co 39, carrying resistance gene Pi-a, (Co 39 gene) in whose background the near-isogenic lines with blast resistance genes have been developed,

succumbed to the disease in all test locations except at Jorhat, where it was resistant. The effectiveness of individual resistance genes varied between locations. Pi 1(t) was effective in Jorhat, Ambikapur, and Suttur and Pi 2(t) in Jorhat, while Pi 3(t), Pi 4a(t), and Pi 4b(t) were generally not effective in all test locations. The resistance of F-124-1, presumably carrying Pi 4a(t), however, varied in different locations. In all probability, this line might carry some additional resistance genes. Cultivar Moroberekan, which possesses many resistance genes, was resistant in five of six locations. Among recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Moroberekan and Co39, however, RIL 10 [Pi 12(t)] showed resistance only in Suttur and RIL 29 [Pi

Reaction (05 scale) of a set of cultivars/lines possessing known genes with resistance to blast at six different locations in India.a Locations Cultivar/line Kalinga III Vandana Co 39 Moroberekan O. minuta derivative (WHD-IS-75-1-127) C101LAC C101A51 C101PKT C102PKT C104PKT C105-TTP-4-L23 C103TTP C104LAC C101TTP-1 Li-jiang-xin-tuan hei-gu F-80-1 F-98-7 F-124-1 F-128-1 F-129-1 F-145-2 RIL 10 RIL 29 RIL 45 RIL 77 RIL 249 BL 122 BL 142 BL 245 IR64 Karuna HR12 Mahsuri
a

Known resistance gene Cuttack nd nd Pi-a(Co 39 gene) Pi 5(t), Pi 7(t), Pi 10(t), Pi 12(t), Pi 157(t) Pi 9(t) Pi 1(t) Pi 2(t) Pi 4a(t) [Pi-ta] Pi 4a(t) [Pi-ta] Pi 3(t) Pi 4b(t) nd nd nd nd Pi k Pi km Pi-ta Pi-ta2 Pi kp Pi b Pi 12(t) Pi 7(t) Pi 5(t) Pi 5(t) Pi 5(t) Pi 1(t), Pi 2(t) Pi 1(t), Pi 4(t) Pi 2(t), Pi 4(t) Pi ta2, Pi 20(t) nd nd nd 5 5 5 2 1 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 1 5 3 1 2 1 1 5 5 5 Jagadalpur 4 4 5 2 3 2 3 5 4 5 5 3 3 5 5 5 4 3 4 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 3 5 2 nt 5 nt nt Ambikapur 5 5 5 2 1 1 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 ng 4 5 2 1 1 1 nt 5 5 nt Almora 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 4 1 nt 5 5 nt Jorhat 2 3 2 1 1 1 3 4 3 5 5 2 2 4 5 5 3 1 1 4 3 5 5 1 5 1 1 5 3 nt 3 nt 5 Suttur 4 5 5 1 4 1 4 5 4 5 3 2 4 4 5 1 1 1 5 3 1 1 5 5 5 1 4 1 1 5 5 nt nt

nd = not detected, nt = not tested, ng = not germinated. Note: See text for rating scale.

IRRN 24.2

23

7(t)] succumbed to the disease in all test locations. RIL 45 and 249, presumably carrying Pi 5(t), showed differential reactions to pathogen populations at Jorhat and Suttur, while RIL 77 was susceptible at all test sites, suggesting that this RIL may not have the Pi 5(t) gene. LTH (Li-jiang-xintuan-hei-gu) near-isogenic lines that were susceptible at Cuttack varied in their reac-

tions at other locations, particularly in the eastern (Jorhat) and southern (Suttur) regions. Of the four gene combinations evaluated, the one with Pi 1(t) and Pi 4(t) was susceptible to blast at Jagadalpur, Almora, and Jorhat. The combination with Pi 1(t) and Pi 2(t) was resistant in all locations except Suttur, while that with Pi 2(t)

and Pi 4(t) was effective in all six test locations. Our results clearly showed the usefulness of resistance genes in different locations. Reference
Mackill DJ, Bonman JM. 1992. Inheritance of blast resistance in near-isogenic lines of rice. Phytopathology 82:746749.

Usefulness of combinations of bacterial blight resistance genes at Cuttack, Orissa, India


R. Sridhar, J.N. Reddy, U.D. Singh, and P.K. Agrawal, Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006, India Email: rsridhar@crri.ori.nic.in

Although 19 bacterial blight resistance genes have been identified so far (Kinoshita 1991), precise information on their compatibility or incompatibility with local pathogen populations is essential for designing breeding programs for resistant varieties. We evaluated the effectiveness of known bacterial blight resistance genes singly and in combination under field conditions against local populations of the pathogen in a trap nursery under irrigated conditions during the 1998 wet season. Twenty near-isogenic lines in the IR24 background, 11 of them carrying single known resistance genes and the remaining nine possessing various combinations of these genes, along with an Oryza minuta derivative line (WHD-IS-78-1-5) and Malagkit Sungsong were tested (see table). IR24 and Karuna (Co 33) were included as susceptible checks. For each entry, 44 hills were planted per row, with 20-cm spacing between plants and rows. Two replications were maintained in a completely randomized design. Each replication consisting of four rows of the test entries was flanked on either side with a single row of the local susceptible check Karuna. Fertilizer was applied to supply 80 kg N ha-1, half basally and half at the pretillering stage. No pesticide was applied. The fields were kept clean by handweeding twice.
24

Plants were exposed to natural infection by bacterial blight. Bacterial blight started to appear at tillering and continued to spread vertically until the crop heading stage. Both the intensity of vertical susceptibility (denoted by multiples of S [see table] and quantitative reactions to bacte-

rial blight (based on the 09 scale of the Standard evaluation system for rice, SES, IRRI 1996) were recorded at the milk stage. Levels 15 covering 125% of leaf blade infection are considered resistant, while levels 79 are considered susceptible.

Reaction of near-isogenic lines carrying bacterial blight resistance genes singly and in combination, Cuttack, Orissa, India. Bacterial blight reaction Variety/line Resistance gene ndc Xa18 Xa23 Xa23 Xa3 Xa1 Xa3 Xa4 xa5 Xa7 xa8 Xa10 Xa11 xa13 Xa14 Xa21 Xa4 + xa5 Xa4 + xa13 Xa4 + Xa21 xa5 + xa13 xa5 + Xa21 xa13 + Xa21 Xa4 + xa5 + xa13 Xa4 + xa5 + Xa21 Xa4 + xa5 + xa13 + Xa21 Vertical susceptibilitya SSSS SSS R R R SSS SSS SSS R SSS R SSS SSS R SSS R R R R R R R R R R 09 SES scaleb 9 9 5 5 5 7 7 7 5 7 3 7 7 5 7 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1

Karuna (local susceptible check) IR24 (susceptible check) WHD-IS-78-1-5 WHD-IS-78-1-5 (O. minuta derivative) Malagkit Sungsong IRBB1 IRBB3 IRBB4 IRBB5 IRBB7 IRBB8 IRBB10 IRBB11 IRBB13 IRBB14 IRBB21 AY4 + 5-2 NH8-15-1-5 NH9-52-1-4 NH11-21-1-3 NH12-17-2-4 NH15-51-1-3 NH21-37-1-1 NH24-10-1-3 NH56-1-44-4

a Denotes intensity of vertical susceptibility of plants (susceptible reaction of 7 restricted to 1/4 (S), 1/2 (SS), 3/4 (SSS), almost all leaves infected (SSSS); reactions of less than 7 are considered as resistant (R). b09 scale (SES) for field test, lesion area: 1, 15%; 3, 612%; 5, 1325%; 7, 2650%; 9, 51100% (reactions of 15 are considered as resistant, while 7 and above are susceptible). cnd = not detected.

August 1999

Thrips infestation in relation to panicle stage in rice


S. Chander, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India

Thrips incidence at the panicle stage in rice was investigated because such information would be useful in (a) timing plant protection measures and (b) getting correct samples to estimate the thrips population on the crop. The infestation of panicle thrips, Haplothrips ganglbaueri Schmutz, was studied in variety Pusa 169 grown un-

der transplanted and irrigated conditions during kharif (monsoon) in 1997 and 1998 (see table). One-month-old seedlings were transplanted in the main field in the second week of July each year. Thrips incidence was observed in panicles of different ages(a) emerging panicles with their

basal portion still in the leaf sheath, (b) freshly emerged panicles, and (c) panicles in the milky stage. In each category, 25 panicles were observed for thrips population counts. The panicle was enclosed in a polythene bag and shaken gently to dislodge the thrips. Sampling was done once in 1997 and three times in 1998 at 5-d in-

Incidence of Haplothrips ganglbaueri Schmutz on panicles of different ages in variety Pusa 169, New Delhi, India, 1997-98. Season 1997 kharif Panicle stage 1st sampling (70 DAT)a Population panicle-1 Emerging panicle Freshly emerged panicle Panicle in milky stage SE CD (5%) CD (1%)
a

1998 kharif 1st sampling (65 DAT) Population panicle-1 0.40 (0.27) 1.20 (0.98) 0.25 (0.22) (0.16) (0.33) (0.44) Population range 02 03 02 2nd sampling (70 DAT) Population panicle-1 3.15 (1.56) 6.00 (2.28) 0.45 (0.39) (0.23) (0.46) (0.62) Population range 010 012 02 3rd sampling (75 DAT) Population panicle-1 1.95 (1.11) 4.2 (1.94) 0.05 (0.05) (0.20) (0.42) (0.56) Population range 08 010 01

Population range 05 29 02

2.10 (1.22)b 5.00 (2.03) 0.40 (0.36) (0.24) (0.48) (0.65)

DAT = days after transplanting. bNumbers in parentheses are square root-transformed values of original thrips counts.

IRRN 24.2

25

Bacterial blight incidence was uniform in the fields. The susceptible checks showed a disease rating of 9 in the SES. The vertical spread of the disease within hills, however, was maximum in Karuna when compared with IR24. Interestingly, Malagkit Sungsong and the O. minuta derivative exhibited a susceptible rating of 5, despite their being resistant in earlier years. IRBB5 and IRBB13, carrying xa5 and xa13, respectively, also showed a similar degree of susceptibility. Lines possessing Xa1, Xa3, Xa4, Xa7, Xa10, Xa11, and Xa14 individually were all distinctly susceptible to the disease. On the other hand, genes xa8 and Xa21 were singly effective in resisting bacterial blight, exhibiting a score of 1. All the gene combinations (see table) were resistant, presumably because of in-

teraction or quantitative complementation between resistance genes (Yoshimura et al 1995, Huang et al 1997). This study points out that, even though a particular gene is ineffective singly against bacterial blight (for example, Xa4, XA5, and xa13), its combination with another resistance gene (Xa4 + xa5, Xa4 + xa13, xa5 + xa13, Xa4 + xa5 + xa13) conferred resistance. The combination xa5 and xa13 was relatively superior to the other combinations (Huang et al 1997). All combinations carrying Xa21 were also resistant. In this case, resistance may be attributed to the presence of Xa21, which individually conferred resistance. Deploying multiple genes together may lessen the possibility of rapid pathogen adaptation to cultivars carrying single resistance genes.

References
Huang N, Angeles ER, Domingo J, Magpantay G, Singh S, Zhang G, Kumaravadivel N, Bennett J, Khush GS. 1997. Pyramiding of bacterial blight resistance genes in rice: markerassisted selection using RFLP and PCR. Theor. Appl. Genet. 95:313320. Kinoshita T. 1991. Report of Committee on gene symbolization, nomenclature and linkage groups. Rice Genet. Newsl. 8:225. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 1996. Standard evaluation system for rice. INGER, Genetic Resources Center. Manila (Philippines): IRRI. Yoshimura SY, Yoshimura A, Iwata N, McCouch SR, Abenes LL, Baraoidan MR, Mew TW, Nelson RJ. 1995. Tagging and combining bacterial blight resistance genes in rice using RAPD and RFLP markers. Mol. Breed. 1:375387.

tervals. In the second year, sampling was done in different parts of the field. The thrips counts were transformed by square root transformation and single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was undertaken, considering panicles as replicates. Separate ANOVA were done for each sampling date during 1998. The thrips population differed significantly among the three categories of panicles (see table). Freshly emerged

panicles harbored the most thrips, followed by emerging panicles and panicles in the milky stage. The panicle stage thus influenced thrips incidence. The study revealed that panicle thrips in rice first attacked the emerging panicles, continuing until the milky stage. Therefore, to prevent crop loss from thrips, control measures should be applied at the panicle initiation stage. Control measures at the milky stage would be useless because, at this stage, the

thrips population has almost disappeared and the crop has already been damaged. The study also showed that freshly emerged panicles had the highest number of thrips among the three stages of panicle growth. Therefore, to correctly estimate the thrips population in rice, freshly emerged panicles should be sampled. Sampling on emerging panicles or panicles in the milky stage would underestimate the thrips population.

