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# Data Interpretation

Level 1 Questions
Level 1 Questions Question 1. INCOME: 1. Money from fund raising programmes, 2. Grant from the government, 3. Contributions from individuals, 4. Contributions from coporations, 5. Contributions as commodities. EXPENDITURE: 1. Education of the illiterate, 2. Food for the poor, 3.Management and salary of staff and 4. expenses to organise fund-raising programmes. Above charts show the amounts of an NGO where Income for the year 1998-1999 = \$ 55 Mn and Expenditure for the same year = \$54Mn.

1.

What percentage of the total expenditure does management and salary account for? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 30% 3% 8.3% 3.4% 5.7%

Answer : 3 Explanation : (100/360)(30)=8.3% Alternate method: The total money spent for management and salary =(30/360)x54 = 4.5 million. The percentage of this in the expenditure = (4.5/100)/54 = 8.3%. 2. Approximately what percentage of the money is saved?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2% 3% 1% 10% 100%

Answer : 1 Explanation : The saved money is 55-54=1million. Required percentage = (1/55) (100) = 20/11 = 1.81%. It is approximately 2% . Question 2.

1.

From 1972 to 1974 the fares collected from subways increased by what percentage? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 10% 12% 15% 16 2/3% 25%

Answer : 4 Explanation :

The fares collected from subways in 1972 and 1974 are 300mn and 350mn. The increase is 350-300=50mn. The percentage increase =(50)(100/300)=50/3 = 16 2/3%. 2. From 1972 to 1977 what was the average fare collected by buses per year? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 225 250 260 275 300

Answer : 4 Explanation : From 1972 to 1977 the collection of fares was (275+300+325+300+225+225)=1650mn. The average fares collected per year =1650/6)=275 Question 3.

1. The fares collected from commuter rail in 1977 was what percent of fares collected from all sources in 1977? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 200% 100% 50% 28% 12%

Answer : 3 Explanation : The rail fare collected in 1977 was 400. Total number of fares collected from all sources in 1977 was 220+400+180=800. Therefore rail fare collected in 1977 was (400)(100/800)=50% of the fares collected from all sources. 2. Which of the following can be inferred from the graph? I) The fares collected by commuter rail were maximum in 1977. II) There was approximately 10% hike in fares collected by subways from 1973 to 1974. III) There are three years in which fares collected by subways in a particular year was greater than the fares collected in its preceding year. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I only II only III only I & II I,II & III

Answer : 4 Explanation : I is true. It is clear from the graph. II is true. (100/300)(30)=10%.) III is False since there are only 2 such years. Question 4.

1. If the GDP of the world was 100 in 1991 how much would it have been in the beginning of 1993? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 105.2675 105.2 104.3 103.375 103.2

Answer : 1 Explanation : GDP of the world in 1992 was 100+2.5=102.5. GDP of the world in 1993 beginning was 102.5+((102.5/100)x2.7)=102.5+2.77=105.27 2. Which of the following regions or types of countries showed the highest annual average rate of growth in the nineties ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Asia Africa Other advanced countries Middle East and Europe Major Industrial countries

Answer : 1 Explanation : It is clear from the chart that for Asia the growth rates of GDP during nineties are comparatively higher than the other areas.

Level 2 Questions

Question 1.

1.

Which year of the following did California have the least number of cases? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1960 1975 1970 1980 1990

Answer : 2 Explanation : 1975 2. How many cases were registered in NY and CAL in 1950? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 275 325 320 290 150

## Answer : 1 Explanation : 150+125=275 Question 2.

1. Throughout the years shown, for how many commodities has there been at least a 10% difference in the per capita demand? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3 2 4 5 1

Answer : 2 Explanation : A difference of 10% means that for each year, the figure must be less than 90% or more than 110% of that of the previous year. Such a difference is there in the case of (1) Sugar; (2) Tea. Therefore answer is 2 commodities. 2. What was the approximate percent fall in per capita demand for other cereals' in 1992 compared to 1989? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 10 9.1 11.2 8.7 7.5

Explanation : Percent fall in per capita demand for other cereals' in 1992 compared to 1989 = ((44 40)/44) X 100 = (4/44) X 100 = 9.1 approximately. Question 3.

1. In terms of prices of 2000, by what percentage has the GDP of the country increased since 1990? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 166.67% 66.67% 77% 72.5% 80.25%

Answer : 3 Explanation : GDP in 1990=\$180 mn. GDP in 2000=\$480 mn.in 2000 prices = \$(480/1.5)mn = \$320mn in 1990 prices. Increase = \$(320-180)mn=\$140mn. The % increase in 1990 prices = (100/180)x140=77.78% Approximately it is 77.%. 2. In terms of prices of 1990, what is the approximate percentage increase in Business Investment from 1990 to 2000? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 40% 140% 250% 125% 100%

Answer : 2 Explanation : Business investment in 1990=\$35 mn. Business investment in 2000=\$125 mn.in 2000 prices = \$(125/1.5)mn = \$83.3mn in 1990 prices. Increase = \$(83.3-35)mn=\$49.8mn. It is approximately \$50mn. The % increase in 1990 prices = (100/35)x50=143%. Approximately it is 140%. Question 4.

1. By what percentage are the highest monthly retail sales higher than the lowest monthly retail sales in 1996? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 25% 36.6% 42.8% 48.8% 51%

Answer : 3 Explanation : The variation is 75000. The % of variation is (100/175000)x75000=(100) ((3/7). = 300/7 Approximately it is 42.8%. 2. What is the percentage of difference between the maximum variation over the years for 1998 and 1991 1. 25% 2. 15% 3. 8%

4. 2% 5. None Answer : 5 Explanation : The variation in 1991=55000. The variation in 1998 =65000. The percentage of difference between the maximum variation over the years for 1998 and 1991= (10000/55000) (100) = 200/11 = 18 2/11%.

Level 3 Questions

Question 1.

1. Of every dollar received by the federal government, how much (in cents) is from coporate sources? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 32 70 30 35 29

Answer : 1 Explanation : Total revenue =\$(20+32+6+92+70)=220. Revenue from corporate sources = \$70. Therefore, required percentage = (70/220) (100) = 31.5%. Approximately it is 32 cents.

2.

what percentage of the federal revenue is derived from borrowings? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 0.2% 0.02% 2.7% 1.2% 2.5%

Answer : 3 Explanation : Borrowings = \$6. Therefore, required percentage = (6/220) (100) = 30/11 = 2.7% approximately. Question 2. DIRECTIONS: The following question are based on the bellow table, which shows per capita Mean Expenditure, Per capita Food expenditure, Number of Households and Per capita cereal consumption, in both quantity and value, for different expenditure classes of rural India. The sampled 41597 households are divided into 12 expenditure classes, starting from less than Rs.65 per month per capita and ending at more than Rs.385 per capita per month.

