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Unit 6 - Business and pleasure

Objectives
The students will be able to know the countries and cities around the world.
The students will be able to use present continuous and present simple:
positive, negative and question forms
The students will be able to use question words
The students will be able to know shopping phrases

Unit details
Countries and cities
Present continuous: positive, negative and question forms
Present simple or present continuous?
Question words
Shopping phrases

Teaching activities
Discussion about countries and cities
Explaining the usage of present continuous and present simple: positive,
negative and question forms
Discussion on question word usage.
Group students and discuss shopping.
Listening to the tape
Do exercises

Teaching materials
Course book
Tape
White board

Homework / Assignments
Finding the names of countries and cities around the world
Make sentences with present continuous and present simple: positive,
negative and question forms
Make sentences with question words
A list of all the countries of the world and their capital cities split into
continents.
Capital Cities of Countries in Europe

Country Capital City


Albania Tirana
Andorra Andorra la Vela
Austria Vienna
Belarus Minsk
Belgium Brussels
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo
Bulgaria Sofia
Croatia Zagreb
Cyprus Nicosia
Czech Republic Prague
Denmark Copenhagen
England London
Estonia Tallinn
Finland Helsinki
France Paris
Georgia Tbilisi
Germany Berlin
Greece Athens
Hungary Budapest
Iceland Reykjavik
Ireland Dublin
Italy Rome
Latvia Riga
Liechtenstein Vaduz
Lithuania Vilnius
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Macedonia Skopje
Malta Valletta
Moldova Chisinau
Monaco Monaco
Montenegro Podgorica
The Netherlands Amsterdam
Northern Ireland Belfast
Norway Oslo
Poland Warsaw
Portugal Lisbon
Romania Bucharest
Russian Federation Moscow
San Marino San Marino
Denmark Copenhagen
Scotland Edinburgh
Slovakia Bratislava
Slovenia Ljubljana
Spain Madrid
Sweden Stockholm
Switzerland Bern
Ukraine Kiev
Wales Cardiff

Capital Cities of Countries in Africa


Country Capital City
Algeria Algiers
Angola Luanda
Benin Porto-Novo
Botswana Gaborone
Burkina Faso Ouagadougou
Burundi Bujumbura
Cameroon Yaounde
Cape Verde Praia
Central African Republic Bangu
Chad N'Djamena
Comoros Moroni
Congo, Republic of Brazzaville
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Kinshasa
Cote d'Ivoire Yamoussoukro
Djibouti Djibouti
Egypt Cairo
Equatorial Guinea Malabo
Eritrea Asmara
Ethiopia Addis Ababa
Gabon Libreville
Gambia Banjul
Ghana Accra
Guinea Conakry
Guinea-Bissau Bissau
Kenya Nairobi
Lesotho Maseru
Liberia Monrovia
Libya Tripoli
Madagascar Antananarivo
Malawi Lilongwe
Mali Bamako
Mauritania Nouakchott
Mauritius Port Louis
Morocco Rabat
Mozambique Maputo
Namibia Windhoek
Niger Niamey
Nigeria Abuja
Rwanda Kigali
Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome
Senegal Dakar
Seychelles Victoria
Sierra Leone Freetown
Somalia Mogadishu
South Africa Pretoria
Sudan Khartoum
Swaziland Mbabane
Tanzania Dar es Salaam
Togo Lome
Tunisia Tunis
Uganda Kampala
Western Sahara El Aaiun
Zambia Lusaka
Zimbabwe Harare