Further testing of a yield loss simulation model for rice in different production situations
I. FOCUS ON RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM ENVIRONMENTS
L.Willocquet, IRRI-ORSTOM Project on Rice Pest Characterization, IRRI; L. Fernandez, Entomology and Plant Pathology Division, IRRI; H.M. Singh, R.K. Srivastava, S.M.A. Rizvi, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology (NDUAT), Narendra Nagar, PO Kumarganj, Faizabad 224229, Uttar Pradesh, India; and S. Savary, IRRI-ORSTOM Project on Rice Pest Characterization, IRRI Email: laetitia.willocquet@mpl.ird.fr

A synthetic yield loss simulation model for rice pests was developed recently (Willocquet et al 1998) as a tool for setting research priorities and improving pest management. This model is production situation (PS)-specific and addresses several rice pests. It has been tested in several Asian PSs (e.g., in the Philippines and Vietnam), where it simulates attainable rice crop growth adequately as well as losses caused by various pests (diseases, insects, and weeds) (Willocquet et al 1998). This work aimed at further testing of the model under a wider range of PS. The PSs and injuries addressed here were defined based on characterization of rice injury profiles and PSs across tropical Asia (Savary et al 1998). The first PS, PS2, is a reference used in all experiments. Two other PSs (PS8 and PS9) represent those prevailing in Uttar Pradesh (Savary et al 1997). An experiment was done at NDUAT in the 1998 kharif season. In each PS, injury-free plots and rice plots injured by pests (alone or in combination) were established. Crop growth, environmental factors, and pest injuries were monitored throughout the growing season. In a given
26

PS, data from injury-free plots were used to calibrate parameters to simulate attainable yield. Data from injured plots were used to test simulations of yield losses. Three PSs were addressed: PS2 (IR72 transplanted with young seedlings, 110 kg N ha-1, irrigated rice), PS8 (Sita transplanted with old seedlings, 100 kg N ha-1, rainfed crop), and PS9 (direct-seeded NDR80, 80 kg N ha-1, rainfed crop). Five injury treatments common in South Asia (Savary et al 1997) were established in each PS: sheath blight (SHB), deadhearts and whiteheads (DWH), brown spot (BS), the combination of the four injuries (COMBI), and the noninjured (CTRL) treatment. The injury treatments were randomized with three replications in each PS. Individual plots were 2.8 2.8 m and included four zones from the outer to the inner part of the plot: a border row, 20 cm wide; a sampling zone, 20 cm wide, to monitor crop growth (destructive samplings) and injuries; a second border row, 20 cm wide; and the central harvest area. The simulation of attainable growth (leaf, stem, root, and panicle dry weight; and tiller population) and of final yield was close to observed values (see figure) in the

three PSs considered. In all PSs, the same patterns were observed: an increase in leaf weight until flowering, then a decline (leaf senescence); an increase in root weight until flowering, remaining stable afterwards; an increase in stem weight until flowering, then a decline (translocation of stored starch from stems to panicles); and an increase in panicle weight from flowering to maturity. Tillering occurred until 30 to 40 d after crop establishment (DACE). Tiller number declined afterwards because of tiller death and remained constant after flowering. The dry weights of leaves and panicles were very sensitive to varying PSs: the maximum values were highest in PS2 and lowest in PS8 and PS9 (shortage of water and/or N). Final yield varied between 151 g m-2 (PS8) and 666 g m-2 (PS2). Tiller number was higher in PS2 than in PS8 and PS9, mainly because of crop establishment method (young seedlings in PS2, older ones in PS8 and PS9). The table shows the simulated and observed grain yields for the 15 (PS injury) combinations addressed in the experiment. An acceptance interval of 10% of the observed grain yield was defined to assess the simulated yield outputs. The
August 1999

A Weight (g m-2)
400 300 200 100 0 0
LEAFW leaf O ROOTW root O

Weight (g m-2)
800 600 400 200 0 0
STEMW stem O PANW pan O

Tillers (no. m-2)


1200 1000 800 600 400 200
TOTIL totil O

20

40

60

80

100

120

20

40

60

80

100

120

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

B
400 300 200 100 0 0 800 600 400 200 0 0 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 20 40 60 80 100 120 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

C
400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 800 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Days after crop establishment

Attainable rice growth in three production systems (PS): observed (dots) SEM and simulated (plain line) dry weight (g m-2) of roots (ROOTW), dry weight of leaves (LEAFW), dry weight of stems (STEMW), dry weight of panicles (PANW), and number (m-2) of tillers (TOTIL). Observed data were collected from control plots in the experiment done at NDUAT in 1998 (A:PS2, B:PS8, C:PS9) (see text for details).

Simulated and observed grain yields (g m-2), NDUAT, 1998. Treatmenta Observed CTRL DWH SHB BS COMBI 583 400 478 544 397 PS2b Simulatedc 586 531c 518 469c 411 PS8b Observed 83 26 59 66 27 Simulated 83 41c 55 51c 25 PS9b Observed 113 74 83 81 70 Simulated 113 93c 91 68c 55c

a CTRL = control, DWH = deadhearts and whiteheads, SHB = sheath blight, BS = brown spot, and COMBI = combination of the four injuries. bPS2 = reference production situation, PS8 and PS9 = production situations that prevail in Uttar Pradesh. cSimulated grain yield is outside the acceptance interval ( 10% of observed grain yield).

could be recalibrated using data from this experiment and tested in another independent experiment. Although further improvements in this simulation model are necessary, it is flexible enough to account for diverse PSs and has the potential to reflect reasonably well the damage mechanisms due to various rice pests. References

model simulated yields within this acceptance interval in the SHB treatment and in the COMBI treatment (except in PS9). Injury because of whiteheads and deadhearts was underestimated by the model. Three areas for further improvement of deadheart injury modeling are (a) alteration of the dynamics of tillers: because of compensation mechanisms, more tillers are produced than in an uninjured crop; (b) most of these tillers that are produced at a late development stage remain vegIRRN 24.2

etative and compete with the reproductive ones for assimilate partitioning, leading to a decrease in grain filling; (c) in poor PSs, such as PS8 and PS9, compensation mechanisms in terms of dry weight of organs are limited due to the unfavorable environment for rice growth. Yield losses from BS were slightly overestimated (see table). The damage mechanism function for BS was represented as a reduction in photosynthesis in the area surrounding the lesion. This area might be overestimated and

Savary S, Srivastava RK, Singh HM, Elazegui FA. 1997. A characterization of rice pests and quantification of yield losses in the ricewheat system of India. Crop Prot. 16:387398. Savary S, Elazegui FA, Willocquet L, Teng PS. 1998. Changing production situations in rice and implications for plant pathology. Paper presented at the International Conference of Plant Pathology, 916 Aug 1998, Edinburgh. Willocquet L, Savary S, Fernandez L, Elazegui FA, Teng PS. 1998. Simulation of yield losses caused by rice diseases, insects, and weeds in tropical Asia. IRRI Discuss. Pap. Ser. 34.

27

Further testing of a yield loss simulation model for rice in different production situations
II. FOCUS ON WATER-STRESSED ENVIRONMENTS
L. Willocquet, IRRI-ORSTOM Project on Rice Pest Characterization, IRRI; L. Fernandez, Entomology and Plant Pathology Division, IRRI; and S. Savary, IRRI-ORSTOM Project on Rice Pest Characterization, IRRI

A recently developed yield loss simulation model for rice pests was tested under the different production situations (PSs) of South Asia and Southeast (Willocquet et al 1998, 1999). The work reported here aimed at testing this model under a reference PS (PS2) used in experiments done at different sites, and under a second PS (PS4) not yet addressed in previous work, where the crop experiences high water stress. Deadhearts and whiteheads caused by stem borers and weeds were considered as common rice pests that can cause yield losses in tropical Asia (Savary et al 1998). An experiment was done at IRRI during the 1998 dry season. The approach used to calibrate and test the model, the experimental layout, and the field procedures applied were the same as those described in Willocquet et al (1999 p 25, this volume). Two PSs were addressed: PS2

(IR72 transplanted with young seedlings, 110 kg N ha-1, irrigated rice) and PS4 (IR64 transplanted with young seedlings, 110 kg N ha-1, rainfed crop). Five injury treatments were addressed in each PS: weed infestation (WD), deadhearts (DH), whiteheads (WH), the combination of the three injuries (COMBI), and the noninjured treatment (CTRL). The simulation of attainable organ growth, tiller dynamics, and final yield was close to the actual observation (see figure) in the two PSs considered. The dry weights of leaves and panicles were very sensitive to varying PSs: the maximum values were highest in PS2 and lowest in PS4 (shortage of water and/or N). Final panicle yield was150 g m-2 in PS4 and 800 g m-2 in PS2. The table gives simulated and observed grain yields for the 10 (PS injury) combinations addressed in the experi-

ment. An acceptance interval of 10% in the observed yield was defined to assess simulated yield outputs. The model simulated yields within this acceptance interval in all but two cases (PS2, WEED and COMBI treatments). The model overestimated yield losses caused by weeds in PS2. The model simulated attainable growth and yield adequately under these two contrasting PSs. This modeling approach thus enables us to simulate damage mechanisms in contrasting PSs. In general, the yield-reducing effects of the different pests addressed are well accounted for by the model (see table). References
Savary S, Elazegui FA, Willocquet L, Teng PS. 1998. Changing production situations in rice and implications for plant pathology. Paper presented at the International Conference of Plant Pathology, 916 Aug 1998, Edinburgh.

A Weight (g m-2)
400 300 200 100 0 0
LEAFW leaf O ROOTW root O

Weight (g m-2)
800 600 400 200 0 0
STEMW stem O PANW pan O

Tillers (no m-2)


1200 1000 800 600 400 200
TOTIL totil O

20

40

60

80

100

120

20

40

60

80

100

120

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

B
400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 800 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Days after crop establishment

Attainable rice growth in two PSs: observed (dots) SEM and simulated (plain line) dry weight (g m-2) of roots (ROOTW), dry weight of leaves (LEAFW), dry weight of stems (STEMW), dry weight of panicles (PANW), and number (m-2) of tillers (TOTIL). Observed data were collected from control plots in the experiment done at IRRI in 1998 (A:PS2, B:PS4) (see text for details).

28

August 1999

Simulated and observed grain yields (g m-2), IRRI, 1998. PS2 Treatmenta Observed CTRL DH WH WEED COMBI 704 686 637 571 525 Simulated 696 676 621 470c 413c Observed 94 90 100 61 52 Simulated 91 93 90 59 57
b

PS4

Willocquet L, Savary S, Fernandez L, Elazegui F, Teng PS. 1998. Simulation of yield losses caused by rice diseases, insects, and weeds in tropical Asia. IRRI Discuss. Pap. Ser. 34. Willocquet L, Fernandez L, Singh HM, Srivastava RK, Rizvi SMA, Savary S. 1999. Further testing of a yield loss simulation model for rice in different production situations. 1. Focus on rice-wheat system environments. Int. Rice Res. Notes 24(2):25-27.

a CTRL = control, DH = deadhearts, WH = whiteheads, WEED = weed infestation, COMBI = combination of the three injuries. bPS2 = reference production situation, PS4 = production situation with high water stress. cSimulated grain yield outside the acceptance interval ( 10% of observed grain yield).

4th International Rice Genetics Symposium set for October 2000


The Fourth International Rice Genetics Symposium (IRGS) will be held at IRRI on 22-27 October 2000. The first IRGS was held in 1985. It led to the birth of the Rice Genetics Cooperative (RGC), which aimed to promote international cooperation in rice genetics. The same year, the Rockefeller Foundation organized the International Program on Rice Biotechnology, which has played a major role in advancing the frontiers of rice science, international collaboration, and human resource development in rice. During the second IRGS (held in 1990), a unified numbering system for rice chromosomes and linkage groups was established. More than 500 scientists from 31 countries participated in the third IRGS (held in 1995). Correct orientation of classical and molecular linkage maps was one of the symposium highlights. Major advances in the genetics and molecular biology of rice have become apparent during the past 15 years. A high-density molecular genetic map of more than 2,300 DNA markers has been developed and several genes of economic importance as well as quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been tagged with molecular markers. Synteny relationships between genomes of rice and several other cereals have been established. Molecular marker-aided selection is being used to move genes from one varietal background to another and to pyramid genes. Scientists have developed BAC and YAC libraries and are using them in the physical mapping of the rice genome. A map-based cloning strategy has been used to isolate agronomically important genes. Regeneration from protoplasts of many indica and japonica varieties has allowed researchers to introduce novel genes into elite germplasm through transformation. More recently, biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedures have become available. International programs on rice genome sequencing and functional genomics have been established. These developments have opened new frontiers in rice molecular biology, particularly for understanding the genetic architecture of traits and their manipulation, modifying gene expression, genome sequencing, functional genomics, and gene discovery. Researchers are using these breakthroughs to develop rice varieties with higher yield potential and yield stability for feeding 50% more rice consumers by 2025.