1. According to the results of this sample survey, what is the proportion of total expenditure on food to total expenditure for all the sampled households taken together? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 58% 36.7% 63.3% 71% Cannot be determined

## Answer : 3 Explanation : Answer is (100/158.1)x(100.82)=63.76 approximately.

2. What is the difference, approximately, between the gross expenditure of the sampled households in the Rs.95-110 expenditure class and in the Rs.180-215 expenditure class? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 372000 448000 496000 93.8 52.3

## Answer : 1 Explanation : Answer is (196.36 x 4023)-(102.56 x 4067)=789956.28-417111.52=372844.76. Question 3.

GRAPH SHOWS EXPENDITURE ON ARMS BY DIFFERENT COUNTRIES (VALUE IN DOLLARS '000 MILLIONS)

1. The amount spent by country C in 1983 is what percentage more than the amount spent by Countries A and B together in 1977? (Find approximately) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 50% 179% 75% 13% 70%

Explanation :

The amount spent in 1977 by Countries A and B together =\$ (0.75+1.25) = \$2.0 million. The amount spent by Country C in 1983 = \$3.5 million. This is \$1.5mn more than (A + B). In percentage it is = (1.5/2.0) (100)=75%. Therefore the answer is (C). 2. Which of the following statements must be true? i) Country A spends minimum amount of its budget on arms. ii) Throughout, Country C has spent the maximum amount on arms during the years shown. iii) An examination of the information for the last 3 years reveals that generally all 3 countries are reducing their expenditure on arms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. i only. i and ii only i and iii only ii and iii only None of the statements above.

Answer : 5 Explanation : From the given data we cannot say the statement i) must be true. The graph gives us information only about how much money each country is spending on arms, but it does not give us any information of the budget of each country. Statement ii) is not true. In 1979 Country B has spent more than Country C. Statement iii) is also not true. Countries B and C have reduced their expenditure on arms from 1981-83 and country A has reduced its expenditure in 1983 compared to 1982. But in 1982, country A has not reduced its expenditure and is spending the same amount as in 1981. Therefore None of the statement must be true. Therefore the answer is (E). Question 4. A SAVINGS BANK IN A LARGE CITY PUBLISHED THE FOLLOWING GRAPH FOR ITS DEPOSITORS, HOW YOUR SAVINGS WORK FOR YOU.

1. About how many degrees (to the nearest degree) are in the angle of the sector representing mortgages? 1. 59

2. 3. 4. 5.

## 106 211 246 318

Answer : 3 Explanation : Mortgages --> 58.6% Therefore 58.6% of 360 degrees = (58.6/100) X 360 = (0.586) (360) = 210.9 degrees. This is nearest to 211. Therefore the answer is C. 2. The annual rate of interest from "other assets" is 4.8%. If the total assets of the bank are 57.6 million dollars, what is the annual income (in dollars) from "other assets"? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 82,944 921,600 1,728,000 2,764,800 3,600,000

Answer : 1 Explanation : Total assets = \$57.6 million. Other assets=3% of total assets = \$ 1.728 million. 4.8% of \$1.728 million = \$ 0.082944 million or \$ 82944.

## Data Interpretation Level 4 Questions

Question 39. A SAVINGS BANK IN A LARGE CITY PUBLISHED THE FOLLOWING GRAPH FOR ITS DEPOSITORS, HOW YOUR SAVINGS WORK FOR YOU.

1. The average annual interest on mortgage investments is m% and the average annual interest on the mortgage bond investment is b%. If the annual interest on the bond investment is x dollars, how many dollars are invested in mortgages? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. xm/b. xb/m. 100xb/m bx/100m. 200x/b

Answer : 5 Explanation : Amount invested in bonds = \$(100x/b). Therefore the amount invested in mortgages must be \$(58.6/29.3) (100x/b) = \$ 200x/b. 2. About how many degrees (to the nearest degree) are in the angle of the sector representing cash on hand? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 114 14 140 39 321

Answer : 2 Explanation : (3.9%) of 360 degrees. = (0.0369 (360) = 14.04. This is nearest to 14. Therefore the answer is B. Question 37. DRIVING BETWEEN SEVERAL CITIES (Driving time, in hours, in parentheses)

1. A man drives from Albany to Boston. His average speed for 2 hours is 60 miles per hour. What is his average speed (approximately) for the remaining portion of the trip if he

## completes it in the usual time? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 34 38 40 45 68

Answer : 2 Explanation : The driver covered (60) (2) = 120 miles in two hrs. He has to cover 51 miles more. For this he can spend (3 1/3) - 2 = 1 1/3 hrs = 4/3 hrs for the rest of the trip. speed = distance/time. speed = 51/(4/3)hours = (51)(3/4) = 153/4 = 38 1/4 miles per hour. It is approximately 38 miles per hour. 2. Find approximately the ratio of the average speed of a man who drove from Montreal to Boston via Albany and to the average speed of a man who drove from Montreal to Boston via Portland. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 3/2 2/3 1/5 5/4

Answer : 1 Explanation : The distance between Montreal and Boston via Albany is 231+171=402 miles. The time taken for this drive is 6 1/4 + 3 1/3 = (25/4)+(10/3) = 115/12 hours. Therefore the speed of this drive is 402/(115/12) = (402)(12)/(115) The distance between Montreal and Boston via Portland is 265+108=373 miles. The time taken for this drive is 6 3/4 + 2 5/12 = (27/4)+(29/12) = 110/12 hours. Therefore the speed of this drive is 373/(110/12) = (373)(12)/(110). The ratio of these two is (402)(12)/(115)/ (373)(12)/(110) = (402)(22)/(373)(23) = 1 approximately. Question 13.

1. How many grams of sucrose (to the nearest gram) must be added to one gram of saccharin to make a mixture that will be 100 times as sweet as glucose?) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7 8 9 10 100

Answer : 2 Explanation : 100 times as sweet as glucose = 74. Let x be the number of grams of sucrose to be added to saccharin. 1 gram of saccharin = 675. If x grams of sucrose is added to 1 gram of saccharin, then the sweetness of the mixture=(Sweetness/number of grams) = (x(1.00) + 675)/(1 + x) and we need it to be equal to 74. Therefore x + 675 = 74 + 74x Therefore x 74x = 74 - 675 Therefore - 73x = - 601 Therefore x = (601/73) = 8.2 grams. It is nearest to 8 grams. 2. What is the ratio of glucose to lactose in a mixture as sweet as maltose? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8 : 21 21 : 8 25 : 9 29: 8 32: 5

Answer : 1 Explanation : Obviously we must use less of the glucose than Lactose to get 0.32, since glucose is sweeter than lactose. In the given choices the least proportion of glucose to lactose is 8 : 21. Therefore the answer is (A). Or Suppose the ratio is x:y. Assume x+y=1. Then x(0.74)+(1-x)(0.16)=0.32 implies x(0.74-0.16)=0.32-0.16 implies x(0.58)=0.16 implies x=(16/58)=(8/29). y=(1-x)=(21/29) Therefore the ratio is 8:21. Question 10.