The Capital City of Countries in Asia


Country Capital City
Afghanistan Kabul
Armenia Yerevan
Azerbaijan Baku
Bahrain Manama
Bangladesh Dhaka
Bhutan Thimphu
Brunei - Darussalam Bandar Seri Begawan
Burma (Myanmar) Rangoon
Cambodia Phnom Penh
China Beijing
East Timor Dili
India New Delhi
Indonesia Jakarta
Iran Teheran
Iraq Baghdad
Israel Jerusalem
Japan Tokyo
Jordan Amman
Kazakhstan Astana
Korea(North) Pyongyang
Korea(South) Seoul
Kuwait Kuwait City
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek
Laos Vientiane
Lebanon Beirut
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Maldives Male
Mongolia Ulan Bator
Nepal Kathmandu
Oman Muscat
Pakistan Islamabad
Philippines Manila
Qatar Doha
Saudi Arabia Riyadh
Singapore Singapore
Sri Lanka Colombo (Commercial
Capital)
Sri Jayawardenepura-Kotte
(Administrative Capital)
Syria Damascus
Taiwan Taipei
Tajikistan Dushanbe
Thailand Bangkok
Turkey Ankara
Turkmenistan Ashgabat
United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi
Uzbekistan Tashkent
Vietnam Hanoi
Yemen Sana

The Capital City of Countries in North America


Country Capital City
Antigua and Barbuda St. John's
Bahamas Nassau
Barbados Bridgetown
Belize Belmopan
Canada Ottawa - Ontario
Costa Rica San Jose
Cuba Havana
Dominica Roseau
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo
El Salvador San Salvador
Greenland Nuuk
Grenada St. George's
Guatemala Guatemala City
Haiti Port-au-Prince
Honduras Tegucigalpa
Jamaica Kingston
Mexico Mexico City
Nicaragua Managua
Panama Panama City
St. Kitts and Nevis Basseterre
St. Lucia Castries
St. Vincent and The Grenadines Kingstown
Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain
United States Washington D.C.

Capital Cities of Countries in Oceania


Country Capital City
Australia Canberra
Fiji Suva
Kiribati Tarawa
Marshall Islands Majuro
Micronesia Palikir
Nauru Yaren
New Zealand Wellington
Palau Koror
Papua New Guinea Port Moresby
Samoa Apia
Solomon Islands Honiara
Tonga Nuku'alofa
Tuvalu Funafuti
Vanuatu Port Vila

Capital Cities of Countries in South America


Country Capital City
Argentina Buenos Aires
Bolivia La Paz (seat of gov.)
Sucre (legal capital)
Brazil Brasilia
Chile Santiago
Colombia Bogota
Ecuador Quito
Guyana Georgetown
Paraguay Asuncion
Peru Lima
Suriname Paramaribo
Uruguay Montevideo
Venezuela Caracas
Present Continuous
รูปกริยา Subject + (is, am, are) + (verb+ing).
การใช้
1.ใช้ present continuous เมื่อการกระทำานั้นกำาลังดำาเนินอยู่ต่อหน้า(ในขณะที่พูด
ประโยคนั้น)
1. The sun is shining.
2. The bees are humming.
3. What are you doing?

ในกรณีที่ผู้พูดต้องการ เน้นคำาว่า กำาลัง ให้หนักแน่นยิ่งขึ้น นิยมเติมคำา just ลงข้าง


หน้า(just ในกรณีเช่นนี้ไม่มีคำาแปลในภาษาไทย)เช่น
4. The children are just having breakfast.

2.ใช้ present continuous ในเหตุการ์ที่ดำาเนินอยู่เป็นประจำาในขณะทีพ ่ ูด


นี่เป็นข้อยกเว้นจากหลักท่วไปที่ว่า ใช้ present simple กับเหตุการณ์ที่เกิดขึ้นเป็นประจำา เช่น
1. My son works hard this term.
2. He tries his best now.

ประโยคทั้งสองนี้ใช้ตามหลักทั่วไป ซึ่งจะพบว่าเป็นประโยคเนือย ๆ ไม่กระฉับกระแฉง


ประโยคดังกล่าวจะมีความหมายดียิ่งขึ้นไปอีก ถ้าใช้ present continuous คือ

1. My son is working hard this term.


2. He is trying his best now.

3.ใช้ present continuous แสดงเหตุการณ์ในอนาคต ซึ่งคาดว่าจะต้องเป็นเช่นนั้น


แน่นอน
การใช้ present continuous ในความหมายที่เป็นอนาคตนี้ ปกติเขาใช้กับกริาที่มีการ
เคลื่อนที(่ verbs of movement) แต่จะใช้ กับกริยาอื่นบ้างก็ได้
1. We are going to Paris on Sunday.
2. Dang is coming here next week and is staying here until May.

