Anda di halaman 1dari 29

Fatigue

Lecture 10

Engineering 473
Machine Design
Design Objectives

Failure
σ, F σ, F
Failure

t, time t, time

Design for Strength Design for Life

Rotating Beam Fatigue Testing

Fatigue Dynamics, Inc. rotating

beam test equipment.

S-N Curve

Completely reversed cyclic stress, UNS G41200 steel

Shigley, Fig. 7-6
Fatigue Strength
The Fatigue Strength, Sf(N), is the stress level that a
material can endure for N cycles.

The stress level at which the material can withstand an

infinite number of cycles is call the Endurance Limit.

The Endurance Limit is

observed as a horizontal
line on the S-N curve.

Shigley, Fig. 7-6

Representative S-N Curves

Note that non-ferrous materials often exhibit no

endurance limit.
Mott, Fig. 5-7
Endurance Limit
Vs Tensile Strength

Conservative
Lower Bound
for Ferrous
Materials
S′e = 0.3Sut

S′e ≡ Endurance Limit of Test Specimen

Sut ≡ Tensile Strength of Test Specimen
Shigley, Fig. 7-7
Endurance Limit
Multiplying Factors
(Marin Factors)

Se = k a ⋅ k b ⋅ k c ⋅ k d ⋅ k e ⋅ S′e
There are several
factors that are known
Se ≡ Endurance limit of part to result in differences
between the endurance
S′e ≡ Endurance limit of test specimen
limits in test specimens
k a ≡ Surface factor and those found in
k b ≡ Size factor machine elements.
k c ≡ Load factor
k d ≡ Temperature factor See sections 7-8 & 7-9 in
k e ≡ Miscellaneous - effects factor Shigley for a discussion on
each factor.
Mean Stress Effects
• The S-N curve obtained from a
rotating beam test has completely
reversed stress states.

• Many stress histories will not have

completely reversed stress states.

Shigley, Fig. 7-12

Definitions
Stress Range
σ r = σ max − σ min

Alternating Stress
σ max − σ min
σa =
2
Mean Stress
σ max + σ min
σm =
2
Stress Ratio Amplitude Ratio
Note that R=-1 for a
σ min σa completely reversed
R= A=
σ max σm stress state with zero
mean stress.
Mean Stress Fatigue Testing

Fatigue Dynamics, Inc.,

fluctuating fatigue stress
testing equipment.

www.fdinc.com
Fluctuating Stress Failure Data

Note that a tensile

mean stress results
in a significantly
lower fatigue
strength for a given
number of cycles to
failure.

Note that a curved

line passes through
This plot shows the fatigue strength of
the mean of the
several steels as a function of mean
data.
stress for a constant number of cycles to
failure.
Shigley, Fig. 7-14
Master Fatigue Plot

Shigley, Fig. 7-15

Fluctuating Stress Failure
Interaction Curves

Shigley, Fig. 7-16

Soderberg Interaction Line
Any combination of mean and
k f Sa S m alternating stress that lies on or
+ =1 below the Solderberg line will
Se S yt
have infinite life.

k f Sa S m 1
+ =
Se S yt N f

Note that the fatigue stress

concentration factor is applied
only to the alternating
component.
Goodman Interaction Line

k f Sa S m Any combination of mean and

+ =1 alternating stress that lies on or
Se Sut below the Goodman line will
have infinite life.

Factor of Safety Format

k f Sa Sm 1
+ =
Se Sut N f
Note that the fatigue stress
concentration factor is applied
only to the alternating
component.
Gerber Interaction Line
Any combination of mean and
2 alternating stress that lies on or
k f Sa æ S m ö below the Gerber line will have
+ çç ÷÷ = 1 infinite life.
Se è Sut ø
Factor of Safety Format
2
k f N f Sa æ N f S m ö
+ çç ÷÷ = 1
Se è Sut ø

Note that the fatigue stress

concentration factor is applied
only to the alternating
component.
Modified-Goodman
Interaction Line

The Modified-Goodman
Interaction Line never exceeds
the yield line.
Example No. 1

A 1.5-inch round bar has been machined from AISI 1050 cold-
drawn round bar. This part is to withstand a fluctuating tensile
load varying from 0 to 16 kip. Because of the design of the
ends and the fillet radius, a fatigue stress-concentration factor
of 1.85 exists. The remaining Marin factors have been worked
out, and are ka=0.797, kb=kd=1, and kc=0.923. Find the factor
of safety using the Goodman interaction line.