1. Ratio of the amount spent on legal affairs in 1970 to the amount spent on legal affairs in 1960 approximately. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3/1 1/3 2/3 1/2 3/2

Answer : 4 Explanation : Amount spent on legal affairs in 1970 = (4851/100)x4 = 194.25. Amount spent on legal affairs in 1960 = (3087/100)x12 = 370.04 The ratio is 194.25/370.04. Approximately it is (1/2). 2. The amount spent on materials in 1960 was 120% of the amount spent on 1. Research in 1960 2. Compensation in 1960 3. Advertising in 1970 4. Materials in 1970 5. Legal affairs in 1960

Answer : 1 Explanation : (18x100)/120 =15%. Research received 15% of the expenditure in 1960. Question 9.

1. Among the four years in which year in which industry maximum percentage of people were selected and what percentage it will be of total people selected in that year in all industries? (Find approximately) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1972, 1971, 1973, 1971, 1973, cotton industry, 36% cotton industry, 40% cotton industry, 40% food products, 30% cotton industry, 45%

Answer : 3 Explanation : By observing the table we can find that in all the four years in the industry of cotton textiles more people were selected. In the year 1970 the number of selected people were 2595. In this year 944 were selected in cotton industry. It is of (100/2595)(944)=36% approximately. In the year 1971 the number of selected people were 2816. In this year 1018 were selected in cotton industry. It is of (100/2816)(1018)=36% approximately. In the year 1972 the number of selected people were 2870. In this year 1042 were selected in cotton industry. It is of (100/2870)(1042)=36% approximately. In the year 1973 the number of selected people were 3061 In this year 1225 were selected in cotton industry. It is of (100/2595)(1225)=40% approximately. Note: By observing the table one can see that in 1973 more people and in that in cotton industry more were selected. So it is enough to calculate for the year 1973 only. 2. Among the four years in which industry maximum percentage of people were selected in that industry than the earlier year? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. cotton textiles Beverages food products other textiles wood and wood products.

Explanation : By observing the given data we can see that only for the following cases a considerable percentage of more people were selected in that industry than the earlier year. For 19701971, in the industry of food products 64 more selected and this is of approximately (100/676)(64)=9% For 1970-1971, in the industry of Beverages 52 more selected and this is of approximately (100/144)(52)=36%. For 1970-1971, in the industry of cotton textiles 74 more selected and this is 8%. For 1972-1973, in the industry of cotton textiles 183 more selected and this is of approximately (100/1042)(183)=18%. Therefore in 1971 in the industry of Beverages a maximum percentage of more people were selected in that industry than the earlier year. Question 33. INCOME: 1. Money from fund raising programmes, 2. Grant from the government, 3. Contributions from individuals, 4. Contributions from corporations, 5. Contributions as commodities. EXPENDITURE: 1. Education of the illiterate, 2. Food for the poor, 3.Management and salary of staff, Expenses to organise fund-raising programmes. Above charsts show the amounts of an NGO Income for the year 1998-1999 = \$ 55 Mn. Expenditure for the same year = \$54Mn.

1. If the government stops the grant and the expenditure pattern remains the same, then what will be the decrease in the money spent for the education of illiterate? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 19.37mn 22.5mn 28.3mn 5.43mn 3.13mn

Answer : 5 Explanation : Government grant =(50/360)x55 =7.64Mn. 55-7.64=47.36 Mn. Money saved =47.36x(1/55), of the rest, (150/360) is spent for education. Therefore Money for education =47.36 x (54/55)x(150/360 ) =19.37 Mn. Money spent earlier =22.5 Mn. 22.519.37=3.13 Mn. 2. How much money is raised by fund raising programmes? 1. 21.39 mn

2. 3. 4. 5.

## Answer : 1 Explanation : (140/360)x55=21.39.

Directions to Solve The bar graph given below shows the sales of books (in thousand number) from six branches of a publishing company during two consecutive years 2000 and 2001. Sales of Books (in thousand numbers) from Six Branches - B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 and B6 of a publishing Company in 2000 and 2001.

1. What is the ratio of the total sales of branch B2 for both years to the total sales of branch B4 for both years? A.2:3 B. 3:5 C. 4:5 D.7:9 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation:

Required ratio =

## (75 + 65) 140 7 = = . (85 + 95) 180 9

2. Total sales of branch B6 for both the years is what percent of the total sales of branches B3 for both the years? A.68.54% B. 71.11% C. 73.17% D.75.55% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Required percentage= (70 + 80) x 100 % (95 + 110) 150 = x 100 % 205 = 73.17%.

3. What percent of the average sales of branches B1, B2 and B3 in 2001 is the average sales of branches B1, B3 and B6 in 2000? A.75% B. 77.5% C. 82.5% D.87.5% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Average sales (in thousand number) of branches B1, B3 and B6 in 2000 1 245 = x (80 + 95 + 70)= . 3 3 Average sales (in thousand number) of branches B1, B2 and B3 in 2001 1 280 = x (105 + 65 + 110)= . 3 3 245/3 245 Required percentage = x 100 % = x 100 % = 87.5%. 280/3 280 4. What is the average sales of all the branches (in thousand numbers) for the year 2000? A.73 B. 80 C. 83 D.88 Answer & Explanation

Answer: Option B Explanation: Average sales of all the six branches (in thousand numbers) for the year 2000 1 = x [80 + 75 + 95 + 85 + 75 + 70] 6 = 80.

5. Total sales of branches B1, B3 and B5 together for both the years (in thousand numbers) is? A.250 B. 310 C. 435 D.560 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Total sales of branches B1, b2 and B5 for both the years (in thousand numbers) = (80 + 105) + (95 + 110) + (75 + 95) = 560. 1. The ratio of the number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves are above the average reserves, to those in which the reserves are below the average reserves is? A.2:6 B. 3:4 C. 3:5 D.4:4 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Average foreign exchange reserves over the given period = 3480 million US \$. The country had reserves above 3480 million US \$ during the years 1992-93, 1996-97 and 1997-98, i.e., for 3 years and below 3480 million US \$ during the years 1991-92, 1993-94, 1994-95, 1995-56 and 1998-99 i.e., for 5 years. Hence, required ratio = 3 : 5.

2. The foreign exchange reserves in 1997-98 was how many times that in 1994-95? A.0.7 B. 1.2 C. 1.4 D.1.5 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Required ratio = 5040 = 1.5. 3360

3. For which year, the percent increase of foreign exchange reserves over the previous year, is the highest? A.1992-93 B. 1993-94 C. 1994-95 D.1996-97 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: There is an increase in foreign exchange reserves during the years 1992 - 1993, 1994 - 1995, 1996 - 1997, 1997 - 1998 as compared to previous year (as shown by bar-graph). The percentage increase in reserves during these years compared to previous year are: (3720 - 2640) x 100 2640 (3360 - 2520) For 1994 - 1995 = x 100 2520 (4320 - 3120) For 1996 - 1997 = x 100 3120 (5040 - 4320) For 1997 - 1998 = x 100 4320 For 1992 - 1993 = % = 40.91%. % = 33.33%. % = 38.46%. % = 16.67%.

Clearly, the percentage increase over previous year is highest for 1992 - 1993.