3. What are you doing next Sunday?

กริยาที่ไม่ใช้ใน continuous tenses


hear ได้ยิน love จำาได้
see เห็น hate เกลียด
feel รู้สึก know รู้
smell ได้กลิ่น understand เข้าใจ
taste ได้รส,รู้รส believe เชื่อว่า
หมายเหตุ ฯลฯ
กริยาที่ไม่ใช่ใน continuous ได้แก่ กริยาแสดงการรับรู้ (verbs of perception) แสดง
ภาวะของจิตใจ(state of mind) ความรู้สึก(feeling) หรือแสดงสัมพันธภาพ
(relationship) เช่น

เมื่อต้องการจะบอกว่า กำาลังมีอาการเช่นนี้อยู่ คงใช้เพียง present simple เท่านั้น เช่น


1. I don't see anything here. (ไม่ใช่ I am not seeing....)
2. I see what you mean. (ไม่ใช่ I am seeing...)
3. Do you hear the noise? (ไม่ใช่ Are you hearing...)

Forming the present continuous tense

This tense is formed using two components: the verb BE (in the present tense),
and the -ING form of a verb. Here are the rules, using the example verb "sing":

Subject BE -ing form

I am singing
You / We / They are singing

He / She / It is singing

How to make the -ING form

With many verbs, you can simply add -ING to the end of the verb. However,
with some verbs, you need to change the ending a little. Here are the rules:

Verb ending in... How to make the -ING Examples


form
1 vowel + 1 consonant Double the consonant, swim - swimming
then add –ING hit - hitting
get - getting

1 vowel + 1 consonant Remove E, then add come - coming


+E -ING lose – losing
say - saying
[anything else] Add -ING go - going

Forming a negative
Negatives in the simple present are formed by adding not or n't after the verb
BE:

Positive sentence Negative sentence Contracted negative


I am eating. I am not eating. I'm not eating.
You are working. You are not working. You aren't working.
He is driving. He is not driving. He isn't driving.
She is teaching. She is not teaching. She isn't teaching.
It is raining. It is not raining. It isn't raining.
We are reading. We are not reading. We aren't reading.
They are writing. They are not writing. They aren't writing.

Forming a question
Yes/no questions are created by moving the verb BE to the beginning of the
sentence. WH- questions are formed by moving the verb BE, and then adding
the WH- word. Here are some examples:
Statement Yes/no questions Wh- questions
I am eating. Am I eating? What am I eating?
You are crying. Are you crying? Why are you crying?
He is going. Is he going? Where is he going?
She is arriving. Is she arriving? When is she arriving?
It is sleeping. Is it sleeping? Why is it sleeping?
We are leaving. Are we leaving? When are we leaving?
They are fighting. Are they fighting? Why are they fighting?

Exercises
Present Continuous tense
1. She / wear / earring ________________________________________

2. It / rain / today ________________________________________

3. I / have / good time ________________________________________


4. Train / come ________________________________________
5. They / wait / train ________________________________________
6. I / study ________________________________________
7. We / walk / school ________________________________________
8. We / plan / our work ________________________________________

Change each sentence to a negative.

Make the following sentences negative. Don't forget to include the period at the
end!