The fourth IRGS will feature plenary sessions, oral presentations, and poster sessions. Participants will discuss the latest developments in rice systematics and evolution, cytogenetics, classical genetics, tissue and cell culture, molecular markers, genetic engineering, and genomics. The proceedings will be published. Scientists interested in attending the symposium should send a registration form indicating their name, academic title, address (phone, fax, email), and tentative presentation title to Dr. G.S. Khush at IRRI, MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines (fax: 0063-2761-2404; email: g.khush@cgiar.org or to Dr. T. Kinoshita, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9, Nishi 9, Sapporo 060, Japan (fax: 0081-11-706-4934; email: Takamure@abs.agr.hokudai.ac.jp). Important dates 31 October 1999 1 April 2000 30 June 2000 Deadline for submission of registration forms Deadline for abstracts Deadline for full papers

The members of the organizing committee are J. Bennett, D.S. Brar, S.K. Datta, B. Hardy, M.T. Jackson, G.S. Khush, H. Leung, and Z. Li. For more information, contact D.S. Brar Chair, Organizing Committee 4th International Rice Genetics Symposium International Rice Research Institute MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines Tel.: (63-2) 845-0563 ext. 709 Fax: (63-2) 891-1292, 761-2406, 845-0606 E-mail: d.brar@cgiar.org IRRI Web site: http://www.cgiar.org/irri

IRRN 24.2

29

Soil, nutrient, and water management

Nitrogen responsiveness of lowland rice varieties under irrigated conditions in West Africa
K.L. Sahrawat, S. Diatta, and B.N. Singh, West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), 01 BP 2551 Bouak 01, Cte dIvoire

Mean yield and yield components of different varieties, 1994 wet season and 1995 dry season. Variety Grain yield (kg ha-1) Straw yield (kg ha-1) Tillers (no. m-2) Panicles (no. m-2) Height (cm)

1994 wet season Bouak 189 ITA402 ITA306 ITA212 SE (N = 16) 5% LSD (45 df) 1995 dry season Bouak 189 ITA402 ITA306 ITA212 SE (N = 16) 5% LSD (45 df)

5,410 5,590 6,010 5,940 120.6 343.6 5,980 6,930 7,470 7,010 373.0 1301.0

4,000 4,000 4,670 4,100 124.7 355.1 5,380 5,360 6,200 6,150 156.0 444.4

147.6 162.1 168.8 153.6 5.6 15.9 229.2 246.8 247.8 212.9 6.9 19.8

147.9 160.5 166.4 155.4 3.9 11.2 194.7 216.6 233.8 198.4 5.8 16.4

107.88 91.12 94.94 100.12 1.0 3.0 96.26 90.92 93.93 97.39 1.2 3.5

SE = standard error, df = degrees of freedom.

30

August 1999

We studied the response to N inputs of some of the most popular lowland rice varieties bred in Africa and compared it with that of local check Bouake 189. Field experiments were conducted at the Mbe Valley in central Cote dIvoire during the 1994 wet (August-December) (WS) and 1995 dry (February-June) (DS) seasons under irrigated conditions. Soil at the site was an Alfisol (pH 5.9, organic C 18.5 g kg-1 soil, 0.825 g total N kg-1 soil, and 6.8 mg Bray 1 P kg-1 soil) with a sandy clay-loam texture. Test varieties were ITA212, ITA306, ITA402, and Bouak. Four N application rates (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg N ha-1 as urea) were used in three splits at planting, tillering, and flowering in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Three-week-old rice seedlings, at three seedlings hill-1, were transplanted at 15 15-cm spacing in 15-m2 plots. All plots received uniform basal applications of P (50 kg P ha-1 as triple superphosphate) and K (80 kg K ha-1 as KCl). Yield data were corrected to 14% moisture level. Results showed that grain yields were higher in the DS than in the WS by 1.0-1.5 t ha-1 (see table). The highest yields were obtained by ITA212 and ITA306 for both seasons. Yield differences were due to the greater number of panicles m-2 in the DS than in the WS (see table). The harvest index of the varieties varied from 56% to 59% in the WS and from 53% to 56% in the DS, and was generally not affected (P<0.05) by N application (data not shown). Agronomic N-use efficiency (NUE) was generally high, varying between 20 and 57 kg grain kg-1 N in the DS and between 25 and 50 in the WS. Nitrogen level significantly affected grain yield, straw yield, height, tiller number, and panicle number.

Yield leveled off at 90 kg N ha-1. The results of regression analyses between N level and each of the response variables are summarized below:

farmers and researchers plots, resulting in its release in Senegal in 1994. We conclude that ITA212, ITA306, and ITA402 have superior yield potential

Regression analyses between N level and yield and yield components 1994 wet season Grain yield = 0.2061* x2 + 40.133** x + 4,206 Straw = 12.349** x + 4,059.2 Panicle no. = 0.5044**x + 18.16 Tiller no. = 0.5206** x + 210.78 Height = 0.0758** x + 91.212 1995 dry season Grain yield = -0.2403**x2 + 40.894**x + 3,360.3 Straw = -0.1653*x2 + 29.251**x + 2,556.7 Panicle no. = 0.34**x + 142.23 Tiller no. = 0.1975*x + 149.14 Height = -0.0017**x2 + 93.166

R2 = 0.5218** r = 0.4427** r = 0.4756** r = 0.4809** r = 0.4353** R2 = 0.5921** R2 = 0.4593** r = 0.5141** r = 0.2771** R2 = 0.1544**

Only ITA212 and ITA306 significantly (P<0.05) outyielded Bouake 189 in the DS, but all ITA varieties outyielded Bouake 189 in the WS. The higher yield potential of the ITA varieties was not expressed under conditions of lower solar radiation. The high yield stability of ITA306 was confirmed by its consistently superior yields in the Sahel during the WS on both

compared with local improved check Bouake 189. It is not known whether the higher yields may have been due to better use of solar radiation rather than to better response to N fertilizer. ITA402 and ITA306 had more panicles m-2 than Bouake189 in both seasons (see table).

Relative efficiency of different N fertilizers applied to rice at medium elevation


D. Jena, Dryland Agriculture Research Project Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT), Phulbani 762001, Orissa, India

Effect of different forms of N on rice yield, 1994-95 rabi and 1995 kharif, Orissa, India. Treatment 1994-95 rabi T1: Control T2: PU T3: NH4Cl T4: (NH4)2SO4 T5: CAN T6: USG CD (0.05) 1995 kharif T1: Control T2: PU T3: NH4Cl T4: (NH4)2SO4 T5: CAN T6: USG CD (0.05)
a

Grain yield (t ha-1) 3.3 4.7 5.7 5.7 5.8 6.1 1.05 3.0 3.9 3.6 4.0 4.1 4.4 0.46

Straw yield (t ha-1) 4.5 6.3 6.3 7.1 6.1 9.1 1.42 2.2 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.6 0.48

Agronomic efficiency (NUE)a 18.42 30.84 31.36 32.62 36.96 12.23 9.08 13.82 14.60 18.02

Relative efficiency (%) 100 167 170 177 200 100 74 113 119 151

Harvest index

Sterility (%)

Benefitcostb

0.42 0.43 0.47 0.45 0.49 0.40 0.58 0.50 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.55

12.3 17.1 11.2 12.0 12.8 22.0 10.2 16.9 10.8 11.5 12.0 20.5

8.60 8.15 6.83 4.48 9.31 6.04 2.89 3.32 2.18 4.35

NUE = N-use efficiency, PU = prilled urea, CAN = calcium ammonium nitrate, USG = urea supergranule. bGrain price: US$117 t-1, straw: $14 t-1, and USG: 0.153 kg-1 (Rupee 36=US$1).

IRRN 24.2

31

A field experiment was laid out during 1994-95 rabi and 1995 kharif in a mediumelevation land site of the Central Research Station, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, to compare the efficiency of urea supergranules (USG) with that of other nitrogenous fertilizers. The experimental site had sandy loam soil (member of mixed hyperthermic family of Haplaquepts) with a bulk density of 1.6 g cm-3. The steady state infiltration rate was 0.67 cm h-1. Soil pH is neutral (6.8). The soil has low organic C (0.31%) and alkaline KMnO4-N (240 kg ha-1) but high Olsen P (12 kg ha-1) and NH4OAc extractable K (200 kg ha-1). Soil CEC is 5.00 C mol (P+) kg-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with five replications. Plot size was 4 5 m. Each plot was enclosed with galvanized iron sheet up to a depth of 30 cm to stop sideward seepage. The treatments were T1 = no N (control); T2 = 76 kg N ha-1 as prilled urea (PU); T3 = 76 kg N ha-1 as NH4Cl; T4 = 76 kg N ha-1 as (NH4)2SO4; T5 = 76 kg N ha-1 as CAN (calcium ammonium nitrate); T6 = 76 kg N ha-1 as USG. Thirty-day-old rice seedlings (cv. Lalat, 120 d) were transplanted. Single superphosphate at 22 kg P ha-1 and muriate of potash at 41.5 kg K ha-1 were applied basally during both seasons. PU, NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4, and CAN were applied at a ratio of 1:2:1 at transplanting, tillering, and panicle initiation. A full dose of USG (at 76 kg N ha-1) was placed at a 5-cm depth in between four hills of alternate rows at 7 d after transplanting (DAT). All other intercultural and plant protection measures were followed when necessary. Grain yield was recorded at 14% moisture content. Straw weight was recorded after sun-drying for 6 d. The table shows grain yield, straw yield, and N-use efficiency (NUE) data for 1994-95 rabi and 1995 kharif. Grain yield during 1994-95 rabi ranged from 3.3 to 6.1 t ha-1. The highest

yield was noted in the USG treatment, which is statistically superior to the PU treatment but on a par with NH4Cl (5.7 t ha-1), (NH4)2SO4 (5.7 t ha-1), and CAN (5.8 t ha-1). The lowest yield of 4.7 t ha-1 was recorded in the standard PU treatment for an equal dose of N. Mean straw yield ranged from 4.5 to 9.1 t ha-1. The highest straw yield was recorded in the USG treatment, which is statistically superior to all other treatments. Harvest index values varied from 0.40 to 0.49. The lowest harvest index (USG treatment) indicated that a full dose of N (76 kg ha-1) applied at 7 DAT induced more biomass production at the early stages and could have exhausted the fertilizer N before grain filling, leading to more sterile grains (22%) compared with the other treatments. Mean grain yield recorded during 1995 kharif ranged from 3.0 to 4.4 t ha-1 (see table). USG had the highest yield, which is statistically superior to PU and NH4Cl but on a par with (NH4)2SO4 and CAN. Straw yield during kharif ranged from 2.2 to 4.0 t ha-1. The highest straw yield of 4 t ha-1 was recorded in the NH4Cl and

(NH4)2SO4 treatments. Harvest index values and percent sterile grain in the USG treatment were higher, probably because of the application of an entire amount of N at 7 DAT that led to higher early biomass production with more primary as well as secondary tillers. In all treatments, yields recorded during the rabi season were higher than those during kharif because of better management of irrigation water and fertilizer. About 80% of rainfall (1,200 mm) received during kharif induced poor yield, and NUE was reduced, probably by the higher percolation rates. The agronomic efficiency of the different treatments ranged from 18.42 to 36.96 for rabi and from 9.08 to 18.02 for kharif. The USG treatment had the highest agronomic efficiency and relative efficiency. Based on the benefit-cost ratio, relative efficiency, and NUE, USG is a better source of N fertilizer for the rabi season. Although its benefitcost ratio was much lower than that of PU during the kharif season, USG can also be recommended because of the higher NUE and higher yield associated with it.

Alleviating zinc deficiency in transplanted flooded rice grown in alkaline soils of Pakistan
A. Rashid, Land Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad 45500; M.A. Kausar, F. Hussain, and M. Tahir, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan Email: rashid@sfs-narc.sdnpk.undp.org

Zinc (Zn) deficiency, a widespread micronutrient disorder constraining rice production worldwide (Shorrocks 1992), is effectively controlled by field application of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) (Takkar and Walker 1993). A more convenient and economical method of alleviating the deficiency, however, is desired. In greenhouse and field experiments, we studied the comparative effectiveness of various management practices in alleviating Zn deficiency in transplanted flooded rice grown in the alkaline soils of Punjab Province, Pakistan. The greenhouse study used surface soils (015 cm) of Miranpur (Aquic Ustochrepts) and Eminabad series (Typic Haplorthids) with pH 7.88.0, EC 1.02.1 dS m-1, CaCO3 equivalent 1.12.6%, organic matter 1.41.7%, and DTPA Zn 0.51.0 mg kg-1. Pots containing 4.5kg soil portions were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications (see table for treatments). Basal fertilization included 75 mg N soil-1, 16.4 mg P soil-1, and 23 mg K kg soil-1. Dry matter yield, Zn concentration, and total Zn uptake were recorded after harvest (cv. IR6) of whole shoots at 50 d after transplanting (DAT). All the management practices used increased rice biomass over that of the control (1.33 g dry matter plant-1, P<0.05), ranging from 25% (for foliar spray of 1% ZnSO4 solution) to 79% (for Zn-enriched seedlings obtained by applying 5 mg Zn kg-1 silica sand from a nursery bed) (see table). Various treatments, except for the Zn-enriched nursery, also enhanced the Zn concentration of whole shoots at 50 DAT from 16.2 mg kg-1 (control plants) to 34.3 mg kg -1 (foliar Zn spray). Weir and Cresswell (1994) have shown that most practices that increase plant tissue Zn concentration beyond the critical range of 1518 mg Zn kg-1 in whole shoots of IRRI
32

rice cultivars at the preflowering growth stage also increase plant growth. The substantial increase in Zn uptake of the treatments also showed that improved Zn nutrition enhanced yield (see table). Subsequently, five field experiments were carried out using IR6 at Mangtanwala, Nankana District (Miranpur soil series [Aquic Ustochrepts]), Muridke, Sheikhupura District (Satghara series [Typic Haplorthids]), and Gujranwala (Gujranwala series [Udic Haplustalfs]). The soils were alkaline (pH, 7.88.4), calcareous (CaCO3 equivalent, 1.04.1%), and nonsaline (EC, 1.03.9 dS m-1), with 1.42.1% organic matter, 5.222.2 mg Olsen P kg-1, and 0.50.9 mg DTPA Zn kg-1. Experiments were laid out in an RCBD with four replications. Basal fertilization consisted of 100 kg N ha-1 (urea) and 26.2 kg P ha-1 (single superphosphate). The mean yield increase over that of the control (3.0 t ha-1) ranged from 23% (for foliar ZnSO4 spray) to 41% (nursery root dipping in 1% ZnSO4 solution for 5 min) (P<0.05; see figure). The yield increase in other treatments was

greater than the increase in the treatment using a conventional field broadcast of ZnSO4 (27% over that of the control). The use of Zn-enriched rice seedlings obtained by applying 20 kg Zn ha-1 to the nursery bed resulted in more yield increase (mean 31%) than with 10 kg Zn ha-1 field-broadcast (see figure) in a variety of soils with variable native Zn status. Thus, contrary to previous findings (Takkar and Walker 1993), the use of Zn-enriched seedlings proved effective in correcting the deficiency even in severely Zn-deficient soils. In addition to seedling enrichment, highZn soil particles on the seedling roots may have contributed to Zn supply enhancement. Although nursery root dipping in 1% ZnSO4 solution (41% increase) or in 1% ZnO slurry for 1 min (31% increase) also proved very effective, these practices are not adaptable at the farm level because of their high labor requirements. Nursery root dipping in ZnO slurry, despite being inexpensive (uses ~ 0.8 kg Zn ha-1) and comparable in effectiveness to ZnSO4 field application (Yoshida et al 1970), was not

Effect of Zn management practices on rice biomass production at 50 d after transplanting and on plant Zn content in a pot culture studya. Treatment Dry matter yield (g plant-1) 1.3 a 1.7 a 2.1 ab 2.1 ab 2.1 ab 2.1 ab 2.2 ab 2.4 c 0.6 Zn concentration in whole shoots (mg kg-1) 16.2 a 34.3 c 17.5 a 18.5 a 23.5 b 17.6 a 24.0 b 15.6 a 3.4 Zn uptake (g plant-1)

Control Foliar spray of 1% ZnSO4 solution Periodic drainage of floodwater Nursery roots dipped in 1% ZnO slurry 5 mg Zn kg-1 as ZnSO4, mixed with whole soil volume Nursery roots dipped in 2.5% ZnSO4 solution 5 mg Zn kg-1 as ZnSO4, soil surface broadcast Zn-enriched seedlings, 5 mg Zn kg-1, nursery bed LSD (0.05)
a

21.6 a 56.9 f 36.1 b 38.3 bc 49.4 d 37.1 b 51.6 e 37.1 b 1.9

Values followed by different letters are significantly different at P<0.05.