4. The foreign exchange reserves in 1996-97 were approximately what percent of the average foreign exchange reserves over the period under review? A.95% B. 110% C. 115% D.125%

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Average foreign exchange reserves over the given period = 1 x (2640 + 3720 + 2520 + 3360 + 3120 + 4320 + 5040 + 3120) million US \$ 8

= 3480 million US \$. Foreign exchange reserves in 1996 - 1997 = 4320 million US \$. Required percentage = 4320 x 100 % = 124.14% 3480 125%.

5. What was the percentage increase in the foreign exchange reserves in 1997-98 over 1993-94? A.100 B. 150 C. 200 D.620 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: Foreign exchange reserves in 1997 - 1998 = 5040 million US \$. Foreign exchange reserves in 1993 - 1994 = 2520 million US \$. Increase = (5040 - 2520) = 2520 US \$. Percentage Increase = Directions to Solve The bar graph given below shows the data of the production of paper (in lakh tonnes) by three different companies X, Y and Z over the years. Production of Paper (in lakh tonnes) by Three Companies X, Y and Z over the Years. 2520 x 100 % = 100%. 2520

1. For which of the following years, the percentage rise/fall in production from the previous year is the maximum for Company Y? A.1997 B. 1998 C. 1999 D.2000 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: Percengate change (rise/fall) in the production of Company Y in comparison to the previous year, for different years are: (35 - 25) x 100 25 (35 - 35) For 1998 = x 100 25 (40 - 35) For 1999 = x 100 35 (50 - 40) For 2000 = x 100 40 For 1997 = % = 40%. % = 0%. % = 14.29%. % = 25%.

Hence, the maximum percentage rise/fall in the production of Company Y is for 1997.

2. What is the ratio of the average production of Company X in the period 1998-2000 to the average production of Company Y in the same period? A.1:1 B. 15:17 C. 23:25 D.27:29

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Average production of Company X in the period 1998-2000 = 1 115 x (25 + 50 + 40) = lakh tons. 3 3

Average production of Company Y in the period 1998-2000 = 1 125 x (35 + 40 + 50) = lakh tons. 3 3

115 115 23 3 Required ratio = = = . 125 125 25 3 3. The average production for five years was maximum for which company? A.X B. Y C. Z D.X and Z both Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Average production (in lakh tons) in five years for the three companies are: 1 190 x (30 + 45 + 25 + 50 + 40) = = 38. 5 5 1 185 For Company Y = x (25 + 35 + 35 + 40 + 50) = = 37. 5 5 1 190 For Company Z = x (35 + 40 + 45 + 35 + 35) = = 38. 5 5 For Company X = Average production of five years is maximum for both the Companies X and Z.

4. In which year was the percentage of production of Company Z to the production of Company

Y the maximum? A.1996 C. 1998 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation:

B. 1997 D.1999

The percentages of production of Company Z to the production of Company Z for various years are: For 1996 = For 1997 = For 1998 = For 1999 = For 2000 = 35 x 100 25 40 x 100 35 45 x 100 35 35 x 100 40 35 x 100 50 % = 140%. % = 114.29%. % = 128.57%. % = 87.5%. % = 70%.

## Clearly, this percentage is highest for 1996.

5. What is the percentage increase in the production of Company Y from 1996 to 1999? A.30% B. 45% C. 50% D.60% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Percentage increase in the production of Company Y from 1996 to 1999 (40 - 25) x 100 % 25 15 = x 100 % 25 = = 60%. Directions to Solve

The bar graph given below shows the data of the production of paper (in lakh tonnes) by three different companies X, Y and Z over the years. Production of Paper (in lakh tonnes) by Three Companies X, Y and Z over the Years.

6. What is the difference between the production of Company Z in 1998 and Company Y in 1996? A.2,00,000 tons B. 20,00,000 tons C. 20,000 tons D.2,00,00,000 tons Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Required difference= [(45 - 25) x 1,00,000] tons = 20,00,000 tons.

Q Out of the two bar graphs provided below, one shows the amounts (in Lakh Rs.) invested by a Company in purchasing raw materials over the years and the other shows the values (in Lakh Rs.) of finished goods sold by the Company over the years. Amount invested in Raw Materials (Rs. in Lakhs)

## Value of Sales of Finished Goods (Rs. in Lakhs)

1. The maximum difference between the amount invested in Raw materials and value of sales of finished goods was during the year? A.1995 B. 1996 C. 1997 D.1998 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: The differences between the amount invested in raw material and the value of sales of finished goods for various years are: For 1995 = Rs. (200 - 120) lakhs = Rs. 80 lakhs. For 1996 = Rs. (300 - 225) lakhs = Rs. 75 lakhs. For 1997 = Rs. (500 - 375) lakhs = Rs. 125 lakhs. For 1998 = Rs. (400 - 330) lakhs = Rs. 70 lakhs.

For 1999 = Rs. (600 - 525) lakhs = Rs. 75 lakhs. For 2000 = Rs. (460 - 420) lakhs = Rs. 40 lakhs. Clearly, maximum difference was during 1997.

2. The value of sales of finished goods in 1999 was approximately what percent of the sum of amount invested in Raw materials in the years 1997, 1998 and 1999? A.33% B. 37% C. 45% D.49% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Required percentage= 600 x 100 % (375 + 330 + 525) = 48.78% 49%.

3. What was the difference between the average amount invested in Raw materials during the given period and the average value of sales of finished goods during this period? A.Rs. 62.5 lakhs B. Rs. 68.5 lakhs C. Rs. 71.5 lakhs D.Rs. 77.5 lakhs Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Required difference = Rs. 1 x (200 + 300 + 500 + 400 + 600 +460) 6

1 - x (120 + 225 + 375 + 330 + 525 + 420) lakhs 6 2460 1995 = Rs. lakhs 6 6 = Rs. (410 - 332.5) lakhs = Rs. 77.5 lakhs.

4. In which year, the percentage change (compared to the previous year) in the investment on Raw materials is same as that in the value of sales of finished goods? A.1996 B. 1997 C. 1998 D.1999 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: The percentage change in the amount invested in raw-materials and in the value of sales of finished goods for different years are: Percentage change in Amount invested in raw-material: For 1996 = For 1997 = For 1998 = For 1999 = For 2000 = (225 - 120) x 100 120 (375 - 225) x 100 225 (330 - 375) x 100 375 (525 - 330) x 100 330 (420 - 525) x 100 525 % = 87.5%. % = 66.67%. % = -12%. % = 59.09%. % = -20%.

Percentage change in value of sales of finished goods: For 1996 = For 1997 = For 1998 = For 1999 = For 2000 = (300 - 200) x 100 200 (500 - 300) x 100 300 (400 - 500) x 100 500 (600 - 400) x 100 400 (460 - 600) x 100 600 % = 50%. % = 66.7%. % = -20%. % = 50%. % = -23.33%.