Shigley, Example 7-5

Example No. 1
(Continued)
Sut = 100. ksi σ max + σ min
S′e ≈ 0.50 ⋅ Sut = 50. ksi σm = = 4.52 ksi
2

π ⋅ d2 Se = k a k b k c k dS′e
A= = 1.77 in 2
4
= (0.797 )(1)(0.923)(1)(50 ksi )
16 kip Se = 36.8 ksi
σ max = 2
= 9.04 ksi
1.77 in
σ min = 0 ksi

σ max − σ min
σa = = 4.52 ksi
2
Example No. 1
(Continued)

k f σa σm 1
+ =
Se Sut N f

1.85 ⋅ 4.52 ksi 4.52 ksi 1

+ = 0.272 =
36.8 ksi 100. ksi Nf

N f = 3.67
Example
5 in 5 in Pmax = 1000 lb
Pmin = 350 lb
1 2

Material UNS
1.5 in. dia. 0.875 in. dia. G41200 Steel
0.125 in. rad. Notch sensitivity
Will the beam have infinite life? q=0.3

π 4 π I1 0.249 in 4
D 1 = (1.5) = 0.249 in 4 S1 = = = 0.332 in 3
4
I1 =
64 64 c1 0.75 in
π 4 π I 2 0.088 in 4
D 2 = (0.875) = 0.088 in 4
4
I2 = S2 = = = 0.201 in 3
64 64 c 2 0.438 in
Example
(Continued)
5 in 5 in Pmax = 1000 lb
Pmin = 350 lb
1 2

Material UNS
1.5 in. dia. 0.875 in. dia. G41200 Steel
0.125 in. rad. Notch sensitivity
q=0.3

kf −1 D 1.5 in k t = 1.61
q= = = 1.71
k t −1 d 0.875 in k f = 1 + q(k t − 1)
r 0.125
k f = 1 + q(k t − 1) = = 0.143 = 1 + 0.3(1.61 − 1)
d 0.875
= 1.18
Ref. Peterson
Example
(Continued)
5 in 5 in Pmax = 1000 lb
Pmin = 350 lb
1 2

Material UNS
1.5 in. dia. 0.875 in. dia. G41200 Steel
0.125 in. rad. Notch sensitivity
q=0.3
Section 1 (Base)

M1 (1000 lb )(10 in ) σ max − σ min

σ max = = = 30.1 ksi σa = = 9.8 ksi
S1 0.332 in 3
2
M1 (350 lb )(10 in ) σ max + σ min
σ min = = 3
= 10.5 ksi σm = = 20.3 ksi
S1 0.332 in
2
Example
(Continued)
5 in 5 in Pmax = 1000 lb
Pmin = 350 lb
1 2

Material UNS
1.5 in. dia. 0.875 in. dia.
G41200 Steel
0.125 in. rad. Notch sensitivity
Section 2 (Fillet) q=0.3

M1 (1000 lb )(5 in ) σ max − σ min

σ max = = = 24.9 ksi σa = = 8.10 ksi
S1 0.201 in 3
2
M1 (350 lb )(5 in ) σ max + σ min
σ min = = 3
= 8.71 ksi σm = = 16.8 ksi
S1 0.201 in 2
Example
(Continued)
Section 1 (Base)

M (1000 lb)(10 in ) = 30.1 ksi σ max − σ min

σ max = 1= σa = = 9.8 ksi
S1 0.332 in 3 2
M1 (350 lb )(10 in ) σ max + σ min
σ min = = 3
= 10.5 ksi σm = = 20.3 ksi
S1 0.332 in 2

Sut = 116 ksi 1.0(9.8 ksi ) 20.3 ksi

+ = 0.502
S′e = 30 ksi = Se 30 ksi 116 ksi

k f σa σm 1 1
+ = Nf = = 1.99
Se Sult N f 0.502
Part has infinite life.
Example
(Continued)

Section 2 (Fillet)

σ max
M
= 1=
(1000 lb)(5 in ) = 24.9 ksi σa =
σ max − σ min
= 8.10 ksi
S1 0.201 in 3 2
M1 (350 lb )(5 in ) σ max + σ min
σ min = = 3
= 8.71 ksi σm = = 16.8 ksi
S1 0.201 in 2

Sut = 116 ksi 1.18(8.10 ksi ) 16.8 ksi

+ = 0.463
S′e = 30 ksi = Se 30 ksi 116 ksi

k f σa σm 1 1
+ = Nf = = 2.16
Se Sult N f 0.463

Assignment
Problem 1
Assignment
(Continued)
Problem 2