August 1999

Yield (t ha-1) 0 Control 1 2 3


Yield Leaf Zn concentration

Zn foliar spray

ness, economics, and adaptability at the farm level, the only viable alternative to the ZnSO4 application method is seedling enrichment or application of ZnSO4 to nursery beds. This practice is also economical for managing Zn deficiency using a mattype nursery in mechanical transplanters. References
Shorrocks VM. 1992. Micronutrientsrequirements, use and recent developments. In: Portch S, editor. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Role of Sulfur, Magnesium, and Micronutrients in Balanced Plant Nutrition. Washington, DC: The Sulfur Institute. p 391412. Takkar PN, Walker CD. 1993. The distribution and correction of zinc deficiency. In: Robson AD, editor. Zinc in soils and plants. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p 151165. Weir RG, Cresswell GC. 1994. Plant nutrient disorders. 4. Pastures and field crops. Inkata, Melbourne, Australia. Yoshida S, McLean GW, Shafi M, Mueller KE. 1970. Effect of different methods of Zn application on growth and yield of rice in a calcareous soil, West Pakistan. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 16:147149.

ZnSO4 broadcast

ZnO root dip

Zn-enriched nursery

ZnSO4 root dip 30 5 10 15 20 25 30

Leaf Zn concentration (mg kg1) Effect of management practices on rice yield and leaf Zn concentration (mean of 5 field experiments).

adopted as a routine practice because of its high labor requirement and erratic effectiveness (Takkar and Walker 1993). Similarly, drainage of flood water (resulting in a 20% yield increase; data not shown)

is hardly practicable at the desired growth stage because flood-like situations are not uncommon in the Punjab rice-growing areas due to heavy monsoon rains in July-August. Thus, considering effective-

Biochemical studies on rice seedlings under salt stress


M.P. Mandal, R.A. Singh, and J.K. Handoo, Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa 848125, Samastipur, Bihar, India

We estimated the amylase, peroxidase, and protease enzyme activity in four rice genotypes that have different degrees of salt tolerance. Pusa 2-21 and Saket 4 are salttolerant and Kamini and Sugandha are susceptible varieties. The enzymes were studied because salinity effects on seedling growth have been attributed to variation in activities of key hydrolytic enzymes such as L-amylase and protease (Dubey 1982, Kumar et al 1996). Similarly, peroxidase activity is related to the maintenance of cell membrane integrity through its involvement in detoxifying H2O2 to water (Levitt 1980), thus modifying the effect of free radicals under stress. Seeds of four genotypes were germinated in control and salt solutions
IRRN 24.2

(NaCl:CaCl2:Na2SO4 in the ratio of 7:2:1; EC 12.0; and 16.0 dS m-1) in sterilized germinating boxes lined with blotting papers and kept at 25 2 C in an incubator under controlled conditions with three replications. The embryonic axis of 7-d-old seedlings was observed to estimate enzyme activity using a standard procedure. Amylase and peroxidase activities significantly decreased but protease activity increased under salt stress in all genotypes (see table). A decrease in activity of the hydrolyzing enzyme L-amylase caused by a decrease in water uptake has been reported by Dubey (1983). The decline in the free energy of water caused by the presence of salts in the medium limited amylase activity by reducing water uptake. In

contrast, protease activity increased under salinization in this study, confirming the findings of Reddy and Vora (1986) and Sheoran and Garg (1978). Salt-tolerant genotypes (Pusa 2-21 and Saket 4) showed a reduction of 18% and 20% at 12.0 dS m-1 and 33% and 36% at 16.0 dS m-1 for amylase, and 10% and 17% at 12.0 dS m-1 and 15% and 16% at 16.0 dS m-1 for peroxidase activity, respectively. In comparison, the decrease in activity of amylase (31% and 32% at 12.0 dS m-1 and 46% and 48% at 16.0 dS m-1) and peroxidase (15% and 15% at 12.0 dS m-1 and 24% and 24% at 16.0 dS m-1) in susceptible genotypes (Kamini and Sugandha, respectively), was relatively more. A decrease in the scavenging enzymeperoxidaseunder stress with rela33

Influence of salinity on some enzyme variables in rice seedlings. Amylase activity Tolerant Susceptible F Variety Pusa 2-21 Saket 4 Kamini Sugandha SE CD Stress Control 12.0 dS m-1 16.0 dS m-1 SE CD Pusa 2-21 at 0.0 dS m-1 Pusa 2-21 at 12.0 dS m-1 Pusa 2-21 at 16.0 dS m-1 Saket 4 at 0.0 dS m-1 Saket 4 at 12.0 dS m-1 Saket 4 at 16.0 dS m-1 Kamini at 0.0 dS m-1 Kamini at 12.0 dS m-1 Kamini at 16.0 dS m-1 Sugandha at 0.0 dS m-1 Sugandha at 12.0 dS m-1 Sugandha at 16.0 dS m-1 SE CD
**Significant at 1% level.

Peroxidase activity 162.7 146.9 23,987.41** 163.5 161.8 147.3 146.6 0.059 0.172** 173.4 151.2 139.8 0.051 0.149** 178.4 160.0 152.1 177.7 157.9 150.0 168.7 144.2 129.1 168.8 143.0 127.9 0.102 0.298**

Protease activity 25.9 31.1 3,443.91** 25.6 26.2 31.1 31.0 0.010 0.030** 16.4 27.9 41.2 0.009 0.026** 17.2 25.0 34.7 17.1 25.4 36.1 15.8 30.0 47.6 15.5 31.2 46.3 0.018 0.053**

114.3 105.4 1,866.29** 115.4 113.2 105.6 105.2 0.278 0.811** 140.8 105.0 83.6 0.241 0.703** 139.4 113.2 93.7 138.8 111.4 89.4 142.1 98.2 76.3 143.0 97.3 75.1 0.481 1.405**

References
Dubey RS. 1982. Biochemical changes in germinating rice seeds under saline stress. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 177:523535. Dubey RS. 1983. Hydrolytic enzymes of rice seeds differing in salt tolerance. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 10(5):168175. Kumar SA, Muthukumarasamy M, Panneerselvam, R. 1996. Nitrogen metabolism in blackgram under NaCl stress. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 75:6971.

Chemical clearing of irrigation channels a comparative evaluation


K. Joseph, Center for Water Resources Development and Management, Kunnamangalam, Kozhikode 67357, Kerala, India

Irrigation channels below the subdistributory level up to the command area are usually earthen (unlined) and dry during the nonirrigation months, i.e., from June to November. The conducive environment in the channels favors the growth of many weeds. To improve water flow, farmers clear the channels by scraping the soil with a spade before the start of irrigation. This practice is labor-intensive, increases the channel cross-section through soil loss,
34

and accelerates sedimentation downstream. The best option is to use concrete or polythene lining, but it is costly. Under these circumstances, an experiment was undertaken in the fields of the Ichannur subdistributory of the Kuttiadi Irrigation Project in Kerala to optimize water flow by clearing the channels of weeds using Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide. This experiment was done in 1994-95, 1995-96, and 1996-97. A 3.5-km-

long channel was used for the experiment. Three sections of 250 m each were identified for the different treatments. One section was lined with concrete, the other section was cleared with Paraquat, and the third section was cleared by spade scraping (i.e., farmers practice). Paraquat was applied at a concentration of 0.15% 2 wk before water release. One week after Paraquat application, the dried plant parts were burned and the area smoothed. VeAugust 1999

tively less inhibition in tolerant varieties than in susceptible genotypes would prevent degradation of cell membrane integrity against free radicals formed under salt stress. Protease activity, on the other hand, increased by 45%, and 111% in tolerant genotypes, and by 90% and 202% in susceptible varieties. The differences between the tolerant and susceptible varieties across salinity stress levels were highly significant (see table). Results indicated that the lower protease activity and higher peroxidase activity in the embryonic axis favor tolerance for stress by reducing the catabolic breakdown of proteins and membranes. Differences in salt tolerance measured via the activity of these three enzymes at the early growth stage are useful in assessing varietal tolerance.

Levitt J. 1980. Responses of plants to environmental stresses, II. Water, radiation, salt and other stresses. New York: Academic Press. p 489553. Reddy MP, Vora AB. 1986. Salinity induced changes in pigment composition and

chlorophyllase activity of wheat. J. Plant Physiol. 29:331334. Sheoran IS, Garg OP. 1978. Effect of salinity on the activities and early growth of mungbean. Physiol. Plant. 44:171174.

Average flow velocity through irrigation channel (m s-1), Kerala, India, 1994-97. Treatment Chemical clearing Concrete lining Farmers practice 1994-95 0.24 0.31 0.13 1995-96 0.28 0.21 0.13 1996-97 0.31 0.34 0.18 Av 0.28 0.29 0.15

International Rice Research Conference set for 31 March3 April 2000


Rice research for food security and poverty alleviation is the theme of the International Rice Research Conference (IRRC) 2000 to be held at IRRI headquarters, 31 March3 April 2000. To assure food security and to continue the advance against poverty in rice-consuming countries of the world, farmers will have to produce 40% to 50% more rice with improved qualities to meet consumer demand in 2025. This additional rice will have to be produced on less land with less water, less labor, and fewer chemicals. To meet this challenge of increasing rice production during the first quarter of the 21st century, scientists must develop rice varieties with higher yield potential, durable resistance to diseases and insects, and tolerance for abiotic stresses. Recent breakthroughs in molecular biology have provided greater opportunities for rice scientists to develop a new generation of rice varieties. Increases in rice production can also be achieved by closing the yield gap and improving yield stability through knowledge-intensive crop and natural resource management. The 1995 IRRC focused on less-favored and fragile environmentsthe rainfed lowland, upland, and flood-prone rice ecosystems. IRRC 2000, as part of IRRIs 40th anniversary celebration, will focus on the irrigated ecosystem and provide a forum for rice scientists to present research results and exchange ideas. The topics for the seven sessions of the IRRC 2000 are: Increasing yield potential in irrigated rice: breaking the barrier, Exploitation and utilization of heterosis in rice, Breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, Durable hostplant resistance, Integrated nutrient and pest management, Water and weed management in direct-seeded rice, and Impact of technologies on food security and poverty alleviation. Selected full papers from oral presentations will be published in the Conference proceedings. Selected poster abstracts will be published in future installments of the International Rice Research Notes (IRRN).
IRRN 24.2

Important dates 1 October 1999 1 December 1999

Deadline for submission of abstracts Mailing of invitations to selected participants and detailed instructions to authors. 1 March 2000 Submission of full papers to the organizing committee 31 March3 April 2000 Conference at IRRI headquarters, Los Baos, Philippines The members of the organizing committee are Darshan S. Brar, Michael B. Cohen, Eugene P. Hettel, Mahabub Hossain, Gurdev S. Khush, Hei Leung, Shaobing Peng, and To Phuc Tuong. For more information, contact: Shaobing Peng Chair, Organizing Committee International Rice Research Conference 2000 International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) P.O. Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines Tel: (63-2) 845-0563, ext. 767 Fax: 63-2-891-1292, 761-2406, 845-0606 E-mail: s.peng@cgiar.org IRRI Website: http://www.cgiar.org/irri

IRRC

2000 2000
35

locity of water flow was measured after irrigation water flow was established in the full length of the channel, at 0.2 and 0.8 m water depth. Soil in the area is lateritic loam. Weeds were completely eliminated after 3 yr as a result of Paraquat application. The table presents the average values of water velocity. Chemical clearing achieved a flow velocity almost equal to that of concrete lining. Cutting the sides and clearing (farmers practice) reduced

the flow rate considerably, to almost 50%. This may be due to the greater penetration of water through the pores created by scraping. Irrigation water flowing through the herbicide-treated canal did

not have any adverse effect on seedling growth in the rice nursery as well as in the main field where the water was used. Channel clearing through herbicide application is more effective.