## Thus, the percentage difference is same during the year 1997.

5. In which year, there has been a maximum percentage increase in the amount invested in Raw

materials as compared to the year? A.1996 C. 1998 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation:

B. 1997 D.1999

The percentage increase in the amount invested in raw-materials as compared to the previous year, for different years are: (225 - 120) % = 87.5%. 120 (375 - 225) For 1997 = % = 66.67%. 225 For 1996 = For 1998 there is a decrease. For 1999 = (525 - 330) % = 59.09%. 330

## For 2000 there is a decrease. There is maximum percentage increase in 1996.

Study the bar chart and answer the question based on it. Production of Fertilizers by a Company (in 1000 tonnes) Over the Years

1. What was the percentage decline in the production of fertilizers from 1997 to 1998? A.33(1/3)% B. 20% C. 25% D.21% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Required percentage = (45 - 60) % = -25%. 60

## There is a decline of 25% in production from 1997 to 1998.

2. The average production of 1996 and 1997 was exactly equal to the average production of which of the following pairs of years? A.2000 and 2001 B. 1999 and 2000 C. 1998 and 2000 D.1995 and 2001 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Average production (in 10000 tonnes) of 1996 and 1997 40 + 60 = 50. 2

We shall find the average production (in 10000 tonnes) for each of the given alternative pairs: 50 + 75 = 62.5. 2 65 + 50 1999 and 2000 = = 57.5. 2 45 + 50 1998 and 2000 = = 47.5. 2 25 + 65 1995 and 1999 = = 45. 2 25 + 75 1995 and 2001 = = 50. 2 2000 and 2001 = The average production of 1996 and 1997 is equal to the average production of 1995 and 2001.

3. What was the percentage increase in production of fertilizers in 2002 compared to that in 1995? A.320% B. 300% C. 220% D.200% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Required percentage = (80 - 25) x 100 % = 220%. 25

4. In which year was the percentage increase in production as compared to the precious year the maximum? A.2002 B. 2001 C. 1997 D.1996 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: The percentage increase in production compared to previous year for different years are: In 1996 = (40 - 25) x 100 % = 60%. 25

In 1997 =

## In 1998 there is a decrease in production. In 1999 = (65 - 45) x 100 % = 44.44%. 45

In 2000 there is a decrease in production. (75 - 50) x 100 % = 50%. 50 (80 - 75) In 2002 = x 100 % = 6.67%. 75 In 2001 = Clearlyl, there is maximum percentage increase in production in 1996.

5. In how many of the given years was the production of fertilizers more than the average production of the given years? A.1 B. 2 C. 3 D.4 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Average production (in 10000 tonnes) over the given years 1 = (25 + 40 + 60 + 45 + 65 + 50 + 75 + 80) = 55. 8 The productions during the years 1997, 1999, 2001 and 2002 are more than the average production. Directions to Solve The bar graph given below shows the percentage distribution of the total expenditures of a company under various expense heads during 2003. Percentage Distribution of Total Expenditure of a Company

1. The total amount of expenditures of the company is how many times of expenditure on research and development? A.27 B. 20 C. 18 D.8 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Let the total expenditures be Rs. x. Then, the expenditure on Research and Development (R & D) = Rs. (5% of x) 5 xx 100 x = Rs. . 20 = Rs. Ratio of the total expenditure to the expenditure on R & D x x/20 20 = . 1 = Then, the total expenditure is 20 times the expenditure of Research and Development.

2. If the expenditure on advertisement is 2.10 crores then the difference between the expenditure on transport and taxes is? A.Rs. 1.25 crores B. Rs. 95 lakhs C. Rs. 65 lakhs D.Rs. 35 lakhs Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Let the total expenditure be Rs. x crores. Then, 15% of x = 2.10 x= 2.10 x 100 = 14. 15

Total expenditure = Rs. 14 crores and so, the difference between the expenditures on transport and taxes = Rs. [(12.5 - 10)% of 14] crores = Rs. [2.5% of 14] crores = Rs. 0.35 crores = Rs. 35 lakhs

3. What is the ratio of the total expenditure on infrastructure and transport to the total expenditure on taxes and interest on loans? A.5:4 B. 8:7 C. 9:7 D.13:11 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Let the total amount of expenditures be Rs. x. Then, the total expenditure on infrastruture and transport

## = Rs. [(20 + 12.5)% of x] = Rs. [32.5% of x] = Rs. 32.5x 100

and total expenditure on taxes and interest on loans = Rs. [(10 + 17.5)% of x] = Rs. [27.5% of x] = Rs. 27.5x 100 32.5x/100 13 = . 27.5x/100 11

Required ratio =

4. If the interest on loans amounted to Rs. 2.45 crores then the total amount of expenditure on advertisement, taxes and research and development is? A.Rs. 7 crores B. Rs. 5.4 crores C. Rs. 4.2 crores D.Rs. 3 crores Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Let the total expenditure be Rs. x crores. Then, 17.5% of x = 2.45 x = 14.

Total expenditure = Rs. 14 crores. and so, the total expenditure on advertisement, taxes and Research and Development = Rs. [(15 + 10 + 5)% of 14] crores = Rs. [30% of 14] crores = Rs. 4.2 crores.

5. The expenditure on the interest on loans is by what percent more than the expenditure on transport?

A.5% C. 20% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Let the total amount of expenditures be Rs. x.

B. 10% D.40%

Then, the expenditure on interest on loans = Rs. (17.5% of x) = Rs. 12.5 x . 100 17.5x 12.5x Difference between the two expenditures= Rs. 100 100 5x = Rs. 100 5x/100 and so, the required percentage = x 100 % = 40%. 12.5x/100 Directions to Solve and the expenditure on transport = Rs. (12.5% of x) = Rs.

17.5 x 100

A cosmetic company provides five different products. The sales of these five products (in lakh number of packs) during 1995 and 2000 are shown in the following bar graph. Sales (in lakh number of packs) of five different products of Cosmetic Company during 1995 and 2000

1. The sales of lipsticks in 2000 was by what percent more than the sales of nail enamels in 2000? (rounded off to nearest integer)

A.33% C. 28% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Required percentage=

B. 31% D.22%

## (48.14 - 37.76) x 100 % 37.76 = 27.57% 28%.

2. During the period 1995-2000, the minimum rate of increase in sales is in the case of? A.Shampoos B. Nail enamels C. Talcum powders D.Lipsticks Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: The percentage increase from 1995 to 2000 for various products are: (48.17 - 20.15) x 100 % = 139.06%. 20.15 (37.76 - 5.93) Nail enamels = x 100 % = 536.76%. 5.93 (29.14 - 14.97) Talcum powders = x 100 % = 94.66%. 14.97 (12.21 - 7.88) Shampoos = x 100 % = 54.95% 55%. 7.88 (10.19 - 5.01) Conditioners = x 100 % = 103.39%. 5.01 Lipsticks = The minimum rate of increase in sales from 1995 to 2000 is in the case of Shampoos.

