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A-a DO2 - alveolararterial oxygen gradient A/C - assistcontrol ventilation AEP - acute eosinophilic pneumonia {see interstitial pneumonia(s)

AIP - acute interstitial pneumonia {(see interstitial pneumonia(s) ALI - acute lung injury APRV - airway pressure release ventilation ARDS - adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome. Adult or Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome ARF - acute respiratory failure BAL - bronchoalveolar lavage BALF - bronchoalveolar lavage fluid BOOP - Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP) a chronic scarring and obstruction process involving the lung's small airways. BPD - bronchopleural dysplasia BPF - bronchopleural fistula Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) irrigation or washing out of the bronchi and alveoli, resulting in obtaining bronchalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) which assists in removing unwanted mediators, degradation byproducts, and perhaps defective surfactant and proteins substances from the surface and membrane linings (often before surfactant replacement), and the fluid obtained may be used in performing measurements to ascertain the levels of various mediators and substances as a diagnostic tool. Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) bronchopleural fistulas are large air leaks which develop secondary to collapsed lungs. CaO2 - concentration of oxygen in arterial blood Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood. Cardiac Index (CI) - an adjustment of the cardiac output based on the size of the persons body. Cardiac Output (CO) - can be calculated if we know the heart rate and the stroke volume. Central Venous Pressure (CVP) CEP - chronic eosinophilic pneumonia {see interstitial pneumonia(s)} Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) CMV - conventional mechanical ventilation

CO2 - carbon dioxide CPAP - continuous positive airway pressure, constant (or continuous) positive airway pressure. Constant (or continuous) positive airway pressure (CPAP) a noninvasive ventilation assistance technique, lesser level than full mechanical ventilation; constant, low level pressure delivered to the lungs during spontaneous ventilation (i.e. off a ventilator), usually through a face mask or nasal prongs. CPAP is useful in mild lung diseases, sleep apnea, or during the end stages of recovery of more severe diseases. DIC - disseminated intravascular coagulation; DIP - desquamatic interstitial pneumonia {see interstitial pneumonia(s)} DO2 - oxygen delivery ECLS - extracorporeal (outside the body) life support; encompasses ECMO and ECCO2R ECMO - extracorporeal (outside the body, heartlung machine) membrane oxygenation ECCO2R - extracorporeal (outside the body) CO2 removal Ejection Fraction (EF) - a measurement of how well the left ventricle, or the heart's main pumping chamber, works. It is expressed as a percentage of blood that leaves the heart with each beat. Normally the left ventricle ejects 55 to 70 percent of the blood during each heartbeat. Generally, the lower the Ejection Fraction the more severe the symptoms. EMDR - eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the WhatIs section ERCP - endoscopic retrograde cholagio prancreatography; see WhatIsERCP? ET - endotracheal tube FEV1 - forced expiratory volume in one second FiO2 - fractional concentration of inspired oxygen Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) is a measurement of flow rate; this is the amount of air that can be exhaled in the first second after you take the deepest breath that you can. Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) the percentage of oxygen in the air inhaled, either on or off the ventilator. FiO2 ranges are from 21% (e.g. in room air) to 100% (e.g. pure oxygen). Functional residual capacity (FRC) the volume of gas that remains in the lungs after the exhalation of a spontaneous or mechanically assisted breath. Infants with surfactant deficiency have a lower FRC. FRC - functional residual capacity GIP - giant cell interstitial pneumonia HFFI - high frequency flow interrupted (ventilation) HFJV - highfrequency jet ventilation

HFOV - high frequency oscillatory ventilation HFV - highfrequency ventilation I:E - inspiratory: expiratory ratio IPF - interstitial or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ILV - independent lung ventilation IMV - intermittent mandatory ventilation iNO - inhaled nitric oxide IP - interstitial pneumonia IR - inverse ratio ventilation IV - intravenous IVH - intraventricular hemorrhage IVOX - intravascular blood gas exchanger LFPPV - lowfrequency positive pressure ventilation LIP - lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia {see interstitial pneumonia(s)} MalvP - mean alveolar pressure Mean airway pressure (MAP or Paw) the mathematical average of all the different pressures being used by the ventilator to support the infant. MAP is expressed in cm H2O. A level of 20 cm H2O indicates severe disease and a level of 10 cm H2O suggests that the neonate may be ready to be weaned from the ventilator. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) -70-90 mm Hg MMV - mandatory minute ventilation MODS - multiorgan dysfunction; precedes MOF MOF - multiple organ failure MRSA - methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus infection in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) presence of altered organ function in an acutely ill patient such that homeostasis cannot be maintained without intervention. Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) the complete shutting down of multiple organs throughout the body. Muscle atrophy loss of muscle tissue, strength and structure resulting from nonusage.

NIP - non-specific interstitial pneumonia {see interstitial pneumonia(s)} NO - nitric oxide (see articles on Nitric Oxide in Learn About ARDS Section 1) O2 - oxygen O2 Sat Level oxygen saturation level in the blood OAD - obstructive airways disease OI - oxygen index Oxygenation index (OI) a frequently used calculation that incorporates FiO2, Paw, and PaO2. The OI is generally between 30-40 in the presence of severe respiratory distress. OI is calculated as follows: OI = FiO2 x Paw x 100 PA catheter - See Pulmonary Artery Catheter. PaO2 - Oxygen partial pressure (PO2) refers to the pressure exerted by oxygen when dissolved in liquid. PaCO2 - carbon dioxide partial pressure PaO2 - partial pressure of oxygen PAP - peak airway pressure Paw - airway pressure PCIR - pressurecontrolled inverse ratio ventilation Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) the maximum pressure being used to inflate the neonates lungs during each mechanical breath. PEEP - positive endexpiratory pressure PIP - peak inspiratory pressure Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) the pressure that the ventilator maintains at the end of expiration to prevent atelectasis. PP - positive pressure ventilation Ppl - pleural pressure PS - pressure support PSV - pressure support ventilation PT - physical therapy or pulmonary therapy (see article on Pulmonary Rehab in Learn About ARDS section 1)

PTSD - post traumatic stress disorder SIMV - synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation SIRS - systemic inflammatory response syndrome Ti - inspiratory time TLC - total lung capacity UIP - usual interstitial pneumonia {see interstitial pneumonia(s)} VC - vital capacity Vt - tidal volume V:Q mismatch - ventilation: perfusion mismatch