1. I am thinking. ________________________________________
2. You are singing. ________________________________________
3. He is eating jelly. ________________________________________
4. She is studying hard. ________________________________________
5. It is raining now. ________________________________________
6. We are having tea. ________________________________________
7. They are driving to Toronto. ___________________________________

Questions in the Present Continuous Tense


Create a question using the sentence provided

1. I'm riding a bike. [WHAT]


__________________________________________________________
2. She is having a party. [YES/NO]
__________________________________________________________
3. We are waiting because the bus is late. [WHY]
__________________________________________________________
4. She's going to work. [WHERE]
__________________________________________________________
5. It's raining hard. [YES/NO]
__________________________________________________________
6. We are travelling by ship. [HOW]
__________________________________________________________
7. He's cooking bacon for supper. [WHAT]
__________________________________________________________
8. You're giving her flowers for her birthday. [WHY]
__________________________________________________________

Present simple tense

Present simple tense คือ tense ที่ใช้เมื่อพูดถึงสิ่งที่เป็นความจริง โดยอาจ


เป็นความจริงในขณะนั้น เช่น ความสามารถเฉพาะอย่างของบุคคลหนึ่ง เช่น ประโยคที่ 1
หรือกิจวัตรประจำาวันของบุคคลหนึ่ง เช่นประโยคที่ 2 หรือสิ่งที่เป็นความจริงตลอดกาล เช่น
ปรากฏการณ์ในธรรมชาติในประโยคที่ 3
1. John plays football well.
2. My parents read the newspaper everyday.
3. The sun rises in the east.
ในประโยคที่พูดถึงความจริงที่เป็นอุปนิสัยหรือเกิดขึ้นตามปกติอาจใช้คำากริยา
วิเศษณ์ที่บอกความถี่ในการเกิดของเหตุการณ์ที่พูดถึง (Adverbs of Frequency) ใน
ประโยคด้วย เช่น everyday, always, usually, sometimes, often หรือ never.
สิ่งที่ควรจำาเกี่ยวกับการใช้ present simple tense คือจะต้องใช้ประธานและ
กริยาในประโยคที่สอดคล้องกัน โดยมีหลักดังนี้คือ
เมื่อประธานเป็นเอกพจน์ กริยาจะต้องอยู่ในรูปเอกพจน์ด้วย คือกริยาจะต้อง
เติม s และเมื่อประธานเป็นพหูพจน์ กริยาจะต้องอยู่ในรูปพหูพจน์ คือกริยาไม่ต้องเติม s
เมื่อต้องการเปลี่ยนประโยค present simple tense ให้เป็นประโยคคำาถาม
และประโยคปฏิเสธ จะใช้ verb to do ได้แก่ 'do', 'does' เป็นกริยาช่วย โดยมีหลักการใช้
ดังนี้
1. สำาหรับประโยคคำาถาม ใช้ verb to do นำาหน้าประโยค เช่น
Does John play football very well?
Do they walk to school everyday?เมื่อเราต้องการทำาเป็น
ประโยคปฎิเสธและประโยคคำาถามให้เอา V to do (do, does)
มาเป็นกริยาช่วยในประโยคคำาถามที่เป็นแบบ yes - no questions ให้เอา
do, does วางไว้หน้าประโยค
• Does he, she, it work?
• Do you, we, they, I study?
ให้เอา V to do (do, does) มาช่วยในประโยคคำาถามแบบ wh - questions เช่น
Where do you come from? I come from Surin.
How do you do?

ประโยคปฎิเสธให้เติม not หลังคำา do, does


• He, She, It does not (doesn't) work.
• I, You, We, They do not (don't) study.
Note: เมื่อเอา V to do มาใช้ในประโยคปฎิเสธและประโยคคำาถามกริยาแท้ไม่ต้องเติม s หรือ
es
เมื่อเราต้องการทำาเป็นประโยคปฎิเสธและประโยคคำาถาม ให้นำาเอา V to do (did) มาช่วย
• Did he, she, it work?
• Did you, we, they, I work?
2. สำาหรับประโยคปฏิเสธ ใช้ verb to do + not นำาหน้ากริยา เช่น
John does not play football very well.
We do not wash our hair everyday.