3. What is the approximate ratio of the sales of nail enamels in 2000 to the sales of Talcum powders in 1995? A.7:2 B. 5:2 C. 4:3 D.2:1 Answer & Explanation

## Answer: Option B Explanation: Required ratio = 37.76 14.97 5 2.5 = . 2

4 sales have increase by nearly 55% from 1995 to 2000 in the case of? The .A B Lipsticks Nail enamels . . C D Talcum powders Shampoos . . Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: The percentage increase from 1995 to 2000 for various products are: (48.17 - 20.15) x 100 % = 139.06%. 20.15 (37.76 - 5.93) Nail enamels = x 100 % = 536.76%. 5.93 (29.14 - 14.97) Talcum powders = x 100 % = 94.66%. 14.97 (12.21 - 7.88) Shampoos = x 100 % = 54.95% 55%. 7.88 (10.19 - 5.01) Conditioners = x 100 % = 103.39%. 5.01 Lipsticks = 5. The sales of conditioners in 1995 was by what percent less than the sales of shampoos in 1995? (rounded off to nearest integer) A.57% B. 36% C. 29% D.25% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Required percentage= (7.88 - 5.01) x 100 % 7.88 = 36.42% 36%.

Directions to Solve A soft drink company prepares drinks of three different flavours - X, Y and Z. The production of three flavours over a period of six years has been expressed in the bar graph provided below. Production of Three Different Flavours X, Y and Z by a Company over the years (in lakh bottles)

1. The total production of flovour Z in 1997 and 1998 is what percentage of the total production of flavour X in 1995 and 1996? A.96.67% B. 102.25% C. 115.57% D.133.33% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Required percentage= (60 + 60) x 100 % (50 + 40) 120 = x 100 % 90 = 133.33%.

2. For which flavour was the average annual production maximum in the given period? A.X only B. Y only C. Z only D.X and Y Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B

Explanation: Average annual productions over the given period for various flavours are: 1 x (50 + 40 + 55 + 45 + 60 + 50) = 50 lakh bottles. 6 1 For Flavour Y = x (55 + 60 + 50 + 55 + 50 + 55) = 54.17 lakh bottles. 6 1 For Flavour Z = x (45 + 50 + 60 + 60 + 45 + 40) = 50 lakh bottles. 6 For Flavour X = Maximum average production is for Flavour Y.

3. What is the difference between the average production of flavour X in 1995, 1996 and 1997 and the average production of flavour Y in 1998, 1999 and 2000? A.50,000 bottles B. 80,000 bottles C. 2,40,000 bottles D.5,00,000 bottles Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Average production of flavour X in 1995, 1996 and 1997 1 x (50 + 40 + 55) 3 145 = lakh bottles. 3 = Average production of flavour Y in 1998, 1999 and 2000 1 x (55 + 50 + 55) 3 160 = lakh bottles. 3 160 145 Difference= 3 3 15 = 3 = 5 lakh bottles = 5,00,000 bottles. = 4. What was the approximate decline in the production of flavour Z in 2000 as compared to the

production in 1998? A.50% C. 33% Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation:

B. 42% D.25%

Percentage decline in the production of flavour Z in 2000 as compared to the production in 1998 (60 - 40) x 100 % 60 20 = x 100 % 60 = = 33.33% 33%.

5. For which of the following years the percentage of rise/fall in production from the previous year is the maximum for the flavour Y? A.1996 B. 1997 C. 1998 D.1999 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: The percentage rise/fall in production from the previous year for flavour Y during various years are: In 1996 = In 1997 = In 1998 = In 1999 = In 2000 = (60 - 55) x 100 55 (60 - 50) x 100 60 (55 - 50) x 100 55 (55 - 50) x 100 55 (55 - 50) x 100 50 % = 9.09% (increase) % = 16.67% (decrease) % = 10% (increase) % = 9.09% (decrease) % = 10% (increase)

Maximum change is decrease of 16.67% during 1997. Directions to Solve The bar graph given below shows the percentage distribution of the total production of a car manufacturing company into various models over two years. Percentage of Six different types of Cars manufactured by a Company over Two Years

1. What was the difference in the number of Q type cars produced in 2000 and that produced in 2001? A.35,500 B. 27,000 C. 22,500 D.17,500 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: Total number of Q type cars produced in 2001 =(60 - 40)% of 4,40,000 = 88,000. Total number of Q type cars produced in 2000

## =(45 - 30)% of 3,50,000 = 52,500. Required difference = (88000 - 52500) = 35,500.

2. Total number of cars of models P, Q and T manufactured in 2000 is? A.2,45,000 B. 2,27,500 C. 2,10,000 D.1,92,500 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Analysis of the graph: We shall first determine the number of cars of each model produced by the Company during the two years:

In 2000 : Total number of cars produced = 3,50,000. P = (30 - 0)% of 3,50,000 = 30% of 3,50,000 = 1,05,000. Q = (45 - 30)% of 3,50,000 = 15% of 3,50,000 = 52,000. R = (65 - 45)% of 3,50,000 = 20% of 3,50,000 = 70,000. S = (75 - 65)% of 3,50,000 = 10% of 3,50,000 = 35,000. T = (90 - 75)% of 3,50,000 = 15% of 3,50,000 = 52,000. U = (100 - 90)% of 3,50,000 = 10% of 3,50,000 = 35,000.

In 2001 : Total number of cars produced = 4,40,000. P = (40 - 0)% of 4,40,000 = 40% of 4,40,000 = 1,76,000. Q = (60 - 40)% of 4,40,000 = 20% of 4,40,000 = 88,000. R = (75 - 60)% of 4,40,000 = 15% of 4,40,000 = 66,000. S = (85 - 75)% of 4,40,000 = 10% of 4,40,000 = 44,000.

T = (95 - 85)% of 4,40,000 = 10% of 4,40,000 = 44,000. U = (100 - 95)% of 4,40,000 = 5% of 4,40,000 = 22,000.

Total number of cars of models P, Q and T manufacture in 200 = (105000 + 52500 + 52500) = 2,10,000.

3. If the percentage production of P type cars in 2001 was the same as that in 2000, then the number of P type cars produced in 2001 would have been? A.1,40,000 B. 1,32,000 C. 1,17,000 D.1,05,000 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: If the percentage production of P type cars in 2001 = Percentage production of P type cars in 2000 = 30%. then, number of P type cars produced in 2001 = 30% of 4,40,000 = 1,32,000.

4. If 85% of the S type cars produced in each year were sold by the company, how many S type cars remain unsold? A.7650 B. 9350 C. 11,850 D.12,250 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C

Explanation: Number of S type cars which remained unsold in 2000 = 15% of 35,000 and number of S type cars which remained unsold in 2001 = 15% of 44,000. Total number of S type cars which remained unsold = 15% of (35,000 + 44,000) = 15% of 79,000 = 11,850.

