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Tugas Pertemuan ke-2

Buku acuan sesuai kontrak kuliah Buku dan material lain yang memuat:

Manajemen keselamatan kerja Komunikasi dalam keselamatan kerja Best practice penerapan keselamatan kerja

Catatan: Evaluasi tugas bacaan akan dilakukan secara sampel acak oleh dosen dan akan dimasukkan dalam nilai aktivitas kelas (kehadiran)

Manajemen Keselamatan
Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja
Pertemuan ke-2

Mahrus Khoirul Umami

Tujuan Instruksional


Mahasiswa mengetahui konsep, manajemen, dan sistem keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja beserta teknik analisis & evaluasi dan peraturan perundang-undangan yang mengaturnya


Mahasiswa memahami konsep manajemen keselamatan kerja dan best practice penerapan keselamatan kerja

Workplace Example

An Ontario mining company was fined a total of CAN $225 000 for the death of an employee. The worker was using a stick to scrape off finely crushed rock on a pulley while a conveyor in an ore-crushing house was running. The stick got caught between the pulley and belt and was pulled in. A screw on the end of the stick caught the workers glove and he too was pulled in. This occurred even though a guarding device was there, but this still allowed access to the pinch point. The worker, who was on the night shift, was not being directly supervised. The lack of supervision on the night shift and the lack of sufficient guarding were offences under the Ontario OSH legislation.

(Source: Ontario Ministry of Labour, Canada)

Safety and health in risk management

Hazard and Risk

A hazard may be:

any thing or any condition which has the potential to cause injury or harm to health a source of potentially damaging energy a situation with the potential for harm to life, health and property

Hazard and Risk (contd)

Risk can be viewed as one of the following:

the probability that an event may occur resulting in personal injury or loss to the organization the probability that a hazard is realized, i.e. leads to an untoward event the measure of how likely it is that injury will occur in a given situation

Elements of risk management

Evaluation Avoidance Reduction Retention Transfer

Techniques used in risk management

Step one

consider the work systems within an organization and then at each department level identify the work areas or departments within organization evaluate and apply risk control principles in consultation with the department supervisor, employees and health and safety representatives (where they exist)

Step two

Step three

Major areas of risk

employees and management equipment, machinery and plant materials the environment work practices

Function of a loss control programme

Principles of controlling loss

Loss control areas

Some important points in controlling loss area

An unsafe act, an unsafe condition, and an accident Certain sets of circumstances will produce severe injuries Management should direct the safety effort The key to effective line safety performance lies in management procedures that fix accountability The function of safety is to locate and define the operational errors that allow accidents to occur

Formal and informal safety meetings

Preparing a technical report on an aspect of risk management

Getting information for the report Using pictorial and graphical information

Barriers to effective risk communication

Cultural barriers Belief models Unbalanced presentation of risk Media influence Responses to low probability/high consequence risks versus high probability/low consequence risks The what they dont know wont hurt them view

Preparing a safety case on a particular risk

Thorough specification, design and design review, construction and commissioning using techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA Developing appropriate methods of risk control including maintenance and repair, and control during maintenance and repair Running likely scenarios for various types of failure and developing recovery or emergency response strategies Developing an appropriate management structure and organizational design and linking policies, procedures, consultation, communication and training to the engineering aspects of the area for which the risk is being considered Considering ongoing audit, review and follow-up

Presenting accurate and sensitive information on risk to exposed groups

Manufacture of a formulated chemical where the market is highly competitive A number of workgroups can potentially encounter violence in the workplace

Situations where women, especially those who may be pregnant, can be exposed to chemicals (drycleaning), anaesthetics (surgery), metals (lead in mineral assay), or radiation (radiography).

Nature, occurrence and industrial relations implications of OHS issues

Labour relations

The relationship enjoyed between the employer and the employee will have a significant bearing on the effectiveness of safety programmes.

