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Fatigue

Lecture 10

Engineering 473
Machine Design
Load Histories and
Design Objectives

Failure
σ, F σ, F
Failure

t, time t, time

Monotonic, Static, or Steady Dynamic, Cyclic, or Unsteady

Design for Strength Design for Life


Rotating Beam Fatigue Testing

Fatigue Dynamics, Inc. rotating


beam test equipment.

Mott, Fig. 5-2 & 5-3 www.fdinc.com


S-N Curve

Completely reversed cyclic stress, UNS G41200 steel


Shigley, Fig. 7-6
Fatigue Strength
The Fatigue Strength, Sf(N), is the stress level that a
material can endure for N cycles.

The stress level at which the material can withstand an


infinite number of cycles is call the Endurance Limit.

The Endurance Limit is


observed as a horizontal
line on the S-N curve.

Shigley, Fig. 7-6


Representative S-N Curves

Note that non-ferrous materials often exhibit no


endurance limit.
Mott, Fig. 5-7
Endurance Limit
Vs Tensile Strength

Conservative
Lower Bound
for Ferrous
Materials
S′e = 0.3Sut

S′e ≡ Endurance Limit of Test Specimen


Sut ≡ Tensile Strength of Test Specimen
Shigley, Fig. 7-7
Endurance Limit
Multiplying Factors
(Marin Factors)

Se = k a ⋅ k b ⋅ k c ⋅ k d ⋅ k e ⋅ S′e
There are several
factors that are known
Se ≡ Endurance limit of part to result in differences
between the endurance
S′e ≡ Endurance limit of test specimen
limits in test specimens
k a ≡ Surface factor and those found in
k b ≡ Size factor machine elements.
k c ≡ Load factor
k d ≡ Temperature factor See sections 7-8 & 7-9 in
k e ≡ Miscellaneous - effects factor Shigley for a discussion on
each factor.
Mean Stress Effects
• The S-N curve obtained from a
rotating beam test has completely
reversed stress states.

• Many stress histories will not have


completely reversed stress states.

Shigley, Fig. 7-12


Definitions
Stress Range
σ r = σ max − σ min

Alternating Stress
σ max − σ min
σa =
2
Mean Stress
σ max + σ min
σm =
2
Stress Ratio Amplitude Ratio
Note that R=-1 for a
σ min σa completely reversed
R= A=
σ max σm stress state with zero
mean stress.
Mean Stress Fatigue Testing

Fatigue Dynamics, Inc.,


fluctuating fatigue stress
testing equipment.

www.fdinc.com
Fluctuating Stress Failure Data

Note that a tensile


mean stress results
in a significantly
lower fatigue
strength for a given
number of cycles to
failure.

Note that a curved


line passes through
This plot shows the fatigue strength of
the mean of the
several steels as a function of mean
data.
stress for a constant number of cycles to
failure.
Shigley, Fig. 7-14
Master Fatigue Plot

Shigley, Fig. 7-15


Fluctuating Stress Failure
Interaction Curves

Shigley, Fig. 7-16


Soderberg Interaction Line
Any combination of mean and
k f Sa S m alternating stress that lies on or
+ =1 below the Solderberg line will
Se S yt
have infinite life.

Factor of Safety Format

k f Sa S m 1
+ =
Se S yt N f

Note that the fatigue stress


concentration factor is applied
only to the alternating
component.
Goodman Interaction Line

k f Sa S m Any combination of mean and


+ =1 alternating stress that lies on or
Se Sut below the Goodman line will
have infinite life.

Factor of Safety Format

k f Sa Sm 1
+ =
Se Sut N f
Note that the fatigue stress
concentration factor is applied
only to the alternating
component.
Gerber Interaction Line
Any combination of mean and
2 alternating stress that lies on or
k f Sa æ S m ö below the Gerber line will have
+ çç ÷÷ = 1 infinite life.
Se è Sut ø
Factor of Safety Format
2
k f N f Sa æ N f S m ö
+ çç ÷÷ = 1
Se è Sut ø

Note that the fatigue stress


concentration factor is applied
only to the alternating
component.
Modified-Goodman
Interaction Line

The Modified-Goodman
Interaction Line never exceeds
the yield line.
Example No. 1

A 1.5-inch round bar has been machined from AISI 1050 cold-
drawn round bar. This part is to withstand a fluctuating tensile
load varying from 0 to 16 kip. Because of the design of the
ends and the fillet radius, a fatigue stress-concentration factor
of 1.85 exists. The remaining Marin factors have been worked
out, and are ka=0.797, kb=kd=1, and kc=0.923. Find the factor
of safety using the Goodman interaction line.