5. For which model the percentage rise/fall in production from 2000 to 2001 was minimum? A.Q B. R C. S D.T Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: The percentage change (rise/fall) in production from 2000 to 2001 for various models is: For P = For Q = For R = For S = For T = For U = (176000 - 105000) x 100 % = 67.62%, rise. 105000 (88000 - 52500) x 100 % = 67.62%, rise. 52500 (70000 - 66000) x 100 % = 5.71%, fall. 70000 (44000 - 35000) x 100 % = 25.71%, rise. 35000 (52500 - 44000) x 100 % = 16.19%, fall. 52500 (35000 - 22000) x 100 % = 37.14%, fall. 35000

Minimum percentage rise/fall is production is the case of model R. Directions to Solve The following bar graph shows the Income and Expenditures (in million US \$) of five companies in the year 2001. The percent profit or loss of a company is given by

% Profit/Loss =

## Income - Expenditure x 100 Expenditure

Income and Expenditure (in million US \$) of five companies in the year 2001.

1. The companies M and N together had a percentage of profit/loss of? A.12% loss B. 10% loss C. 10% profit D.There was no loss or profit Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Total income of Companies M and N together = (35 + 50) million US \$ = 85 million US \$ Total expenditure of Companies M and N together = (45 + 40) million US \$ = 85 million US \$. Percent Profit/Loss of companies M and N together

% Profit/Loss =

85 - 85 x 100 = 0%. 85

Thus, there was neither loss nor profit for companies M and N together.

2. In 2001, what was the approximate percentage of profit/loss of all the five Companies taken together? A.5% profit B. 6.5% profit C. 4% loss D.7% loss Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: Total income of all five companies = (35 + 50 + 40 + 40 + 50) million US \$ = 215 million US \$. Total expenditure of all five companies = (45 + 40 + 45 + 30 + 45) million US \$ = 205 million US \$. % Profit = (215 - 205) x 100 % = 4.88% 205 5%.

3. Which company earned the maximum percentage profit in the year 2001? A.M B. N C. P D.Q Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: The percentage profit/loss in the year 2001 for various comapanies are: (35 - 45) x 100 % = -22.22% i.e., Loss = 22.22%. 45 For N = (50 - 40)x 100 % = 25% i.e., Profit = 25%. For M =

40 (40 - 45) For P = x 100 % = -11.11% i.e., Loss = 11.11%. 45 (40 - 30) For Q = x 100 % = 33.33% i.e., Profit = 33.33%. 45 (50 - 45) For R = x 100 % = 11.11% i.e., Profit = 11.11%. 45 Clearly, the Company Q earned the maximum profit in 2001.

4. For Company R, if the expenditure had increased by 20% in year 2001 from year 2000 and the company had earned profit of 10% in 2000, what was the Company's income in 2000 (in million US \$)? A.35.75 B. 37.25 C. 38.5 D.41.25 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Let the expenditure of Company R in 2000 be x million US \$. Then, expenditure of Company R in 2001 = 120x = 45 100 x = 37.5. 120 x x million US \$. 100

i.e., expenditure of Company R in 2000 = 37.5 million US \$. Let the income of Company R in 2000 be I million US \$. Then, 10 = (I - 37.5) x 100 [ 37.5 %Profit in 2000 = 10%]

## I - 37.5 = 3.75 I = 41.25 i.e., Income of Company R in 2000 = 41.25 million US \$.

5. If the income of Company Q in 2001 was 10% more than its income in 2000 and the Company

had earned a profit of 20% in 2000, then its expenditure in 2000 (in million US \$) was? A.28.28 B. 30.30 C. 32.32 D.34.34 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Let the income of Company Q in 2001 = x million US \$. Then, income of Company in 2001 = 110x = 40 100 x= 400 . 11 400 million US \$. 11 110 x x million US \$. 100

## i.e., income of Company Q in 2000 =

Let the expenditure of Company Q in 2000 be E million US \$. Then, 20 = [(400/11) - E] x 100 [ E 400 20 = - 1 x 100 11E 400 100 E= x = 30.30. 11 120 %Profit = 20% ]

Expenditure of Company Q in 2000 = 30.30 million US \$. Directions to Solve Study the bar chart and answer the questions. Sale of Cellular Phones

1. The difference in the sales of cellular phones for the years 1997 and 1999 is ? A.500 units B. 1,000 units C. 5,000 units D.18,000 units Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: The required answer is got by 48,000 - 30,000 = 18,000.

2. The two years between which the rate of change of cellular phones is minimum are ? 3. The sum of sales of cellular phones in the years 1999 and 2001 is equal to that in ? A.1997 B. 1998 C. 2000 D.2002 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: The sum of sales in the two years is 30,000 + 18,000 = 48,000, which is the sales value for 1997.

## 4. The percentage increases in sales from 2001 to 2002 was ?

A.115 % C. 122 % Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: The percentage increase exhibited is ((40 - 18)/18) x 100 = 122 % approximately. Directions to Solve

B. 128 % D.118 %

The following bar chart represents the GDP of different countries during the half decades 2001 2005 and 2006 - 2010. All figures are in Rs. billion. GDP of Various Countries

1. Which of the countries listed below accounts for the maximum GDP during the half decade 2006 to 2010 ? A.UAE B. US C. India D.China Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B

Explanation: It's clear that US is the highest amongst the given options.

2. The GDP of UAE is what fraction of GDP of the UK for the decade (approximately) ? A.(1/4)th B. (1/5)th C. (1/6)th D.Data inadequate Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: (10/50) = 20% = (1/5)th

3. Which of the countries listed below accounts for the highest GDP during the half decade 2001 to 2005 ? A.Russia B. China C. India D.UAE Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: It's clear that Russia is the answer.

4. Out of every Rs. 10,000 spent during the decade 2001 - 2010 approximately how much was the GDP of Russia during the half decade 2001 - 2005 ? A.Rs. 700 B. Rs. 1,400 C. Rs. 2,800 D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Russia will account for 10 out of 125, i.e, 8% of the total, i.e, 800 out of 10,000 (approximately values based on visual interpretation). Directions to Solve

The following chart represents the number of students who passed the CAT exam or the XAT exam or the CET exam or None of these exams. (Assume that there are no students who passed more than one exam.) Number of students who qualified CAT/XAT/CET Exams

1. Which year showed the best result in MBA entrance exams (in terms of percentage of students who cleared) ? A.2000 B. 2001 C. 2002 D.Cannot be determined Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Compare the respective pass percentage for three years : 2000, 2001 and 2002 = (140 x 100)/170 < (150 x 100)/180 and (150 x 100)/180 > (160 x 100)/200 = 82.35% < 83.33% and 83.33% > 80%

2. What was the percentage of students who succeeded in at least one of three exams in 2000 ? A.82.4 % B. 82.8 % C. 82.35 % D.83.3 % Answer & Explanation

Answer: Option C Explanation: Total percentage of students who succeeded in at least one of three exams in 2000 = (140 x 100)/170 = 82.35 %

3. What is the percentage increase in the number of students in 2002 over 2000 ? A.30 % B. 17.64 % C. 117.6 % D.85 % Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Total percentage increase in the number of students in 2002 over 2000 is = (30 x 100)/170 = 17.64 %

4. What is the percentage of students who cleared CAT in 2000 ? A.19.56 % B. 12.65 % C. 14.28 % D.11.76 % Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Total percentage of students who cleared CAT in 2000 = (20 x 100)/170 = 11.76 % Directions to Solve Study the following bar chart and answer the questions carefully. Sales Turnover of 5 Companies (in Rs. crores)

1. What is the percentage change in the overall sales turnover of the five companies together between 2001 - 2002 and 2002 - 2003 ? A.17.21 % B. 14.68 % C. 12.67 % D.21.24 % Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: The required answer is 100 - percentage value of the fraction (Absolute change/first year's value).

