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# CHAPTER 4 : MATTER AND SUBSTANCE

1. CHANGES IN MATTER 1. Matter is living and non living things that have mass and fill space. 2. Matter differs in physical characteristics such as shape, colour and hardness. 3. All matter is consists of small discrete particles in constant and random motion. 4. The Kinetic Theory of Matter. The particles in a matter are in continous random motion because of kinetic energy The motion is called particles kinetic energy and this theory of matter states that: Matter consists of fine and discrete particles Particles always move, vibrate and rotate randomly. The temperature of matter increases as the particles kinetic energy increases 5. All matter exists in one of the three states:

Solid
Diagram of particles Arrangement of particles Movement of particles Particles are packed together in a regular pattern The particles vibrate from side to side and spin around their fixed position

Liquid

Gas

Particles are not packed closely in regular pattern. Particles move freely Particles are also held together by a strong attractive forces

Particles are widely space Move freely in all direction at high speeds

INTERCONVERSION OF STATES OF MATTER i) MELTING POINT is a temperature where a solid turns into a liquid The melting point of ice is 00C When a liquid is heated the particles given more energy and they start to move faster and further apart. At certain temperature the particles break free of one another and the liquid turns into steam ii) BOILING POINT is the temperature at which a liquid changes to gas The boiling point of water is 1000C A liquid can turn into gas even at low temperature. It only occurs at the surface of a liquid. This process is called evaporation. Some substance go directs from solid state to gaseous This process is called sublimation. If a gas loses their kinetic energy, the gas turns into water. Condensation is a process when a gas turns into liquid. iii) FREEZING is a process when a liquid turns into a solid. Examples. melting Ice freezing 2. ATOM STRUCTURE Symbol p n e Position Inside the nucleus Inside the nucleus Outside the nucleus Electrical charge Positive Neutral Negative Relative mass 1 1 1/1840 Water condensation boiling Gas

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Key electron proton neutron 3. PROTON NUMBER, NUCLEON NUMBER IN ATOM Proton number Each atom of the same element has certain number of proton, neutron and electron Therefore the chemical and physical properties of element are different This difference in proton number caused the atom from different element behave differently. The number of protons in an atom is called the proton number All atom of the same element have the same proton number The mass of an atom depends on the number of proton and neutrons it contains Nucleon number The total number of proton and neutron in an atom shell is called then nucleon number. The number of nucleon number of proton + number of neutron An atom is electrically neutral hence the number of electron is equal to the number of proton. Isotopes The differences of nucleon number in the same elements are called isotopes Isotopes of the same element have the same chemical properties because they have the same number of proton The isotopes have the same chemical properties but differences in physical properties Hydrogen isotopes (Hydrogen-1, Hydrogen-2, Hydrogen-3) have slightly different boiling point. Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3

i)

ii)

iii)

Proton Electron Neutron Proton number Nucleon number Physical properties Chemical properties

1 1 0 1 1

1 1 1 1 2 different same

1 1 2 1 3

4. THE PERIODIC TABLE The Periodic Table is a longitunal grid of every element that exist. Each grid contains the symbol of the element , the proton number and the nucleon number. Nucleon number Proton number 14
7

## Symbol Name of element

Nitrogen

The elements are arranged in order of increasing proton number. The proton number increases from lef to right across the Periodic Table.

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Group I II 1 H 2 Li Be
3 4 5 6 7

Period

## III IV V VI VII VIII He B C N O F Ne

A row of elements in Periodic Table is called period and numbered 1,2,3,4,5,6,and 7.. The first element is very reactive solid and the last element is a nonreactive gas There are 8 columns in the Periodic Table. The column in Periodic Table is called group and numbered I,II ,III,IV,V,VI,VII,VIII 5.

5. PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES Particles in substances can exist as atoms , molecules and ions Molecules Atoms An atom is the : Solid particle of an element that can take part in a chemical change. Neutral particles Metal are made of atom particles that are arranged closely by strong attractive forces Eg. copper contains only copper atom. Formed when two or more atom are combined chemically Usually a molecule made of metal and non-metal atoms that are bound by a chemical bond. Two types of molecules: Molecule of element is a molecule made up of the same atom Molecule of compound a molecule that made up of different atoms

Ions This chemical particles are called ions Particles with opposite charges attract by strong electrostatic forces between them Metals have a tendency of lack electrons to become positive ions. Non-metals have a tendency to give electrons to become negative ions Most ionic compounds are made up of metal ion and nonmetal ions. Na+ Cl-

## A sodium chloride compound is made of a sodium ion and chloride ion

Physical properties of substances PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physical state at room temperature Melting point / Boiling point Electrical conductivity Attraction forces ATOM Solid (for all metal except mercury) Gas (For noble gases) High for metal All metal are good conductivity of electricity Strong metallic bond Substance made of MOLECULE Solid, liquid or gas Low Do not conduct electricity Weak Van der Waals forces ION Solid High Conduct electricity when molten state or dissolved in water Strong electrostatic forces

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6. METALS AND NON-METALS 1. Physical properties of metals and non-metals Physical properties Surface Ductility Malleability Electrical conductivity Thermal conductivity Tensile strength Metals Shiny Ductile malleable Good electric conductor Good thermal conductor Very strong Non-metals Dull Non-ductile Brittle Poor conductor Poor thermal conductor Weak

2. The uses of metal and non metal Name Gold Silver Copper Physical characteristics Shiny surface Can withstand corrosion Jewellery Gas and water piping Copper tooling and statue Electrical wires In making the bodies of aeroplane Cooking utensil and electrical cables Used as cans for drinks and food To make engine parts o the car Used in construction industry As jewellery Used as lead in making pencils Used in lights bulbs Used in manufacturing car batteries Uses

Ductile Malleable Good conductor of electricity ight and strong Aluminium Good conductor of electricity Malleable Ductile Iron Malleable Carbon exists in two forms: Carbon i) Diamond ii) Graphite Noble gas Neon and argon are not reactive Sulphur Yellow in colour and burns easily 7. PURIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES Solutions are made by: What is pure substance? Characteristics of Pure Substances Method of purification

1. 2. 3. 4.

i) Dissolving a solid into a liquid eg. Dissolve sugar into water ii) Dissolving a liquid into a liquid eg Dissolve alcohol into water Pure substances are substances that contains only one type of substance. They do not have other substances eg sugar contains only sugar molecules. Pure substances have fixed boiling point and melting point. Eg. Pure water boils at 100 C and pure ice melts at 0 C i) Filtration ii) Crystallisation iii) Distillation

5. i) Filtration - The process to separate solid from solution ii) Crystallisation - The process of forming crystal from liquid or gas iii) Distillation - The process to obtain a pure substance from a mixture of solution 1. The liquid mixture is heated until the required substance boils and turns into vapour 2. The vapour cools down and condenses into a pure liquid iv) Fractional distillation Two or more liquids can mix together to form a solution This solution can be separated by fractional distillation This is done by using fractional distillation A fractionating column separate liquids in the order of boiling points. The liquid with the lowest boiling point is obtained first

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PAPER 1
1. The diagram shows a change in the state of matter.

The state of X and Y are A B C D X Solid Solid Liquid Liquid Y Gas Liquid Gas Liquid

2.

The diagram shows the changes in the three state of matter. Solid S P R Liquid U In which processes is heat absorbed from the surrounding? A. B. C. D. P,Q,U Q,R,S R,S,T S,T,P Gas Q T

3.

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## What is process E? A B C D 4. Boiling Melting Freezing Condensation

Which of the following state is the lowest kinetic energy of water particles? A B C D Ice Water Steam Vapour

5.

What happen to the temperature when ice melts? A B C D Vary Increase Decrease Remain constant

6.

