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Business Research Methodology [MBR3772] Prof N.

E Schutte

Mulenga Mwale


Definition of Research ..2

Types of Research . 3

Qualities of a Good Researcher ..6


Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories. The primary purpose for basic research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttleworth, Defining research as any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or examination; especially aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws". The word research is composed of two syllables, re and search. Reis a prefix meaning again, anew or over again,search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try. Together they form a noun describing a careful, systematic, patient study andinvestigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles.Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology tosolve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable.Scientific methods consist of systematic observation, classification and interpretationof data

Research method is a procedure to help you find the required data to draw conclusion or make some predictable results on similar types of experiments or incidents no matter where or when or what extent that particular incident is happening. In other words, research method is a way of collecting inputs and finding the outputs, to conduct your research successfully.The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge. This process takes three main forms;Research can also fall into two distinct types: Primary research (collection of data that does not exist yet ) Secondary research (summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research)

As a research method you can choose one of the following or a combination: Qualitative research - understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior) Quantitative research - (systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships) Exploratory research-This type of research may generate any novel idea in the domain of knowledge. It is primarily done for the purpose of finding anything new in any subject arena and always tries to shed some light in the unknown domain of knowledge. This kind of research also Constructive research- This is mainly done by many technological corporates in order to find new/alternative solutions to any particular crisis or problems. For example-renewable energy research or development of the capacity of optical fiber may fall into this category of research. Empirical research-This is very impressive observational type of research, where one observes or test on real-life data or analysis the pattern of some specific events in order to identify the nature or the class of trend that specific phenomenon maintains. Based on the test result, researchers try to draw lines in order to predict the result of that type of incidents with certain level of confidence. Experiments-this is used in exploratory type research. What types of experiments necessary depends on the research topic. This is very time consuming and expensive type of research method.

Surveys-this is used in empirical or exploratory type of research, usually used in business studies. You can use questionnaires or even interview some specific group of people to get your research result. Observation observational data can be recorded in order to find empirical relationship between different parameters of your research. One disadvantage of this type of research is that it is very time-consuming and expensive method. Existing data-this type of research is done on the available data to find any findings or patterns in the data. This is the most effortless, time-saving and less-expensive type of research, but to carry out this type of research researchers need to be extra careful in order to find the real findings out of the existing data-a slight mistake can lead you to wrong direction-waste of, the accuracy of this type of research mainly depends on the experience of the researchers, but it has the advantage of give you some important clue about any novel findings. Action research is a methodology that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues or phenomena through observation and reflection, and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Applied research is research undertaken to solve practical problems rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge sake. Basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge. Clinical trials are research studies undertaken to determine better ways to prevent, screen for, diagnose or treat diseases. Epidemiological research is concerned with the description of health and welfare in populations through the collection of data related to health and the frequency, distribution and determinants of disease in populations, with the aim of improving health. Evaluation research is research conducted to measure the effectiveness or performance of a program, concept or campaign in achieving its objectives. Literature review is a critical examination, summarization, interpretation or evaluation

of existing literature in order to establish current knowledge on a subject. Qualitative research is research undertaken to gain insights concerning attitudes, beliefs, motivations and behaviors of individuals to explore a social or human problem and include methods such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation research and case studies. Quantitative research is research concerned with the measurement of attitudes, behaviors and perceptions and includes interviewing methods such as telephone, intercept and door-to-door interviews as well as self-completion methods such as mail outs and online surveys. Service or program monitoring and evaluation involves collecting and analyzing a range of processes and outcome data in order to assess the performance of a service or program and to determine if the intended or expected results have been achieved.


Enthusiasm - means intense, enjoyment, interest, approval,inspiration or possessionof a vain confidence of divine favor or communication. Perseverance the researcher must be able to continue in a course of action without regarding the discouragement, opposition or previousfailure that he or she might have encountered during the research Open - a willingness to learn and should not be bias towards some of the information or data that has been collected Inquisitiveness - eager for knowledge, Hard working - Every Research needs lots of dedication from the researchers part-the amount of dedication mainly depends on the subject matter of the research. Well-organized - The researcher should also be able to convey the research in an accessible format that is, the research must be easy to make use of. Critical thinker - A good researcher will be able to extract relevant information from large amounts of information, the process of investigation must be foolproof and free from drawbacks Solves the given problem - Good research is that which paints a complete picture, but not clustered with detail as to detract from the overall picture Rigorous-you must be scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed to find answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified. Systematic-this implies that the procedure adopted to undertake an investigationfollow a certain logical sequence. Valid and verifiable-this implies that the researchers conclusion must not be basis, meaning his/her findings must be correct and can be verified by him/her and others. Empirical-this means that any conclusions drawn are based upon hard evidencegathered from information collected from real life experiences or observations.