Shigley, Example 7-5


Example No. 1
(Continued)
Sut = 100. ksi σ max + σ min
S′e ≈ 0.50 ⋅ Sut = 50. ksi σm = = 4.52 ksi
2

π ⋅ d2 Se = k a k b k c k dS′e
A= = 1.77 in 2
4
= (0.797 )(1)(0.923)(1)(50 ksi )
16 kip Se = 36.8 ksi
σ max = 2
= 9.04 ksi
1.77 in
σ min = 0 ksi

σ max − σ min
σa = = 4.52 ksi
2
Example No. 1
(Continued)

k f σa σm 1
+ =
Se Sut N f

1.85 ⋅ 4.52 ksi 4.52 ksi 1


+ = 0.272 =
36.8 ksi 100. ksi Nf

N f = 3.67
Example
5 in 5 in Pmax = 1000 lb
Pmin = 350 lb
1 2

Material UNS
1.5 in. dia. 0.875 in. dia. G41200 Steel
0.125 in. rad. Notch sensitivity
Will the beam have infinite life? q=0.3

π 4 π I1 0.249 in 4
D 1 = (1.5) = 0.249 in 4 S1 = = = 0.332 in 3
4
I1 =
64 64 c1 0.75 in
π 4 π I 2 0.088 in 4
D 2 = (0.875) = 0.088 in 4
4
I2 = S2 = = = 0.201 in 3
64 64 c 2 0.438 in
Example
(Continued)
5 in 5 in Pmax = 1000 lb
Pmin = 350 lb
1 2

Material UNS
1.5 in. dia. 0.875 in. dia. G41200 Steel
0.125 in. rad. Notch sensitivity
q=0.3

kf −1 D 1.5 in k t = 1.61
q= = = 1.71
k t −1 d 0.875 in k f = 1 + q(k t − 1)
r 0.125
k f = 1 + q(k t − 1) = = 0.143 = 1 + 0.3(1.61 − 1)
d 0.875
= 1.18
Ref. Peterson
Example
(Continued)
5 in 5 in Pmax = 1000 lb
Pmin = 350 lb
1 2

Material UNS
1.5 in. dia. 0.875 in. dia. G41200 Steel
0.125 in. rad. Notch sensitivity
q=0.3
Section 1 (Base)

M1 (1000 lb )(10 in ) σ max − σ min


σ max = = = 30.1 ksi σa = = 9.8 ksi
S1 0.332 in 3
2
M1 (350 lb )(10 in ) σ max + σ min
σ min = = 3
= 10.5 ksi σm = = 20.3 ksi
S1 0.332 in
2
Example
(Continued)
5 in 5 in Pmax = 1000 lb
Pmin = 350 lb
1 2

Material UNS
1.5 in. dia. 0.875 in. dia.
G41200 Steel
0.125 in. rad. Notch sensitivity
Section 2 (Fillet) q=0.3

M1 (1000 lb )(5 in ) σ max − σ min


σ max = = = 24.9 ksi σa = = 8.10 ksi
S1 0.201 in 3
2
M1 (350 lb )(5 in ) σ max + σ min
σ min = = 3
= 8.71 ksi σm = = 16.8 ksi
S1 0.201 in 2
Example
(Continued)
Section 1 (Base)

M (1000 lb)(10 in ) = 30.1 ksi σ max − σ min


σ max = 1= σa = = 9.8 ksi
S1 0.332 in 3 2
M1 (350 lb )(10 in ) σ max + σ min
σ min = = 3
= 10.5 ksi σm = = 20.3 ksi
S1 0.332 in 2

Sut = 116 ksi 1.0(9.8 ksi ) 20.3 ksi


+ = 0.502
S′e = 30 ksi = Se 30 ksi 116 ksi

k f σa σm 1 1
+ = Nf = = 1.99
Se Sult N f 0.502
Part has infinite life.
Example
(Continued)

Section 2 (Fillet)

σ max
M
= 1=
(1000 lb)(5 in ) = 24.9 ksi σa =
σ max − σ min
= 8.10 ksi
S1 0.201 in 3 2
M1 (350 lb )(5 in ) σ max + σ min
σ min = = 3
= 8.71 ksi σm = = 16.8 ksi
S1 0.201 in 2

Sut = 116 ksi 1.18(8.10 ksi ) 16.8 ksi


+ = 0.463
S′e = 30 ksi = Se 30 ksi 116 ksi

k f σa σm 1 1
+ = Nf = = 2.16
Se Sult N f 0.463

Part has infinite life.


Assignment
Problem 1
Assignment
(Continued)
Problem 2