Which of the following graph shows the correct change in temperature when water is heated until it boils? A
Temperature (C)

Temperature (C)

Time

## Time Temperature (C)

Temperature (C)

Time

Time

7.

Which of the following particle and charge is correctly matched? Subatomic Particle Proton Neutron Electron Neutron Charge Positive Negative Positive Negative

A B C D

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8.

Which of the following statements is true about isotopes? A B C D Different chemical characteristics Different in proton and neutron number Same number of protons but different number of neutrons Same number of neutrons but different number of protons

9.

The table shows the proton and nucleon number of elements L,M,N,O. Element L M N O Proton Number 5 6 6 7 Nucleon Number 11 12 14 14

## Which elements are isotopes? A B C D L and M M and N N and O L and O

10.

What is the basic of the arrangement of elements in the Periodic Table? A B C D Proton number Neutron number Electron number Nucleon number

11.

## The diagram below shows an element Z

16 8
Which of the following is true about Z? A B C D 12. It has 16 protons It has 8 neutrons The nucleon number is 8 The number of electron is 16

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13.

What is the characteristic of a molecular substance? A B C D High melting point Good conductor of heat Good conductor of electricity The attractive forces are weak

14.

A B C D 15.

## Particles atoms atoms molecules ions

The diagram shows atoms of a metal when force is applied to a part of it. Force

Atoms in metal

## The atom layers slides on each other

What is the property of metal involved in the diagram? A B C D Solid Shiny Ductile Malleable

16.

Isotope X has 17 proton number and 37 nucleon number.How many protons and neutrons does it have? Protons 17 17 17 18 Neutrons 17 37 20 17

A B C D

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17.

## Which of the following processes represent melting? A Solid C Liquid D B Gas

18.

Which of the following subatomic particles have charges? A B C D Electrons only Neutrons and protons Electrons and protons Electrons and neutrons

19.

## The diagram below shows a model of an atom. Which is an electron? A B

C D

20.

Which of the following particle is positively charge? Particle L M N O Proton number 3 6 9 17 Electron number 2 6 10 18

A B C D

21.

Which of the following is the characteristic of a metal? A B C D Low melting point Have a dull surface Bad conductor of heat Good conductor of electricity

22.

Which of the following group in the Periodic Table is named correctly? Group I II III IV Name Halogens Alkali earth metals Alkali metals Noble gases

A B C D

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23.

Which of the following comparisons between metals and non-metals is true? Metals Shiny surface Low melting point Not malleable Not ductile Non-metals Dull surface High melting point Malleable Ductile

A B C D 24.

The diagram below shows the melting point and boiling point of substances S,T,U and V. Substances S T U V Melting point (C) 115 -39 -113 78 Boiling point (C) 445 357 -30 216

Which substances are in the solid state at room temperature? A B 25. S and T T and U C D S and V U and S

## Which of the following A, B, C and D represents gas particles?

C 26.

Which of the following non-metal can conduct electricity? A B Helium Sulphur C D Carbon Oxygen

27.

Dry ice changes into carbon dioxide when left in the open. What is the name of the process? A B Melting Sublimation C D Condensation Evaporation

28.

Why is it difficult to compress a solid? A B C D Solid particles are far apart Solid particles are very big Solid particles are closely arranged Solid particles are held together by a strong force

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29.

Which of the following is correct about pure water? A B C D Boiling points (C) 0 100 0 100 Melting points (C) 0 0 100 100

30.

Which of the following is the physical properties of a non-metal? A B C D Have shiny surface Electrical conductors Poor thermal conductor Are closely packed particles

31.

## The diagram shows the structure of two particles L and M. L M

3p 3n

3p 4n

Which of the following is correct about L and M? A B C D 32. They are molecules Ions with same charge Ions with different charge Atoms of the same elements.