2. What is the absolute change in overall sales turnover of the five companies together between 2001 - 2002 and 2002 - 2003 ? A.712.43 B. 142.48 C. 683.53 D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: Absolute value of the difference between the sum of the turnover of the five companies for 2001 - 2002 and 2002 - 2003.

3. Which of the companies shows the maximum percentage difference in sales turnover between

the two years ? A.Honda C. Hyundai Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation:

B. GM D.Maruti

## Hyundai with 25.25 % is marginally higher than Honda with 24.5 %.

4. What should have been the sales turnover of GM in 2002 - 2003 to have shown an excess of the same quantum over 2001 - 2002 as shown by the sales turnover of Maruti ? A.953.76 B. 963.76 C. 952.76 D.962.76 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: GM should have increased its sales turnover by Rs.49.13 crore. Hence, the answer is 913.63 + 49.13 = 962.76.

5. What is the approximate difference between the average sales turnover of all the companies put together between the years 2001 - 2002 and 2002 - 2003 ? A.133.45 B. 142.48 C. 117.6 D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Difference between the sum of the two years divided by 5. Charts > Bar Chart 16

Exercise
Bar Chart 1 Bar Chart 2

Bar Chart 3 Bar Chart 4 Bar Chart 5 Bar Chart 6 Bar Chart 7 Bar Chart 8 Bar Chart 9 Bar Chart 10 Bar Chart 11 Bar Chart 12 Bar Chart 13 Bar Chart 14 Bar Chart 15 Bar Chart 16 Bar Chart 17 Bar Chart 18 Bar Chart 19 "It takes a very long time to become young." - Pablo Picasso Directions to Solve The following chart shows the production of cars in thousands. Production of Cars for 2002 - 2005 period from the Selected Manufacturers

1. How many companies have shown production below their average production in 2002 - 2003, but have showed above the average production in 2003 - 2004 ? A.One B. Two C. Three D.Four Answer & Explanation

Answer: Option C Explanation: Average sales of company: Honda = (6 + 14 + 21)/3 = 13.66 GM = (12 + 18 + 18)/3 = 16 Maruti = (5 + 9 + 15)/3 = 9.66 Hindustan Motors= (16 + 9 + 12)/3 = 12.33 Hyundai = (8 + 14 + 7)/3 = 9.66

2. The ratio of Hindustan Motors production in 2003 - 2004 to Honda's production in 2002 - 2003 is ? A.0.66 B. 1.5 C. 2 D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: The required ratio is (9/6) = 1.5.

3. For how many companies has there been no decrease in production in any year from the previous year ? A.One B. Two C. Three D.Four Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: By visual inspection we can say that Honda, GM and Maruti have not shown a decrease. Directions to Solve

The total of the first three deficit countries (in Rs. crores) = 3594.3. The total of next five deficit countries (in Rs. crores) = 2588.5. The total of the last five deficit countries (in Rs. crores) Cumulative Trade Deficit/Surplus of Countries for the Year 2006 - 2007 (All figures in Rs. Crores).

1. The ratio between the difference between the highest and the lowest of the surplus countries to the difference between Bangladesh and Oman is ? A.3.44 B. 2.96 C. 4.5 D.3.83 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: The required answer will be equal to 360/94 = 3.829.

2. The average of the total deficit of the middle five deficit is closest to the deficit of which country ? A.Korea B. South Africa C. UAE D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation:

The middle five deficit countries are India, New Zealand, South Africa, Korea and Namibia. Their average deficit is (1946.6/5) = 389.32. Korea's deficit is close to this value.

3. The state whose surplus is nearly equal to the average of the four surplus countries is A.Sri Lanka B. UAE C. USA D.UK Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: The average trade surplus of the four countries is 1860.4/4 = 465.1. Of the four options, USA has the closest value.

4. The ratio of the deficit of the first five deficit countries to the overall deficit of all the deficit countries is nearly equal to ? A.0.72 B. 0.75 C. 0.80 D.0.85 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: The required answer is (4885.2/6517) = 0.7496

5. The net total deficit/surplus is equal to ? A.4656.6 surplus C. 3836.5 deficit Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation:

## B. 4656.6 deficit D.None of these

Adding all surpluses and subtracting all deficits will give an overall value of deficit of 4656.6. Directions to Solve

Study the following bar charts and answer the questions. Foreign Trade (Imports and Exports) by countries for the year (1993 - 1994)

1. The ratio of the maximum exports to the minimum imports was closest to ? A.64 B. 69 C. 74 D.79 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B

Explanation: The value of maximum exports = 6045. The value of minimum imports = 87. Therefore, the required ratio (6045/87) = 69.48 = 69 (approximately).

2. How many countries exhibited a trade surplus ? A.5 B. 4 C. 3 D.6 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Out of a total of 12 countries, 8 showed a deficit while 4 showed a surplus.

3. The total trade deficit/surplus for all the countries put together was ? A.11286 surplus B. 11286 deficit C. 10286 deficit D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Sum of exports - Sum of imports = deficit(11286).

4. The highest trade deficit was shown by which country ? A.C B. G C. H D.L Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation:

## Visually its clear that L has the highest trade deficit.

5. The ratio of Exports to Imports was highest for which country ? A.A B. I C. J D.K Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: I has a ratio of 4002/2744 = 1.45, which is the highest. Directions to Solve The following bar chart shows the composition of the GDP two countries (India and Pakistan). Composition of GDP of Two Countries

1. If the total GDP of Pakistan is Rs. 10,000 crore, then a GDP accounted for by Manufacturing is ? A.Rs.200 crore B. Rs.600 crore C. Rs.2,000 crore D.Rs.6,000 crore Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: 20% of 10000 = 2000

2. What fraction of India's GDP is accounted for by Services ? A.(6/33)th B. (1/5)th C. (2/3)rd D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Service accounts for 20%, i.e., (1/5)th of the GDP of India.

3. If the total GDP of India is Rs.30,000 crores, then the GDP accounted for by Agriculture, Services and Miscellaneous is ? A.Rs.18,500 crore B. Rs.18,000 crore C. Rs.21,000 crore D.Rs.15,000 crore Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: (40 + 20 + 10)% of 30,000 = Rs.21,000 crore.

4. Which country accounts for higher earning out of Services and Miscellaneous together ? A.India B. Pakistan C. Both spend equal amounts D.Cannot be determined Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Although the percentage on Services and Miscellaneous put together is equal for both the countries, we cannot comment on this since we have no data about the respective GDP's.

5. If the total GDP is the same for both the countries, then what percentage is Pakistan's income through agriculture over India's income through Services ? A.100 % B. 200 %

## C. 133.33 % Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation:

D.None of these

Since the GDP is same, the answer will be got by (40 - 20)/20 = 100%.