หลักการใช้ verb to do คู่กับประธานแสดงอยู่ในตารางต่อไปนี้ คือ

Verb to do ประเภทของประธาน
does - ประธานที่เป็นคำานามเอกพจน์ เช่น a
boy, the cat, a table
- ประธานที่เป็นสรรพนามเอกพจน์ คือ
he, she, it
do - ประธานที่เป็นคำานามพหูพจน์ เช่น
the men, the children, dogs
- ประธานที่เป็นสรรพนามพหูพจน์
คือ we, they, you
- ประธานที่เป็นสรรพนาม คือ I

ข้อควรจำาเกี่ยวกับการใช้ verb to do ในประโยคคำาถามและประโยค


ปฏิเสธของ present simple tense คือ เมื่อมี do หรือ does แล้ว กริยาแท้ของ
ประโยคจะเป็นกริยาช่องที่ 1 ที่อยู่ในรูปพหูพจน์เสมอ
ในกรณีที่กริยาของประโยค คือ verb to be เมื่อต้องการเปลี่ยนประโยค
บอกเล่าให้เป็นประโยคปฏิเสธ จะเติม not หลัง verb to be ในประโยคได้เลย จะไม่
ต้องใช้ verb to do เป็นกริยาช่วย เพราะ verb to be สามารถเป็นได้ทั้งกริยาแท้และ
กริยาช่วย

รูปแบบของประโยค

บอกเล่า คำาถาม ปฏิเสธ


I I I
You you You do
We V1 Do we We not
They they They (don’t)
…… …….. ……. ……. V1 ……. …….. V1
He he He does not
She V1 Does she She (doesn’t)
It it It

คำาบอกเวลาแสดงการใช้ present simple tense

คำาเดียว กลุ่มคำา
always เสมอ every day (week, month, year)

often บ่อยๆ
once a week = สัปดาห์ละครั้ง
usually มักจะ
frequently บ่อยๆ
twice a day = วันละ 2 ครั้ง
generally, normally โดยทั่วไป
on Sunday = ทุกวันอาทิตย์

sometimes บางครั้ง (on + วัน + s = ทุกวัน..........)


บางคราว
occasionally
rarely
แทบจะไม่
seldom

หลักการใช้
1) ใช้กับเหตุการณ์ที่กระทำาซำ้าๆ เป็นประเพณีและเป็นนิสัย (Repeated actions,
customs and habits)

• He visits his family every weekend.


• Ethiopians celebrate Christmas on 7 January.
• He goes to bed at nine o'clock every night.
• I usually get up at 6.00 am.
• Students sometimes go to class late.
• Niti plays tennis every weekend.
• He says hello every time he sees me.
• I sometimes go to the movies with her.
• He comes to her place several times a week.
• Ladda usually goes shopping on Sunday.
• He gets up early everyday.

2) ใช้กับเหตุการณ์ที่เป็นจริงเสมอ (universal truth)


• The earth goes round the sun.
• The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
• The sun shines by day; the moon shines by night.
• It's cold in winter.
• The earth moves round the sun.
• The sun rises in the east.
• Birds fly.
• Actions speak louder than words.

3) ใช้กับความสามารถ (ability)
• He plays the guitar very well.
• That man speaks English as well as he speaks his own language.
• My father works as a vice-president of that company.
• My daughter plays the piano very well.
• My family lives near the river.
• The last train leaves at midnight
4) ใช้แทน Future หลังคำา if, unless, in case ในขณะที่ประโยคเงื่อนไข และ
คำา when, until, as soon as, before, after
• If the weather is fine tomorrow, we will have a picnic.
• We will go out when the rain stops.
• We can't begin playing before the whistle blows.
• I will eat before he arrives.