## The diagram below shows an atom A. 7

A
3 How many electrons are present in an atom A? A. B. 33. 3 4 C. D. 7 10

S Q R

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## Which element represents a metal? A. B. 34. P Q C. D. R S

Which of the following technique would you use to separate water and alcohol? A. B. C. D. Evaporation Sublimation Simple distillation Fractional distillation

35.

Which of the following elements are non-metals? A. B. C. D. Copper, iron, gold Copper, carbon, gold Zinc chlorine, sulphur Carbon, chlorine, sulphur

36.

Which of the following is a common use of non-metal? A. B. C. D. To make the blade of knives For making the bodies of car In the production of telephone wire To insulate the handle of cooking pans

37.

The boiling point of pure water is 100C. When salt dissolved in it, what is the effect on its boiling points? A. B. C. D. The boiling point will decrease There is no effect on the boiling point The boiling point will be higher than 100C The boiling point will increase and then decrease

38.

What is the suitable method to obtain salt crystal from a salt solution? A. B. C. D. Filtrate the solution Evaporate the solution Distill the solution in flask Put the solution in freeze

39.

Which of the following pair is correct? Process Freezing Boiling Condensation Evaporation Energy Released Released Absorbed Released

A. B. C. D.

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40.

Which of the following atoms X,Y,Z have 2 neutrons. Atoms X Y Z A. B. X,Y and Z X and Y only Proton number 3 4 6 Nucleon number 7 6 8 C. D. Y and Z only X and Z only

41.

## The diagram shows elements P and Q in a Periodic Table. P

What is the similarity between P and Q? A. B. 42. Nucleon number Proton number C. D. Chemical properties Physical properties

The diagram shows some physical properties of substances L, M and N. Properties Physical state at room temperature Boiling point Attraction force What are L, M and N? A. B. C. D. L Ammonia Iron Oxygen Ammonia M Oxygen Oxygen Ammonia Iron N Iron Ammonia Iron Oxygen Substances L Gas Low Low Substances M Solid High Strong Substances N Gas Low Low

43.

The diagram shows the changes of matter from one state to another.

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What happened during the process? A. B. C. D. 44. Heat is being absorbed The particles move slower The particles move closer apart Kinetic energy of particles decrease

Fractional distillation is used to separate the different components of crude oil. Why can we use that process? A. B. C. D. Crude oil is not reactive The size of the components are different The kinetic energy of components are different The boiling points of the components are different

45.

Which of the following is true about impure substance. A. B C D It has a fixed boiling point It has a fixed melting point It consists of one substance It consists of more than one substance

46.

A substance P boils at 105C. What is P ? A. B. C. D. Alcohol Pure water Naphthalene Sugar solution

47.

Which of the following object is made of metal? A. B. C. Glass cutter Electric cable Casing for telephone

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PAPER 2 SECTION A
1. Diagram 1 shows an experiment to study the electrical conductivity of atomic substance, ionic substance and molecular substance.

Switch

## Cardboard Substance Carbon rod

Bunsen burner

Diagram 1 The result of the experiment is recorded in Table 1 Type of substance Lead powder Sulphur powder Lead(II) bromide powder Ammeters reading /A Solid state Melting state 1.5 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 1.8

Table 1 (a) State the variables in this experiment. i) Manipulated variable: Type of substance [ 1 mark] ii) Responding variable: Reading of ammeter [ 1 mark] iii) Constant variable: Mass of substance [ 1 mark]

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(b)

State one hypothesis for this experiment. Lead powder conducts electricity in solid and molten state, sulphur . cannot conduct electricity while lead(II) bromide can conduct .. electricity in molten state only .. [ 1 mark]

(c) Based on the result in Table 1, classify the substances into their class..

Atomic substance

Ionic substance

Thermometer

## Leibig condenser Salt water

Distillate

Diagram 2 (a) State the variables in this experiment. i. Manipulated variable: Presence of salt // Salt water [ 1 mark] Responding variable: Boiling point [ 1 mark]

ii.