Crop management and physiology

Allelopathic effects of weeds on germination and seedling vigor of hybrid rice


P. Oudhia, N. Pandey, and R.S. Tripathi, Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University (IGAU), Raipur, Madhya Pradesh, India Email: pankajoudhia@usa.net

Allelopathic effect of weeds on rice seedlings. Germination (%) Treatment 5 DAS T1 = Parthenium leaves (20%) T2 = Parthenium leaves (10%) T3 = Parthenium leaves (6.7%) T4 = Parthenium leaves (5%) T5 = Parthenium flowers (10%) T6 = Lantana leaves (10%) T7 = Control (soaked in water) LSD (0.05)
a

7 DAS 83.3 80.0 70.0 93.3 83.3 73.3 80.0 ns

9 DAS 86.7 83.3 73.3 93.3 76.7 80.0 93.3 ns

Root Shoot Root Shoot length length weight weight -1 -1 -1 11 DAS (cm plant )(cm plant ) (mg plant ) (mg plant-1) 86.7 86.7 76.7 93.3 76.7 80.0 96.7 8.1 5.95 6.58 7.06 8.06 5.80 5.73 7.84 1.62 9.40 7.52 5.98 8.35 6.85 7.00 6.63 2.17 33.25 25.17 20.55 32.61 18.75 21.64 24.22 7.28 9.33 5.89 6.33 12.61 4.17 6.15 5.40 3.65

66.7 73.3 63.3 86.7 76.7 53.3 50.0 20.7

DAS = days after sowing.

36

August 1999

Parthenium hysterophorus and Lantana camara are common weeds in the Chhattisgarh region of India, where the area under high-yielding rice varieties is increasing rapidly. The allelopathic effects of Parthenium and Lantana have been reported on many crops but not on hybrid rice (Narwal 1994, Oudhia and Tripathi 1999). To discover the allelopathic potential of Parthenium and Lantana leaves and Parthenium flowers on germination and seedling vigor of hybrid rice var. Proagro 6111, a pot experiment was carried out at the IGAU. To prepare extracts, leaves of Parthenium (PL) and Lantana (LL) and flowers of Parthenium (PF) were collected randomly from fields. The crushed leaves and flowers were allowed to stand for 24 h in distilled water in the ratio of 1:5 (20%), 1:10 (10%), 1:15 (6.7%), and 1:20 (5%) [1:10 (5%) for PF and LL] of weed material and water, respectively. Extracts were decayed at room temperature (28 + 1 C). After decaying, extraction was done with a 2-mm mesh sieve. A bioassay was done in earthen pots filled with neutral clay loam soil and uniformly fertilized with 16, 18, and 12 ppm of urea, diammonium phosphate, and muriate of potash, respectively. Rice seeds were soaked in the different extracts or distilled water (control) for 24 h. After soaking, 20 rice seeds were sown in each pot. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with two replicates and was repeated twice. Germination was recorded at 5, 7, 9, and 11 d after sowing (DAS) and root and shoot lengths and dry matter accumulation at 11 DAS. The different aqueous extracts of Parthenium and Lantana produced negative and positive allelopathic effects on germination and seedling vigor of rice seeds (see table). At 5 DAS, the aqueous extract of PL (5%) produced a significantly higher

germination than the rest of the treatment combinations except PL (10%) and PF (10%). At 11 DAS, the highest germination was noted in the control and PL (5%), and the lowest in PL (6.7%) and PF (10%). PL (5%) had the longest root and LL (10%) the shortest root. PL (20%) and PL (6.7%) resulted in maximum and minimum shoot length, respectively. PL (5%) had a shoot length comparable with that of PL (20%). PL (20%) and PF (10%) produced the highest and lowest dry root weight, respectively, whereas PL (5%) and PF (10%) showed the highest and lowest dry shoot weight, respectively. The negative (stimulatory) allelopathic effects of different aqueous extracts of PL on field crops have been reported (Oudhia and Tripathi 1999). Many allelochemicalse.g., parthenin, pcoumaric acid, caffeic acid, coronopillin, and sesquiterpene lactonesfrom the aqueous extracts of Parthenium responsible for positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects have also been reported (Narwal 1994). In this experiment, the effects of these allelochemicals were significant up to 6.7% concentration. At lower concentration (i.e., 5%), the phytotoxic effects of these allelochemicals were not observed.

Some growth-promoting substances such as glucose, galactose, and potassium chloride in the diluted aqueous extracts of PL have also been reported (Rastogi and Mehrotra 1991). This is probably why the aqueous extract of PL (5%) generally produced germination comparable with that of the control, and higher root and shoot elongation and dry matter accumulation. The study indicated the possibility of using the aqueous extract of PL at lower concentrations (e.g., 5%) to promote early germination and vigor of rice seeds and seedlings in place of water alone through soaking treatments. The effects of this promising extract on ultimate crop production are under study. Repetition of this work using different hybrid rice varieties and different concentrations would provide a better understanding of allelopathy. References
Narwal SS. 1994. Allelopathy in crop production. Jodhpur (India): Scientific Publishers. 288 p. Oudhia P, Tripathi RS. 1999. Allelopathic effect of Lantana camara L. on germination of Kodo (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.). Weed News (in press). Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. 1991. Compendium of Indian medicinal plants. Vol. II. Central Drug Research Institute. New Delhi: Lucknow and P&I Directorate. 832 p.

Equilibrium moisture content for sorption of water vapor by milled rice


J.P. Pandey, Department of Post Harvest Process and Food Engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, Udham Singh Nagar, India

Equilibrium moisture content of milled rice at different temperatures and relative humidities. Pantnagar India. Adsorption Temperature Relative (C) humidity 20 0.11 0.34 0.44 0.59 0.76 0.80 0.91 0.11 0.33 0.44 0.63 0.76 0.80 0.96 0.11 0.32 0.43 0.63 0.75 0.80 0.91 0.0 8.0 12.4 14.2 16.8 19.8 20.6 24.2 7.4 13.4 15.0 17.6 20.1 21.0
b

Desorption 10.3a 7.6 13.6 14.8 16.9 20.0 21.2


b

3.8a 7.3 12.4 14.4 17.3 20.4 21.2 24.2 6.9 11.8 14.0 17.0 19.2 21.0
b

6.6a 7.6 12.6 14.4 17.0 20.2 21.4 25.3 6.8 12.2 14.0 18.6 20.6 21.4 26.2 6.6 11.8 13.8 18.2 20.4 21.4 24.6

0.0 8.6 14.3 16.0 18.6 21.4 22.2 25.6 8.2 14.6 16.2 18.4 20.8 21.8
b

3.8a 9.4 14.4 16.2 18.6 21.8 22.8 26.2 8.0 13.2 15.3 18.2 20.6 22.4
b

6.6a 9.0 15.2 16.6 18.6 22.0 23.0 26.0 8.3 14.2 16.2 20.0 21.8 22.8 27.0 8.0 13.4 15.2 19.0 21.4 22.2 24.8

10.3a 9.2 15.8 17.0 19.1 21.8 22.8


b

30

6.7 13.0 14.5 18.8 20.1 21.0


b

8.6 15.6 16.4 20.7 22.2 22.4


b

40

7.0 12.1 14.4 17.8 20.4 21.0 23.0

7.2 11.8 13.6 16.8 19.6 20.6 23.4

6.0 12.2 13.4 17.4 19.8 20.6 24.0

7.6 13.0 14.8 18.6 20.8 21.6 23.6

7.6 12.6 14.4 18.0 20.9 21.2 24.6

8.0 13.2 14.5 18.4 20.9 21.8 25.0

Degree of milling (%). bNo observations due to mold growth.

IRRN 24.2

37

Hygroscopicity is a fundamental characteristic of biological materials that influences virtually every aspect of handling, storage, manufacturing, and consumption of food products. When such materials are exposed to the atmosphere, they tend to lose or gain moisture, depending on temperature and relative humidity. The process by which hygroscopic materials lose or gain moisture is called sorption, and the moisture content at equilibrium is known as equilibrium moisture content (EMC). EMC data are directly applicable to the analysis of mass transfer phenomena in storage and drying processes. Milled rice, like other grains, is hygroscopic in natureit loses or gains moisture when the vapor pressure of water surrounding the grain is different from that inside the grain. Basic EMC data on milled rice with different milling degrees in relation to temperature and relative humidity of the storage atmosphere are necessary for analyzing the moisture exchange process during storage. This study was undertaken to establish the EMC of rice with different milling degrees under relative humidities ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 and temperatures of 20, 30, and 40 C. The experiments were conducted using a recently released hybrid rice variety (Pant Sankar Dhan-1). Sorption characteristics of milled rice with different degrees of milling (0%, 3.8%, 6.6%, 10.3%) were studied at prespecified temperatures and relative humidity under adsorption and desorption using the static method. In the static method, the material was placed in a desiccator containing a saturated salt solution or sulfuric acid solution that gives a certain specific relative humidity. The grain was allowed to equilibriate in still, moist air. Aqueous sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions of various concentrations was used to control the relative humidity of moist air between 0% and

100%. The vapor pressure above an acid solution depends on the chemical, concentration, and temperature. The EMC values for milled rice of 3.8%, 6.6%, and 10.3% degree of polish ranged from 6.9% to 24.2% (adsorption) and 7.6% to 26.2% (desorption); 6.6% to 26.2%, and 8.0% to 27.0%; and 6.0% to 24.0% and 8.0% to 25.0%, respectively. For 0% milled rice (brown rice), the minimum and maximum EMC values during adsorption were 7.0% and 24.2%, and those for desorption were 7.6% and 25.6% (see table). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the effect of degree of milling on EMC of adsorption and desorption was significant at 5% and 0.5% levels of significance.

EMC values for desorption were higher for milled rice than for unmilled rice (8.6% at 20 C and 0.11 relative humidity). The EMC generally decreased with an increase in temperature and generally increased with a rise in relative humidity for both adsorption and desorption processes. Differences varied with level of relative humidity and temperature. At constant relative humidity, hysteresis was higher at lower temperature. For example, at a relative humidity of 0.11, the difference between desorption and adsorption EMC for 3.8% milled rice was 2.1%, 1.1%, and 0.4%, at temperatures of 20, 30, and 40 C respectively. Similar effects were also observed for other relative humidities.

Plant population requirement of hybrid rice in the Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, India
P.S. Bisht, P.C. Pandey, and P. Lal, Agronomy Department, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology (GBPUAT), Pantnagar 263145, Uttar Pradesh, India

We conducted field experiments to evaluate the effect of plant density on yield of hybrid rice during the 1996-97 wet seasons at the GBPUAT Crop Research Centre. A split-plot design, with 20 20 cm and 15 15-cm spacing in the main plot and 1, 2, and 3 seedlings hill-1 in the subplot, was used with four replications. Promising hybrid variety PRH1 (128 d) (1996) and recently released Pant Sankar Dhan-1 (118 d) (1997) were used. Nurseries were sown on 12 June and transplanting began on 12 July in both years. The crop was fertilized with 175 26.4 - 33 kg NPK ha-1. Half of the N and the full P and K were applied basally before

transplanting. The remaining N was topdressed, at tillering and at panicle initiation. The crop was sprayed with 0.5% ZnSO4 + 0.25% slaked lime in water, twice (10 and 20 d after transplanting, [DAT]) in the nursery and once in the main field (15 DAT). The soil was silt loam (Aquic Hapludoll) with pH 8.0, 1.1% organic C, 20 kg available P ha-1, and cation exchange capacity of 20 meq 100 g-1 soil. Dense transplanting at 15 15-cm spacing was superior to normal spacing (20 20 cm), but the difference in yield was significant only in 1996. The higher yields (8.3% in 1996 and 7.4% in 1997) under close spacing were associated with signifi-

cantly increased panicle numbers and total spikelets m-2 (see table). The recommended 2 seedlings hill-1 for inbred rice varieties was optimum even for these hybrids. Transplanting with 2 or 3 seedlings hill-1 increased the number of panicles and total spikelets. This increase was significant in both years, except for total spikelets in 1997. Results showed no indication of reduced plant density under experimental conditions. A yield advantage of 0.5 t ha-1 for close transplanting at 15 15 cm may compensate for the high seed cost of hybrid rice.

Effect of seedling number and spacing on grain yield, harvest index, and yield components of hybrid rice, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, India, 1996-97. PRH1 (1996) Treatment Grain Harvest Panicles m-2 1,000yield index (no.) Spikelets grain (t ha-1) wt (g) -2 Total m Filled Unfilled (no. 1,000 ) panicles (%) (no.) 6.0 6.5 0.1 0.3 4.0 5.9 6.4 6.5 0.1 0.4 6.0 0.52 0.52 0.002 nsa 1.33 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.004 ns 2.17 246 301 6 26 7 229 286 1 10 30 10 29.1 35.0 0.8 3.6 9.0 30.7 31.5 33.9 7.5 1.6 5.0 98 97 5 ns 16 109 96 88 4 13 11 18 19 1 ns 11 19 17 19 1 ns 16 24.8 24.8 0.1 ns 1.0 24.7 24.7 24.8 0.1 ns 11 Pant Sankar Dhan-1(1997) Grain Harvest Panicles m-2 yield index (no.) (t ha-1) 1,000grain wt (g) -2 Total m Filled Unfilled (no. 1,000 ) panicles (%) (no.) Spikelets 35.3 40.2 0.6 2.7 5.5 36.5 37.9 38.9 0.6 ns 5.0 105 108 4 ns 12 111 106 101 3 ns 9 28 28 1 ns 9 27 26 29 1 ns 11 24.3 23.9 0.2 ns 3 24.4 24.0 24.0 0.2 ns 2

Plant spacing 20 20 cm 15 15 cm SE LSD (5%) CV (5%) Seedling number hill-1 1 2 3 SE LSD (5%) CV (%)
a

5.4 5.8 0.1 ns 7.0 5.4 5.7 5.8 0.1 0.3 5.0

0.48 0.49 0.002 ns 1.56 0.49 0.49 1.49 0.003 ns 2.01

245 270 5 22 7 241 261 271 6 18 6

ns = not significant.