5) คำากริยาบางคน เราจะไม่ใช้รูป present continuous tense แม้ว่าเหตุการณ์นั้น


จะกำาลังเกิดขึ้น
หรือกำาลังดำาเนินอยู่ในปัจจุบันก็ตาม เช่น verb to be - I am late now.
กริยาเหล่านี้แบ่งออกเป็น 6 ชนิดคือ
5.1 กริยาที่บ่งภาวะที่บังคับไม่ได้
(verb for states over which we have no control)
ได้แก่ กริยา see, hear, feel, taste, smell เช่น
• I see that it is raining again.
• I hear someone knocking at the door.
• This towel feels very soft.
• This soup tastes good.
• His breath smells bad.
5.2 กริยาที่แสดงความนึกคิด (verb for ideas) เช่น know (รู)้ , understand
(เข้าใจ), think (คิด), believe (เชื่อ), disbelieve (ไม่เชื่อ), suppose (สมมุติ), doubt
(สงสัย), agree (เห็นด้วย), disagree (ไม่เห็นด้วย), realize (ตระหนัก), consider (พิจารณา),
notice (สังเกต), recognize (จำาได้), forget (ลืม), remember (จำา), recall (ระลึกได้) เช่น
• He now knows as much about the lesson as you do.
• I believe what he is saying is true.
• We agree to his suggestion.
• The teacher considers him as an industrial student.
5.3 กริยาที่แสดงความชอบและความไม่ชอบ (Verbs for liking and disliking)
เช่น like (ชอบ), dislike (ไม่ชอบ), love (รัก), hate (เกลียด), detest (ชิงชัง), prefer (ชอบ),
forgive (ยกโทษ), trust (ไว้ใจ), distrust (ไม่ไว้ใจ) เช่น
• I liked the movie I saw yesterday.
• She detests people who are unkind to animals.
• We prefer to go out without him.
• I distrust this young lady.
5.4 กริยาที่แสดงความปรารถนา (verbs for wishing) เช่น wish (ปรารถนา),
want (ต้องการ) desire (ปรารถนา) เช่น
• He wishes he was a millionaire.
• She wants to go to Italy.
• We all desire happiness and health.
5.5 กริยาที่แสดงความเป็นเจ้าของ (Verbs of possession) เช่น possess (เป็น
เจ้าของ), have (มี), own (เป็นเจ้าของ), belong to (เป็นของ) เช่น
• He possesses two new cars.
• She has more money than she needs.
• I own several acres of land.
• This bicycle belongs to my brother.
5.6 กริยาเฉพาะบางคำา (Certain other verbs) เช่น be (เป็น อยู่ คือ), appear
(ปรากฏ), seem (ดูเหมือน), mean (หมายความว่า), please (พอใจ), displease (ไม่พอใจ),
differ (แตกต่าง), depend (ขึน ้ อยู่กับ, พึ่งพา), resemble (ดูเหมือน), deserve (สมควรได้
รับ), refuse (ปฏิเสธ), result (ส่งผลให้), suffice (พอเพียง), consist of (ประกอบด้วย),
contain (ประกอบด้วย), hold (บรรจุ), fit (เหมาะสม คู่ควร), suit (เหมาะสม) เช่น
• She is very selfish.
• He resembles his father.
• She refuses to marry him.
• New Zealand consists of two islands.
• The pink dress she is wearing suits her. ......etc...
6. ใช้กับ adverbs of time ดังต่อไปนี้
often (บ่อยๆ), always (เสมอๆ), sometimes (บางครั้ง), usually (โดย
ปกติ), generally (โดยปกติ), normally (โดยปกติ), frequently (บ่อยๆ), rarely (แทบจะไม่
เคย นานๆ ครั้ง), seldom (แทบจะไม่เคย นานๆครั้ง), scarcely (แทบจะไม่เคย นานๆ ครั้ง),
hardly (แทบจะไม่เคย), never (ไม่เคย), in general (โดยปกติ), now and again (บางครั้ง
บางคราว), from time to time (บางครั้งบางคราว) occasionally (บางโอกาส), as a rule (
ตามกฎ), once a week (สัปดาห์ละครั้ง), once a month (เดือนละครั้ง), twice a week (
สองครั้งต่อสัปดาห์), three times a week (สามครั้งต่อสัปดาห์), every day (ทุกวัน), every
other day (วันเว้นวัน), every (night / month, week / year / Thursday) เช่น
• He is never late for school.
• He always studies grammar in the morning.
• She visits her parents every month.
always every month.
sometimes every year.
once a week
frequently twice a month
usually every other day
generally on Sundays
rarely on week days
• seldom when (ever) he sees me
• habitually when (ever) he comes here
• every day whenever he can
• every week whenever you want
7.ใช้ present simple กับสิ่งที่กำาหนดแน่นอนแล้วว่าจะกระทำาในอนาคต
• I leave by the 6.20 train this evening.
• He sets sail tomorrow and comes back next week.
• We attack at dawn.