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(b)

State one hypothesis for this experiment. Distilled water can be obtained from salt water through distillation .. [ 1 mark]

(c)

The boiling point of the distillate is 100 0C. What is the inference? Distillate is a pure water .............................. ............................. [ 1 mark]

(d)

What is the change of state in the Leibig condenser? Steam to liquid // gas to liquid .............................. [ 1 mark] What is the name of the process in Diagram 2? Distillation .......................................................................................................................... [ 1 mark]

(e)

SECTION B
1. Diagram 3 shows the Periodic Table with some elements denoted by letters P,R,S and T.

II

III

IV V

VI VII VIII

R F

Diagram 3 a) . What is the name of the Group i) Vertical column : . ii) Horizontal row : Period .. [ 1 mark] [ 1 mark]

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b)

## What property changes from P to R? [ 1 mark]

P is a solid while R is gas . c) Give one physical property of S. All are gases . [ 1 mark] d) What is the name of the group where T belongs? Transitional Metal . [ 1 mark] e) What is the proton number of R? 9 .. [ 1 mark] f) What is the electron number of P? 3 .. 4. Table 3 below shows the number of protons, neutrons and nucleon number of particles A,B,C and D. Particle A B C D a) Number of protons 11 17 17 20 Number of neutrons 12 18 20 22 Nucleon number 23 35 37 42

Table 3 Complete the table above [2 mark] b) i) Which pair of particles are isotope? B and C .. [1 mark] ii) Give your reason for the answer in b) i) B and C have the same number of proton but different .. number of neutron .. [1 mark] c) Particle A is a neutral atom. How many electrons does A have? 11 .. [1 mark]

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SECTION C 1. Study the statement below carefully. Molecular substances are not conduct electricity in all state Atomic substances are good electric conductor You are given a copper metal, a sulphur roll, connecting wire ,switch and ammeter. (a) (b) Suggest a suitable hypothesis to investigate this statement. (1 mark)

Describe one experiment to test your hypothesis based on the following. (i) Aim of experiment (1 mark) (ii) Variables (2 marks) (iii) List of apparatus (1 mark) (iv) Method (4 marks) (v) Tabulation of data (1 mark)

ANSWER Hypothesis :

Copper is a good electric conductor but sulphur do not To study the electrical conductivity of copper and sulphur Constant : Size // Mass of substance Manipulated : Type of substance // Metal and Non metal Responding : Electrical conductivity of substance Copper metal, sulphur. connecting wire, switch, ammeter, Battery An electric circuit is set up as shown in the diagram The switch is turns on. The deflection of ammeters needle is observed and recorded Step 1 to 3 is repeated using sulphur Type of substance Copper Sulphur Deflection of ammeters needle

## List of apparatus Method

: :. . . .

Tabulation of data :

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2.

a) b)

Give five differences between metal and non-metal Diagram 4 shows three substances. Bromine Sulphur Iodine

(4 marks)

Substance
DIAGRAM 4 You are required to develop a concept of an non-metal. Your answer should be based on the following aspects: Identify two common characteristics of a non-metal. Develop an initial concept of a non-metal. Give one example of a non-metal and one which is not a non-metal. Give reason for each example. Build the real concept of a non-metal. (6 marks)

ANSWER a) Properties Appearance Density Melting point Electrical conductivity Heat conductivity Metal Shiny High High Good conductor Good conductor Non-metal Dull Low Low Poor conductor Poor conductor

b) Identify two common characteristics of a non-metal. Not conduct electricity in all state Have dull surface Develop an initial concept of a non-metal. Substance which have dull surface and not conduct electricity in all state are non-metal Give one example of a non-metal and one which is not a non-metal. Give reason for each example. Example - Plastic because not conduct electricity in all state Non-example Iron because conduct electricity in all state// have shiny surface Build the real concept of a non-metal. Non-metal is a substance which have dull surface and not conduct electricity in all state

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