Promising medium-duration varieties for double-cropped areas of Assam


K.K. Sharma, P.K. Pathak, T. Ahmed, S. Hussain, D.K. Bora, S. Ali, H.C. Bhattacharyya, and A.K. Pathak, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Titabar 785630, Assam, India

Most rice-growing areas in Assam, India, are monocropped. Farmers grow longduration varieties (140160 d) in areas
38

where land becomes unsuitable to take up rabi (wet season) crops because of moisture stress and cold environmental condi-

tions after rice harvest. This is why most cultivable land remains fallow after sali (June/July-November/December) rice.
August 1999

Rice cultivars with medium duration (130 d) are needed to grow rabi crops after fallow and thus increase cropping intensity. Using pedigree selection methods, we developed two medium-duration varieties, Satya and Basundhara, from crosses IET9711/IET11162 and IET9711/IET11161, respectively. They can be sown in June and harvested in October. Both varieties take about 130 d from seed to seed so that rice fields are cleared by October to facilitate early tillage operations for the timely sowing of rabi crops. Table 1 shows the salient features of the two varieties. Satya and Basundhara were resistant and moderately resistant to several insect pests and diseases, except bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and sheath blight of rice. They should not be planted in BLB-endemic areas. No other popular variety, however, is resistant to sheath blight in the state. Satya and Basundhara can replace existing varieties as a follow up rabi crop. The varieties were tested at four locations in 1994 and in farmers fields in Assam in 1997. They were also included under the All-India Testing and Frontline Block Demonstration Programme in Assam. Table 2 shows the performance data on these varieties at various locations. Although yields of Satya and Basundhara were not exceptionally higher than those of popular long-duration varieties, their shorter growth duration makes them ideal for growing before the rabi season.

Table 1. Salient features of Satya and Basundhara at RARS,Titabar, Assam, India. Feature Cross Designation Days to 50% flowering Plant height (cm) Flag leaf size (cm) Leaf collar Tillers plant-1 (no.) Panicle type Panicle length (cm) Grains panicle-1 (no.) Threshability Kernel length (mm) Kernel breadth (mm) Length/breadth (L/B) 1,000-grain wt (g) Endosperm type Kernel color Abdominal white Hulling (%) Milling (%) Head rice recovery (%) Seed dormancy Photoperiod sensitivity Disease reactiona Blast Bacterial leaf blight Sheath blight Insect reactiona Stem borer Gall midge Brown planthopper Whitebacked planthopper Leaffolder
a

Satya IET9711/IET11162 TTB148-169-2-1-1 100 113 36 1.5 Green 810 Compact 21 160 Intermediate 4.76 1.64 2.90 19.6 Nonglutinous White Absent 78 64 63 Nondormant Insensitive MR S S MR R R R MR

Basundhara IET9711/IET11161 TTB149-121-5-1-1 100 107 33 1.6 Green 810 Compact 23 170 Intermediate 4.78 2.04 2.34 24.0 Nonglutinous White Trace 75 62 60 Nondormant Insensitive MR S S MR R R R MR

Control (Mahsuri) (Mayong Ebos 80/ Taichung 65)//Mayong Ebos 80 Check 115 140 43.5 2.0 Light green 810 Compact 26 284 Shattering 5.70 2.20 2.59 16.2 Nonglutinous White Absent 75 62 60 Nondormant Insensitive S MR S MR MS S S MR

MR = moderately resistant, R = resistant, MS = moderately susceptible, S = susceptible.

Table 2. Mean yield (t ha-1) of Satya and Basundhara under various trials, India, 1994-97a. Check Location Satya Within state (1994) RARS, Titabar FTS, Nagaon FTS, Sukliboria FTS, Gerua Mean Farmers fields (1997) Mohimabari (Jorhat) Bherbheri (Nagaon) Dalgaon (Darrang) Dhekiajuli (Sonitpur) Mean All India trials (1996) Bhubaneswar Joypur Ciplima Patna Chinsurah Pusa Masodha Jagdalpur Raipur Mean
a

Basundhara 5.2 5.2 4.2 2.3 4.2 5.0 4.8 4.0 3.8 4.4 5.5 4.9 5.4 4.5 3.0 4.3 6.0 3.6 3.7 4.5

Jaya 3.9 4.3 3.9 2.3 3.6

Mahsuri 3.6 4.3 4.0 2.7 3.6 3.0 3.5 3.1 2.9 3.1

Ratna

LSD 5% 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.4

4.6 4.9 4.2 2.7 4.1 5.1 5.0 4.2 3.9 4.5 3.6 5.9 4.4 5.6 4.0 3.5 3.4 2.9 4.1 4.2

Scholarships for 2000 IRRI is pleased to announce the availability of scholarships to be awarded during 2000 to support highly qualified scientists from rice-growing developing countries interested in pursuing a graduate degree in areas related to rice science. These scholarships include those provided by IRRI (PhD scholarships only) as well as scholarship funds which IRRI administers for other agencies, primarily the Asian Development Bank (ADB)-Japan scholarship fund (MS and PhD scholarships).
Write to: The Office of the Scholars Affairs International Rice Research Institute MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines Tel : (63-2) 845-0563; 844-3351 to 53 Fax : (63-2) 891-1292; 845-0606 E-mail: Postmaster@irri.cgiar.org; URL: www.cgiar.org/irri

3.3 3.6 4.3 5.4 3.0 4.3 5.5 3.4 3.5 4.0

4.8 4.8 3.3 5.2 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 4.0

0.8 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.6 ns 1.2 0.7 0.6

RARS = Regional Agricultural Research Station, ns = not significant.

IRRN 24.2

39

Socioeconomics

Weed meal from a rice plot for broiler chicks


N.M. Anigbogu, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Milling Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Table 1. Nutrient composition of fresh and processed weed from rice farm plot. Nutrient composition (mg 100 g-1) Fresh Proximate composition (N = 3)a Moisture Dry matter Ash Crude protein Crude fat Crude fiber Nitrogen-free extract Calorific value (kcal 100 g-1) Mineral content (N = 3)a Calcium Phosphorus Processed

Item

75.78 0.14 bb 24.22 3.42 a 2.26 0.05 a 2.15 0.21 a 0.68 0.02 a 8.96 0.11 a 10.17 0.32 a 91.24 a 0.24 0.04 a 0.10 0.01 a

12.33 0.07 a 87.67 0.95 b 9.00 0.34 b 10.59 0.94 b 1.53 0.22 b 34.49 0.43 b 32.06 1.03 b 322.33 b 0.92 0.07 b 0.40 0.04 b

a Values are means standard deviations of triplicate determinations. bMeans in the same row with different letters differ at the 1% level of significance.

Table 2. Average production performance of straight-run broiler chicks.a Item Initial weight (g) Final weight (g) Total weight gain (g) Daily weight gain (g) Total feed consumption (g)d Feed conversion efficiency Broiler chicks at start of trial (no.) Mortality (no.) Breast-fleshing ability (%)
a

CFMb 48.95 1,417.30 a 1,368.35 a 24.43 a 3,509.80 2.5 a 40 1 67.2 a

CFM + 5% WMRc 48.95 1,454.30 a 1,405.35 a 25.10 a 3,618.50 2.5 a 40 0 69.6 a

CFM + 10% WMR 48.95 1,303.00 b 1,254.05 b 22.39 b 3,662.20 2.8 b 40 0 49.8 b

CFM + 15% WMR 48.95 1,280.30 b 1,231.35 b 21.99 b 3,563.60 2.8 b 40 1 48.6 b

Means in the same row with different letters differ at the 5% significance level. bCFM = commercial feed mash. cWMR = weed meal from rice. dAnalysis of variance showed no significance at the 5% level.

40

August 1999

Weeding contributes to the high cost of rice production in southern Nigeria. Many farmers cut and then burn weeds to control them. The biochemistry, economics of weed processing, and supplemental use of weed meal from rice (WMR) as broiler feed were evaluated as an integral part of the farming system. A total of 354 kg of weeds were gathered from the farm plot, chopped, dried under shade 1013 d before being exposed to slight sunlight on the 14th day, and then milled into ground particles with green coloration. Woody stems were removed before and during drying. The nutrient composition of both fresh and processed weed (weed meal) was determined following methods recommended by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC 1984). The weed population consisted of 71% grasses, 23% sedges, and 6% broadleaf weeds. Dominant weeds were Echinochloa colona, E. crus-galli, Commelina benghalensis, Cyperus difformis, C. iria, and Eclipta prostrata. Feed combinations for straight-run broiler chicks were (a) pure commercial feed mash (CFM), (b) CFM + 5% WMR, (c) CFM + 10% WMR, and (d) CRM + 15% WMR. One hundred and sixty commercial straight-run broiler chicks composed of 10 per plot (four replications) were fed for 8 wk. Response criteria (weight, feed consumption, mortality, breast-fleshing ability, feathering rate, pigmentation of skin and shanks, and incidence of cannibalism) were recorded and statistically analyzed using a complete randomized design. The nutrient composition data indicated that weeds were rich in protein, ash, carbohydrate, fat, calcium, and phosphorus when processed into meal (Table 1). A total of 118 kg of fresh weeds was processed in this study. The cost of

the finished product was N1.39 kg-1, which included costs of 0.94N kg-1 for fresh weeds, 0.3N kg-1 for drying, and 0.15N kg-1 for milling (US$1= N85). In all measures, the CFM + 5% WMR diet performed as well as the CFM diet (Table 2). The two diets with higher levels of WMR did not perform as well, as indicated by lower values of final weight, feed conversion efficiency, and breast-fleshing

ability. No effect of WMR on mortality was noted, even at the 15% level in the diet. All birds in the lots were fully feathered at 8 wk and their pigmentation was generally the same light yellow. Reference
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 1984. Official methods of analysis. 14th ed. Washington, D.C.

NOTES FROM THE FIELD

Occurrence of Fusarium sheath rot in West Bengal


A. Biswas, Rice Research Station, Chinsurah 712102,West Bengal, India

In situ conservation of Oryza rufipogon


B.R. Lu, Genetic Resources Center, IRRI

During the 1996 wet season (June-October), sheath rot (ShR) was first observed in cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line IR62829A in hybrid rice seed production plots at the District Seed Farm, Susunia, Bankura, West Bengal. Since then, it has been observed in different CMS lines under natural field and pot conditions at the Rice Research Station, Bankura and Chinsurah, West Bengal. Critical observation showed that symptoms on CMS lines almost resembled those produced by Sarocladium oryzae. In 1998, the causal fungus was isolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium from infected leaf sheaths of CMS lines IR62829A and IR58025A at Chinsurah. The culture was pale violet. Both microand macroconidia were abundant, with no chlamydospore. Microconidia in chains formed under optimum growing conditions. They were 0-septate and fusiform to clavate with a slightly flattened base measuring 512 1.52.5 m. Macroconidia were equilaterally fusoid, delicate, thinwalled with an elongated often sharply curved apical cell and pedicellate basal cell, and mostly 3-septate, measuring 2536 2.53.5 m. These cultural and morphological features confirmed that the fungus was Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. Pathogenicity tests were performed to confirm fungus association with ShR. Plants were inoculated by inserting mycelial bits grown on PDA medium into the boot leaf sheath before panicle emergence. Typical ShR symptoms appeared, lesions developed within a week, and the sheath completely rotted in a month. The pathogenicity test also confirmed the susceptibility of cultivars such as TN1, Vikramarya, Bennibhog, and IR20 to fusarium sheath rot. This is the first report of fusarium sheath rot in West Bengal.

Oryza rufipogon Griff. is one of three native wild rice species found in southern China that have contributed greatly to the countrys rice breeding programs. The direct use of O. rufipogon in a rice breeding program through wide hybridization in Guangdong Province was recently reported. Professor Haidong Song of the Zhengchen Agricultural Bureau crossed individuals from one O. rufipogon population near Yangtian Bridge, Zhengchen City, with an improved Chinese rice variety, Guicao No. 2. After several years of evaluation and selection, a series of rice varietiesGuiye Zhan No. 2, No. 3, and No. 10; Guiye Wanzhan No. 1 and No. 2; Yeao Simiao; and Guiao Simiaowere bred. These wide cross-derived new rice variet-

ies are characterized by high yield, excellent eating quality, and good resistance to rice blast, bacterial blight, bacterial leaf streak, and brown planthopper. These varieties are grown on about 950,000 ha in 13 provinces. Because O. rufipogon from the Zhengchen area has played such an important role in the rice breeding program, the local agricultural authority has focused on conserving these wild rice populations. But the fast development of the rural economy and rapid change in farming styles have seriously threatened the survival of wild rice populations. To protect these diminishing but valuable populations, the local government established the first in situ conservation site near Yangtian Bridge for O. rufipogon. This will guarantee longterm availability of O. rufipogon populations for use as genetic resources in rice breeding programs.

Rice scientists from the South China Agricultural University and Zhengchen Agricultural Bureau collect wild rice from the in situ conservation site.