8.อาจใช้ present simple ในการสรุปเรื่องนิยาย หรือละคร


Bassanio wants to go to Belmont to woo Portia. He asks Antonio
to lend him money. Antonio says that he hasn't any at the moment
until his ships come to port.
ใช้ present simple tense หลังคำาเชื่อมเหล่านี้ เพื่อบรรยายเหตุการณ์ที่เกิดขึ้นใน
อนาคต

Future simple Until + Present simple


I’ll wait until I see him
When + present simple Future simple

When
As soon as
After I see him I’ll phone you.
If / Unless

เช่น Malee will call you as soon as she arrives.


I will stay home if it rains.
We want to know the truth before we leave.

หลักการใช้ will
โครงสร้างของประโยค Subject + will +Verb1
Shall ใช้กับบุรุษที่ 1 คือ I , we
Will ใช้กับบุรุษที่ 2,3 และคำานาม ได้แก่ You,he,she,it, they,Mary,etc
Example
- I will go to the United Stated soon. ฉันจะเดินทางไปสหรัฐอเมริกาในเร็ว ๆ นี้
- I will leave Thailand for Japan next week.
ฉันจะเดินทางจากประเทศไทยไปประเทศญี่ปุ่นสัปดาห์หน้า
- We shall travel round the world tomorrow. พวกเราจะเดินทางไปเที่ยวรอบโลกพรุ่งนี้
- I will have the midterm exam next month. ฉันจะสอบกลางภาคเดือนหน้า
- Mr.Thongchai will show his concert at the National Theater next month. คุณ
ธงชัยจะแสดงคอนเสริ์ตที่โรงละครแห่งชาติเดือนหน้า

Exercises

1. จงเปลี่ยนกิริยาในวงเล็บให้ถูกต้อง
1. I (give) it to them when they (visit) us.
2. I (not send) the parcel until I (hear) from you.
3. As soon as they (phone) me, I (contact) you.
4. I (see) you before I (fly) to Paris.
5. They (send) you the money before they (leave).
6. When I (talk) to him, I (give) him your news.
7. She (visit) her parents before she (go) to the airport.
8. I (finish) this when I (be) at the office.
9. I (send) you a postcard when I (get) to Bermuda.
10. She (do) her homework before she (go) out.
11. After I (visit) the hospital, I (go) and see her parents.
12. I (phone) Mary when we (get) to San Francisco.
13. I (call) you as soon as we (sign) the contract.
14. He (not do) anything before you (tell) him to.
15. You (be) very surprised when you (meet) him.
16. I (talk) to you when the game (be) over.
17. When she (hear) this, she (be) very pleased.
18. You probably (not like) him when you (meet) him.
19. As soon as I (hear) the results, I (let) you know.
20. When they (find out) about this, there (be) trouble.

2. เปลี่ยนกิริยาในวงเล็บโดยใช้ present simple tense

1. Cuckoos (not build).....nests. they (use)….the nests of the after birds.


2. The last train (leave)….the station at 11.30.
3. He usually (speak)….so quickly that I (not understand)….him.
4. Hardly anyone (wear)….a hat nowadays.
5. Dang (have)….his hair cut twice a month.
6. History (be)….the story of the past events.
7. The cat will scratch you if you (pull)….her tail.
8. Water always (freeze)….at 0 degree Celsius.
9. He sometimes (come)….to see me on Saturday.
10. I (tell) my father as soon as he (come)….back from work.
11. When he (go)….to the university, he (visit)….. us less often.
12. I always (buy)….lottery tickets but I never (win)….anything.
13. Mrs. Brown rarely (go)….shopping with her hasband.
14. I (stay) till she (get)….back.
15. You always (write)….with your left hand?