Hidden agendas which may trigger OHS issues

On some occasions what appears to be an OHS issue arises from other separate concerns

Role of management and workers in the occurrence of OHS issues

OHS issues will certainly arise from time to time in any workplace, and can be handled through the consultative process

Prioritizing and developing strategies to resolve OHS issues

Factors determining priority for resolution of OHS issues

Whether the issue presents an imminent and serious risk A refusal to continue with work in an area after a serious injury or near miss A situation where an inspector (or investigator under some OHS legislation) issues an improvement or prohibition notice. The discovery of a serious but previously unnoticed hazard. Unreasonable or irresponsible directions by management. Unreasonable or irresponsible demands by health and safety representatives, employees or unions Critical deadlines for production and supply of goods or completion of construction work.

Identifying strategies for resolving a particular OHS issue

Two parts to the process

to ensure that a suitable procedure for issues resolution to utilize suitable problem-solving, conflict resolution and negotiating techniques when an issue does arise

Major issues affecting many stakeholders may be resolved by the tripartite body set up in Robensbased legislation

Methodology for resolving an OHS issue

Accurately identifying what the real issue is, as distinct from what appears to be the issue Working with the other party to agree on the method to be used for resolution Seeking out any further information required Deciding on an approach to control with, if necessary, an action plan. Altering procedures and providing any necessary additional training. Monitoring the results of the resolution to see if the solutions are working.

Players relating to issue resolution

Union and employer associations

Workplace players

Health and safety officers/advisors/coordinators Health and safety representatives Health and safety committee members Union representatives Supervisors Managers

Inspectors or investigators

Safety management functions


determining what is to be achieved deciding what is to be done allocating human and material resources deciding how it is to be done and who is to do it guiding the work efforts of other people deciding how to make sure it gets done monitoring performance, comparing results deciding if it is, or is not, getting done and what to do if it is not what type of staff are needed? will they be employed or contracted-in?





Best practice in work safety

Defining best practice

Best practice management systems in work safety are formal, sustainable systems of work, which are integrated into the operational culture of an organization Best practice systems embrace the hazard management model of identification, evaluation, assessment, and control Best practice must also demonstrate a methodology to ensure compliance, notwithstanding that compliance is merely a building block for best practice

Where do you find best practice?

look at successful organizations in various industry sectors analyse their work safety strategy (and then)

duplicate their techniques and systems

Performance indicators

Lost-Time Injury (LTI)

LTI is only one factor in determining the safety management performance of an organization, and even then only a minor factor

Performance indicators (contd)

Some of the more progressive key performance indicators the match between procedures and practices

the variation in the organizational safety profile risk communication systems information and data traps action response rates self-regulation arrangements integrity of policy performance monitoring standards decision-making arrangements problem-solving opportunities

Contractor safety

Contractors may:

come from very small contract firms or be self-employed larger firms with an office on the principals construction or mine site work from home or a location remote from the principals operations using electronic links to the principal be a labour hire firm providing the principal with workers with a wide range of skills as needed

Many important factors

Participation Induction and training Labour hire Tenders Subcontractors

Behaviour-based safety

Common elements

Establishing a critical behaviour list Monitoring critical behaviours Correcting risk behaviours Incentive schemes to promote safe work behaviours

Communication and meeting skills


Effective health and safety communication skills will become very important Efficient communication results in minimum cost in terms of resources expended Health and safety facilitator need to develop skills in:

interviewing (counselling fellow workers in your work group and asking them for information) reporting to meetings and discussions (e.g. health and safety committee, management) note taking problem solving report writing

Barriers to communication

Non-assertive behaviour

not expressing the feelings and needs emotionally dishonest, indirect, inhibited, and self-denying suffering in silence to avoid confrontation, tension and conflict Forcing ideas and feelings on other people without any regard for them hostile, defensive and self-defeating, simply because we lose the support and cooperation of others who will try to avoid us and our bad-tempered outbreaks

Aggressive behaviour

Barriers to communication (contd)

Assertive behaviour

Expressing the feelings in ways that dont violate the rights of others make their own choices, with thought and often research, so they feel confident and good about themselves having acted with dignity and earned others respect

Meeting arrangements

Who will chair the meeting? Will there be a quorum? Who will take the notes or minutes? Timekeeper Meeting arrangements Effective meetings Success of a meeting Documentation for and of meetings

See you on the next course and