Prof. Song Donghai (left) at the in situ conservation site of the Zhengchen Agricultural Bureau, Guangdong Province, China, and Dr. B.R. Lu (right) of Genetic Resources Center, IRRI. Prof. Song received several awards from the Chinese government for his successful use of wild rice in breeding.

IRRN 24.2

41

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS

Kronzcker HJ, Siddiqi MY, Glass ADM, Kirk GJD. 1999. Nitrate-ammonium synergism in rice: a subcellular flux analysis. Plant Physiol. 119:1041-1045.
This paper shows that hydroponic lowland rice is exceptionally efficient in absorbing nitrate (NO3) and that synergy occurs between NO3 uptake and ammonium (NH4+) uptake. This is important because (a) it means that rice may efficiently capture NO3 formed in the rhizosphere but otherwise lost through denitrification, and (b) plant growth and yield are generally improved when plants absorb their N as a mixture of NO3 and NH4+ compared with either NO3 or NH4+ alone. The evidence is as follows. First, measurements of the change in NO3 influx over time following its resupply to plants deprived of NO3 showed exceptionally rapid induction of NO3. Peak rates of influx occurred within 2 h of resupply. For comparison, in white spruce, which is not well adapted to using NO3, full induction takes several days, and, in barley, which is considered one of the most efficient NO3 users among higher plants, full induction takes up to 24 h. Second, in plants grown on 100 M NO3 or NH4+, steady-state influx of NO3and NH4+ into roots followed MichaelisMenten kinetics over the relevant concentration range, and Vmax for NO3 was about 40% bigger than that for NH4+ and 50% smaller for Km. Third, although concentrations of NO3 in the cytoplasm were almost twice the NH4+ concentrations, half-lives of cellular exchangeindicating the intensity of negative feedback of internal N accumulation on uptakewere similar. Half-lives for NO3 were substantially larger than those observed in other plant species. While similar proportions of incoming NH4+ and NO3 were channeled into assimilation and to root cell vacuoles, more than twice as much N was made available to the shoot
42

with NO3 nutrition and nearly half as much incoming N was lost through efflux back into the solution bathing the roots. When NO3 and NH4+ were provided together in the nutrient solution at the same total N concentration (100 M, i.e., [NO3] = [NH4+] = 50 M), plasma membrane fluxes of NH4+, cytosolic NH4+ accumulation, and NH4+ assimilation were larger than with sole NH4+ atM, and NH4+ efflux was smaller. Conversely, NO3 influx, accumulation, and metabolism were repressed by NH4+. Net N acquisition and N translocation to the shoot were much larger, however, than when NO3 or NH4+ was provided alone (29% and 83% larger, and 83% and 299% larger, respectively). Because very little free NH4+ is translocated to the shoot, the enhanced translocation of N to the shoot in the presence of NO3 indicates that NH4+ assimilation is stimulated by NO3.

Welch RM, Graham RD. 1999. A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs. Productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crops Res. 60:1-10.
The authors argue that a new paradigm for agriculture is needed. After an agriculture focused on increasing production (the production paradigm during the Green Revolution) and an agriculture centered on sustainability (the sustainability paradigm), it is now time for an agriculture that focuses on nutritional quality (the food systems paradigm). Micronutrient malnutrition (hidden hunger) now afflicts more than 2 billion people worldwide, resulting in poor health, low worker productivity, high rates of mortality and morbidity, increased rates of chronic diseases (coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes), and permanent impairment of cognitive abilities of infants born to micronutri-

ent-deficient mothers. An overview of micronutrient malnutrition is given, indicating that an estimated 2.15 billion people suffer from iron deficiency, most of whom are women and children from the developing world. It is estimated that iron deficiency costs India and Bangladesh about 5% and 11%, respectively, of their gross national product. Iodine, vitamin A, and zinc deficiency are also major nutritional problems. In South Asia, the production of cereal crops has increased tremendously during the Green Revolution, whereas the production of pulses has actually declined by 20% since 1970. The consequences of food system failures include lethargic national development efforts, continued high population growth rates, and a vicious cycle of poverty for massive numbers of underprivileged people in all nations. The worlds food systems are failing globally by not providing enough balanced nutrient output to meet all the nutritional needs of every person, especially resource-poor women, infants, and children in developing countries. Agriculture is partly responsible because it has never held nutrient output as an explicit goal of its production systems. Indeed, many agricultural policies have fostered a decline in nutrition and diet diversity for the poor in many countries. Nutrition and health communities are also partly responsible because they have never considered using agriculture as a primary tool in their programs directed at alleviating poor nutrition and ill health globally. Therefore, ways must be considered in which agriculture can contribute to finding sustainable solutions to food system failures through holistic food-based system approaches, thereby closely linking agricultural production to improving human health, livelihood, and well-being.

Note: Field Crops Research has published a special issue (vol. 60, no. 1-2, p 1-188) on Sustainable field crop systems for enhancing human health: agricultural approaches to balanced micronutrient nutrition.

August 1999

Xiao J, Grandillo S, Ahn SA, McCouch SR, Tanskley SD, Li J, Yuan L. 1996. Genes from wild rice improve yield. Nature 384:223-224.

Waterhouse PM, Graham MW, Wang M-B. 1998. Virus resis. tance and gene silencing in plants can be induced by simultaneous expression of sense and antisense RNA. Proc. Natl. Wild species are often inferior to commer- Acad. Sci. USA 95:13959cial cultivars because of several agronomi- 13964.
cally undesirable features such as low yield, heavy seed shattering, poor plant type, and photoperiod sensitivity. However, they are an important reservoir of useful genes for resistance to major diseases and insects, tolerance for abiotic stresses, cytoplasmic male sterility, and improved quality traits. In the past, plant breeders have used the genetic variability of wild species to broaden the gene pool of crop plants for developing disease- and insect-resistant cultivars. Notable examples include rust resistance in wheat and grassy stunt virus resistance and cytoplasmic male sterility in rice. Wild species have rarely been used, however, for the genetic enhancement of quantitative traits such as yield. This is because superior traits of interest are difficult to identify phenotypically in wild species. Moreover, in such germplasm, favorable genes are present in low frequency and are often masked by effects of deleterious genes. Molecular markers provide the opportunity to identify favorable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild species and to monitor introgression of these favorable alleles into cultivated germplasm to improve grain yield. Dr. K.J. Frey of Iowa State University, USA, did pioneering work in cereals, demonstrating that wild and weedy species can increase grain in oats and barley. More recently, Xiao et al have identified QTLs in a wild species (Oryza rufipogon, AA, 2n = 24) for enhancing grain yield of cultivated rice. In these studies, O. rufipogon alleles at two QTLs on chromosomes 1 and 2 were associated with an 18% and 17% increase in grain yield per plant, respectively. These findings offer new opportunities to exploit wild species germplasm in combination with molecular marker technology to enhance grain yield of crops. Since the origin of the concept of pathogen-derived resistance in 1985, several crops have been genetically engineered with the coat protein genes of plant viruses to achieve viral resistance. Initially, this type of resistance required the expression of protein. Later reports, however, showed that resistance can occur even if RNA is transcribed but not translated. Constructs with untranslatable coat protein or replicase genes conferred resistance, and this second type of resistance has been called RNA-mediated resistance. The transcription of sense and antisense RNA in transgenic plants can be downregulated by posttranscriptional gene silencing. How does this downregulation occur in the plant cell? Researchers have proposed that a plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase could make a complementary strand of the transgene mRNA and that this action could either trigger specific RNA degradation or an arrest in the translation of the target RNA. Waterhouse et al decided to test whether the simultaneous expression of sense and antisense RNAs, which are capable of forming a duplex, would induce or suppress the posttranscriptional gene silencing phenomenon. The authors showed that sense and antisense constructs derived from the protease gene of potato virus Y can confer immunity to the virus in tobacco plants and that immunity is independent of the transgene protein expression. They also demonstrated that the immunity is mediated by a sequencespecific degradation of protease RNA within the genome of the virus used in inoculation. Coexpressing the sense and antisense mRNA in the same construct or crossing the plants with the sense gene with those containing the antisense gene

is more effective at inducing the immunity response than transforming plants with only one of the constructs. Because the delivery of RNAs with the potential to form duplexes is effective at inducing immunity to plant viruses and affecting gene silencing in plants, this strategy can now be exploited further in an attempt to confer resistance to other pathogens and insects.

Van Beem J, Smith ME, Zobel RW. 1998. Estimating root mass in maize using portable capacitance meter. Agron. J. 90:566-570.
Time and expense are major constraints to detecting genotypic differences in the length, structure, and growth rate of root systems in soil. The recent development of a hand-held capacitance meter could facilitate the routine quantification of root mass. This study determined the accuracy with which a BK Precision 810A capacitance meter can estimate root fresh mass in maize (Zea mays L.) using a technique that allows a rapid and noninvasive capacitance reading. The capacitance meter measured root capacitance of maize grown under greenhouse (8 genotypes) and field (6 genotypes) conditions. After the capacitance readings, 14 plants per genotype were uprooted, roots were washed thoroughly, and root fresh mass was obtained. The statistical relationship between capacitance and root fresh mass in greenhouse experiments was significant early in the growth season for all genotypes (r2 = 0.73, P>0.001) and significant only late in the growth season for inbreds (r2 = 0.56, P<0.001). In conclusion, capacitance meters equipped with a clamp for rapid attachment to the plant may facilitate the nondestructive identification of genotypes with root characteristics that confer adaptation to various environments. Conditions for accurate capacitance measurements included a moist medium around the plants root system and a consistent placement of the electrode at 6 cm above the crown.
43

IRRN 24.2

Goto F, Yoshihara T, Shigemoto N, Toki S, Takaiwa F. 1999. Iron . fortification of rice seed by the gene. soybean ferritin gene Nature Biotechnology 17:282-286.

Iron deficiency is a serious nutritional problem affecting about 30% of the world population, especially where vegetablebased diets prevail. Ferritin is an iron-storage protein found in animals, plants, and bacteria. The ferritin gene has been isolated and sequenced in plants such as soybean, maize, and pea. Both plants and animals use ferritin as the storage form of iron. Increasing the ferritin content of cereals by genetic engineering could overcome the problem of iron deficiency. Goto et al (1999) introduced the soybean ferritin gene into rice variety Kita-ake by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The ferritin gene was expressed under the control of a rice seed-storage protein glutelin promoter, Glub-1. Stable accumulation of the ferritin subunit in the rice seed was demonstrated by western blot analysis and its specific accumulation in the endosperm by immunologic tissue print- Cohen MB, Jackson MT, Lu BR, ing. The transgenic rice seeds stored three Morin SR, Mortimer AM, Pham times more iron (38.1 + 4.5 g g-1 dry JL, Wade LJ. 1999. Predicting weight) than the (untransformed) normal the environmental impact of seeds (11.2 + 0.9 g g-1 dry weight). transgene outcrossing to wild

monarch is an attractive butterfly that occurs widely in North America. It feeds only on milkweed species, and its most abundant host, A. syiaca, commonly grows in or around maize fields. Monarch larvae fed milkweed leaves dusted with Bt maize pollen had significantly higher mortality and consumed significantly less food than larvae fed untreated milkweed leaves or milkweed leaves dusted with pollen from nontransgenic maize. This is a small and preliminary study, and much followup research is needed to determine whether pollen from Bt maize will have a measurable impact on populations of the monarch or other nontarget moths and butterflies that feed on plants in the vicinity of crop fields. It serves as an important reminder, however, that scientists and regulators may not foresee all potential risks associated with a new technology. The results are also of particular relevance to silk-producing areas in Asia, where mulberry plants (the only food of silkworm larvae) may be grown near Bt crops.

Losey JE, Rayor LS, Carter ME. 1999. Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae Nature larvae. 399:214.
The pollen of many genetically engineered crop plants contains the protein encoded by the transgene, or foreign gene introduced into the plant. In this paper, the authors studied pollen from a commercially released maize variety that is genetically engineered with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This gene encodes an insecticidal protein that confers resistance to caterpillar pests. The pollen was applied to leaves of milkweed (Asclepias curassavica) and fed to larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus. The
44

and weedy rices in Asia. In: Gene flow and agriculture: relevance for transgenic crops. BCPC Symposium Proceedings no. 72. Brighton: British Crop Protection Council. p 151-156.
The outcrossing of foreign genes from transgenic crops to wild and weedy crop relatives is one of the most significant concerns regarding the possible environmental impact of genetically engineered crops. This issue is particularly important for transgenic rice in Asia, because Asia is the center of origin of Oryza sativa and is also home to numerous wild species of Oryza. Two wild species, O. rufipogon and O. nivara, are abundant in many parts of Asia and are known to hybridize with O. sativa

under natural conditions. Several types of weedy rice also occur in Asia, derived from O. sativa, wild species, and hybrids between wild rices and O. sativa. Genetic engineering of rice for resistance to insects, diseases, and abiotic stresses has been rapidly advancing, although no transgenic varieties have as yet been widely field-tested. This paper provides an introduction to the outcrossing issue for transgenic rice in Asia and outlines an interdisciplinary set of research activities to help predict the consequences of transgene outcrossing to wild and weedy rices. The proposed research includes (1) an updated survey of the ecogeographical distribution and diversity of O. rufipogon, O. nivara, and weedy rices (hereafter referred to as the target species); (2) identification of key factors that determine the distribution and abundance of the target species; (3) analysis of gene flow among the target species; (4) determination of fitness of hybrids between improved varieties and the target species; and (5) quantification of the tolerance of the target species for selected abiotic stresses, particularly drought and submergence. The authors propose that this research should be conducted before transgenic varieties with enhanced stress resistance are extensively released into the environment, so that the findings can assist scientists and policymakers in deciding whether and how particular transgenic rice should be released.

Go BreAk into The Code


IRRI has produced a video on how Institute scientists are redesigning the rice plant, that most important food staple, using biotechnological tools. This visually entertaining and fast-paced 13-minute film, in NTSC system and in VHS format, is now available at IRRI. For more information on the video and other films, contact: Marketing and Distribution Communication and Publications Services IRRI, MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271 Philippines E-mail: e.ramin@cgiar.org or j.nepomuceno@cgiar.org

August 1999

NEWS

IRRI scientist wins international award


Dr. Achim Dobermann, a soil nutrient specialist of the Soil and Water Sciences Division at IRRI, will receive the prestigious Robert E. Wagner Award from the United States-based Potash and Phosphate Institute (PPI) later this year. Dr. Dobermann will receive the award in the young scientist division. Prof. Zhu Zhonglin, the president of the Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Chengdu, China, won the award in the senior scientist category. The award recognizes the contributions made by young and senior scientists to improve crop yields through maximum yield research and maximum economic yield (MEY) management. It honors Robert E. Wagner, a retired president of PPI, whose achievements and development of the MEY concept led to more profitable and efficient agriculture worldwide. The award cites Dr. Dobermanns widely recognized scientific accomplishments in soil fertility and integrated nutrient management. His outstanding publication record in major international journals documents important contributions to the basic understanding of soil nutrient dynamics in relation to plant availability and uptake, and the use of geospatial statistical approaches to improve predictions of crop nutrient requirements. Dr. Dobermann has served as IRRIs soil nutrient specialist since 1996 and is the project leader of the mega project Reversing Trends of Declining Productivity in Intensive Irrigated Systems funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFIA), PPI, and International Potash Institute (IPI). The project employs a site-specific integrated nutrient management or SSNM approach to overcome low productivity and low nutrient efficiency in intensive irrigated systems in Asia. About 40 scientists and 200 rice farmers from China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and
IRRN 24.2

Vietnam are actively collaborating in the project. Dr. Dobermann has also began a major course for training trainers, which has provided rice researchers and extension workers in the developing countries of Asia with current information. In welcoming the announcement of the 1999 Robert E. Wagner Award, Dr. Dobermann said: I interpret this as an award given to all the people who have participated in this research (nutrient management in intensive rice systems) in Asia. IRRI has provided a perfect environment for this work and we have enjoyed substantial and stable financial support for our research, with the SDC, PPI, IFIA, and IPI as donors. I see this as a model for collaboration between a strategically oriented research institution, locally oriented national research institutions, the public sector, and the private sector. I think our research will soon move into a phase where it will have a real impact at the farm level, which is perhaps the greatest reward one can get as a scientist.
Source: IRRI Hotline

from Sri Lanka, who led IRRIs research program on flood-prone rice and did important work in several key areas including soil-related stresses, low temperatures, and submergence in rice. He died tragically in an accident in Bangladesh in July 1998. The award will be given to Asian scientists working in rice research. An endowment of US$65,000 has been established by the Senadhira family and from personal contributions of friends and colleagues of Dr. Senadhira. Funds were also obtained from the prize money for an award from Japan given to Dr. Senadhira just before he died as well as from the late scientists retirement benefits. Part of the endowment will be given as a cash award for the chosen rice scientist, who will also be presented with a plaque at the International Rice Research Conference to be held at IRRI in 2000. The Senadhira Rice Research Award (a certificate or plaque together with a cash award) will be given every 2 years. Any rice research scientist employed by a national agricultural research system (NARS) linked to IRRI or a citizen of a ricegrowing/consuming country in Asia is eligible for nomination. Nominees will be evaluated based on their contributions to rice research such as successful varieties developed, scientific papers published, and any other tangible contributions to rice development. IRRI will administer the endowment. IRRI has established a committee that will oversee the selection of awardees

IRRI establishes Senadhira Award for Asian rice scientists


IRRI has launched an important award called the Senadhira Rice Research Award. The award honors Dr. Dharmawansa Senadhira, a rice breeder
45

and administration of the award. The committee is composed of Dr. Gurdev S. Khush (chair), Dr. Sant Virmani, Ms. Eliza Panes, Dr. Robert Raab, and Dr. Neemal Ranaweera (designated by the Senadhira family). Done in close collaboration with the NARS, Dr. Senadhiras most recent research had focused on developing improved germplasm with higher concentrations of micronutrients, such as iron and zinc in rice grains. He was selected to receive the prestigious Fukui International Koshihikari Rice Prize in 1998 in recognition of his outstanding achievements in developing rice varieties. The varieties developed under his leadership are planted in most of the rice lands in Sri Lanka and in several countries in Asia and Africa. His contributions to rice improvement were recognized by the Sri Lanka Presidents Award for Scientific Achievement (1981) and the Ceres Medal from FAO (1982). Dr. Senadhira was born in Sri Lanka on 18 January 1944. He completed his BS (agriculture) in 1967 at the University of Ceylon, Sri Lanka, and his MS (genetics) in 1974 and PhD (genetics) in 1976 at the University of California, Davis, USA. He was a rice breeder, senior rice breeder, and coordinator of the rice improvement program, and senior breeder and deputy director for research for the Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka, before he joined IRRI in 1985.
Source: IRRI Hotline

T.T. Chang

lation growth. They shared a cash prize of $200,000 and received gold Tyler Prize medallions at a black-tie awards ceremony on 16 April in Los Angeles. Their work in agriculture and conservation, and the demands that growing populations bring to bear on them, spans basic scientific and practical applications with a lasting impact on both, said Dr. Robert P. Sullivan, chair of the 11-member Tyler Prize Executive Committee, which annually selects the Tyler Prize recipients. Dr. Chang, 71, introduced Dee-geowoo-gen, a semidwarf rice variety from Taiwan, into IRRIs infant breeding program in 1962, which led directly to the first highyielding, semidwarf rice varieties. He is considered the father of rice genetic re-

sources conservation and is credited with starting the assemblage of a large and rich rice germplasm collection. Under Dr. Changs leadership, IRRIs genetic resources program has stimulated international activities on conservation, evaluation, and use of the rich and diverse rice germplasm worldwide. The International Rice Genebank now holds the worlds most comprehensive collection of rice genetic resources. Dr. Cohen, the corecipient from Rockefeller University, USA, was recognized for his contributions to demography, epidemiology, ecology, and population genetics. Dr. Cohen also has a connection to IRRI: he spent 3 months at the Institute in 1989, and applied a food web approach to analyze IRRIs extensive database on rice field arthropods. This work led to several publications with members of IRRIs Entomology and Plant Pathology Division and the Crop Protection Division of the Philippine Rice Research Institute. The Tyler World Prize for Environmental Achievement is an international award established in 1973 to honor significant achievements in all disciplines of environmental study and environmental protection.

Rice rats: a taste treat?


Rats eat huge amounts of rice, but farmers in Battambang and other provinces in Cambodia are fighting back. As the rats are caught in traps, they are killed, skinned, gutted, roasted, and eaten. The CambodiaIRRI-Australia Project (CIAP) Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Team has tasted this culinary delight and can attest to the delicious flavor of the lean smoky meat. Villagers spice the meat with a variety of herbs. Chilies, garlic, and salt are the most common seasonings. Because of the possibility of contracting diseases or parasites, people eating rice rats should follow these guidelines:

1. 2.

Former IRRI scientist shares 1999 Tyler World Prize for Environmental Achievement
Te-Tzu (T.T.) Chang of Taiwan, an IRRI scientific staff member for 30 years (196191) and Joel E. Cohen of the United States have been awarded the 1999 Tyler World Prize for Environmental Achievement. The two scientists have made monumental contributions to solving the related problems of food production and distribution, and understanding the dynamics of popu46

3.

Do not eat dead rats. Gut the rats properly. Remove all organs intact. If the contents of the bladder, intestines, or stomach accidentally spill into the meat, discard the entire rat. Spilling organ contents onto the meat could result in transmission of bacterial diseases, parasites, or toxins. Cook the rats thoroughly. Overcooked meat is safer than undercooked meat. The farmers in Battambang appear to be following all these precautions already.

Eating rice field rats is really not strange when one considers that, in Battambang, wild animals such as deer and wild boar are part of the traditional diet.

Source: CIAP Bulletin 4(7) July 1999

August 1999

INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTRIBUTORS IRRN welcomes three types of submitted manuscripts: research notes, mini reviews, and notes from the field. All manuscripts must have international or pan-national relevance to rice science or production, be written in English, and be an original work of the author(s), and must not have been previously published elsewhere. Research notes Research notes submitted to IRRN should report on work conducted during the immediate past 3 yr or work in progress advance rice knowledge use appropriate research design and data collection methodology report pertinent, adequate data apply appropriate statistical analysis, and reach supportable conclusions. Routine research. Reports of screening trials of varieties, fertilizer, cropping methods, and other routine observations using standard methodologies to establish local recommendations are not ordinarily accepted. Preliminary research findings. To reach well-supported conclusions, field trials should be repeated across more than one season, in multiple seasons, or in more than one location as appropriate. Preliminary research findings from a single season or location may be accepted for publication in IRRN if the findings are of exceptional interest. Preliminary data published in IRRN may later be published as part of a more extensive study in another peer-reviewed publication, if the original IRRN article is cited. However, a note submitted to IRRN should not consist solely of data that have been extracted from a larger publication that has already been or will soon be published elsewhere. Multiple submissions. Normally, only one report for a single experiment will be accepted. Two or more items about the same work submitted at the same time will be returned for merging. Submitting at different times multiple notes from the same experiment is highly inappropriate. Detection will result in the rejection of all submissions on that research. Manuscript preparation. Arrange the note as a brief statement of research objectives, a short description of project design, and a succinct discussion of results. Relate results to the objectives. Do not include abstracts. Up to five references may be cited. Restrain acknowledgments. Limit each note to no more than two pages of double-spaced typewritten text (approximately 500 words). Each note may include up to two tables and/or figures (graphs, illustrations, or photos). Refer to all tables and figures in the text. Group tables and figures at the end of the note, each on a separate page. Tables and figures must have clear titles that adequately explain contents. Apply these rules, as appropriate, to all research notes:
Methodology

Define any nonstandard abbreviation or symbol used in tables or figures in a footnote, caption, or legend. Mini reviews Mini reviews should address topics of current interest to a broad selection of rice researchers, and highlight new developments that are shaping current work in the field. Authors should contact the appropriate editorial board member before submitting a mini review to verify that the subject is appropriate and that no similar reviews are already in preparation. (A list of the editors and their areas of responsibility appears on the inside front cover of each IRRN issue.) Because only 1-2 mini reviews can be published per issue, IRRN will require high quality standards for manuscripts accepted for publication. The reviews should be 2000-3000 words long, including references. Refer to the guidelines for research notes for other aspects of writing and content. Notes from the field Notes from the field should address important new observations or trends in rice-growing areas, such as pest outbreaks or new pest introductions, or the adoption or spread of new crop management practices. These observations, while not the result of experiments, must be carefully described and documented. Notes should be approximately 250 words in length. Refer to the guidelines for research notes for other aspects of writing and content. Review of manuscripts The IRRN managing editor will send an acknowledgment card or an email message when a note is received. An IRRI scientist, selected by the editorial board, reviews each note. Depending on the reviewers report, a note will be accepted for publication, rejected, or returned to the author(s) for revision. Submission of manuscripts Submit the original manuscript and a duplicate, each with a clear copy of all tables and figures, to IRRN. Retain a copy of the note and of all tables and figures. Send manuscripts, correspondence, and comments or suggestions about IRRN by mail or email to: The IRRN Managing Editor IRRI, MCPO Box 3127 Makati City 1271 Philippines Fax: (63-2) 845-0606 E-mail: k.s.lopez@cgiar.org

Include an internationally known check or control treatment in all experiments. Report grain yield at 14% moisture content. Quantify survey data, such as infection percentage, degree of severity, and sampling base. When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, and tolerance, report the actual quantification of damage due to stress, which was used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurements used. Provide the genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines. Specify the rice production systems as irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, and flood-prone (deepwater and tidal wetlands). Indicate the type of rice culture (transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded).
Terminology

If local terms for seasons are used, define them by characteristic weather (dry season, wet season, monsoon) and by months. Use standard, internationally recognized terms to describe rice plant parts, growth stages, and management practices. Do not use local names. Provide scientific names for diseases, insects, weeds, and crop plants. Do not use local names alone. Do not use local monetary units. Express all economic data in terms of the US$, and include the exchange rate used. Use generic names, not trade names, for all chemicals. Use the International System of Units for all measurements. For example, express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t ha-1) for field studies. Do not use local units of measure. When using acronyms or abbreviations, write the name in full on first mention, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Use the abbreviation thereafter.

IRRN 24.2

47

New IRRI Publications

Advances in Hybrid Rice Technology


S.S.Virmani, E.A. Siddiq, and K. Muralidharan

Impact of Rice Research


P.L. Pingali and M. Hossain

Rainfed Lowland Rice: Advances in Nutrient Management Research


J.K. Ladha, L. Wade, A. Dobermann,W. Reichardt, G.J.D. Kirk, and C. M. Piggin

Sustainability of Rice in the Global Food System


N.G. Dowling, S.M. Greenfield, K.S. Fischer

Resource Management in Rice Systems: Nutrients


V. Balasubramanian, J.K. Ladha, G.L. Denning,

Upland Rice Weeds of South and Southeast Asia


M.I. Galinato, K. Moody, and C.M. Piggin

INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE


MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines

Printed Matter
ISSN 0115-0944