3. ขีดเส้นใต้รูปกริยาที่ถูกต้องของประโยค ต่อไปนี้
1. My brother (play, plays) football in the afternoon.
2. I (go, goes) to work by bus.
3. You should wait until your teacher (arrive, arrives).
4. One (see, sees) stars only at night.
5. Mrs. White’s secretary (work, works) from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.
6. Cats (like, likes) to chase mice.
7. My father (drive, drives) me to school every morning.
8. We usually (buy, buys) stamps from the post office.
9. Jenny (stay, stays) with her aunt in Australia.
10. Fish (live, lives) in water.

4. เติมประโยคให้สมบูรณ์
1. I ________ in a bank.
work
works
workes
2. She ________ in Florida.
live
lives
livees
3. It ________ almost every day in Manchester.
rain
rains
raines

4. We ________ to Spain every summer.


fly
flys
flies
5. My mother ________ eggs for breakfast every morning.
fry
frys
fries
6. The bank ________ at four o'clock.
close
closies
closes
7. John ________ very hard in class, but I don't think he'll pass the course.
try
trys
tries
8. Jo is so smart that she ________ every exam without even trying.
pass
passies
passes
9. My life is so boring -- I just ________ TV every night.
watch
watchies
watches
10. My best friend ________ to me every week.
write
writies
writes

5. เติมประโยคให้สมบูรณ์
Mary and I __(1)____(work) in the same office, but we're completely different. She
_(2)____ (like) coffee, but I__(3)___ (like) tea. She__(4)_____ (wash) her car every
weekend, but I never__(5)____(clean) mine. She __(6)___(smile) all the time at work,
but I_(7)___(feel) miserable. I__(8)___ (complain) about the boss all the time, but
Mary_(9)____ (think) the boss is a nice person. When I_(10)__(finish) work, I like to
drink beer with my friends, but Mary_(11)___(study) at night school. The
boss_(12)____(think) Mary is perfect, but she _(13)_____(drive) me nuts!

6. จงนำาคำาที่กำาหนดให้ต่อไปนี้เติมในช่องว่างให้ถูกต้อง

brush comb dry eat get dressed get up go have make


pick up put on rings wake up wear

Every weekday morning I (1) as soon as my alarm (2) . After 10


minutes I (3) and go to the bathroom. I (4) a shower, (5) my teeth
and (6) my hair. After my shower I (7) myself with a big towel and go back
to the bedroom.
In the bedroom I (8) my makeup and (9) ,
I sometimes (10) trousers and a blouse or top with sandals or shoes. Next I
usually go to the kitchen and (11) myself a cup of tea, although I sometimes
drink coffee instead of tea.
For breakfast I often (12) cornflakes, toast and marmalade and a piece of fruit.
After breakfast I (13) my car keys and (14) to work.
7. นำาคำาที่กำาหนดให้ต่อไปนี้ไปเติมในช่องว่างให้ถูกต้อง

study | work | like | use | do | eat | walk | teach | speak | live


1. He his job, it's fun.
2. They in a small flat.
3. She German on Mondays.
4. I breakfast at 8.00 am.
5. I from home.
6. We computers.
7. They're very good students, they always their homework.
8. He never to work, he always drives.
9. Mr Bean English in London.
10. His students a little English.

8.จงทำาให้เป็นประโยคปฏิเสธ

1. He his job, it's boring. (not like)


2. They in a small flat. (not live)
3. She German on Mondays. (not study)
4. I breakfast at 8.00 am. (not eat)
5. I from home. (not work)
6. We computers. (not use)
7. They're not very good students, they their homework. (not do)
8. He to work, he always drives. (not walk)
9. Mr Bean German in London. (not teach)
10. His students German in class. (not speak)
9.จงทำาประโยคนี้ให้ถูกต้อง
1. your Do the teeth you ? morning brush always in
2. Saturdays work ? Does ever on Mr Bean
3. English speak always Do in class they ?
4. fish she eat ? Does sometimes
5. ever play Do tennis we ?

10.เลือกคำาที่กำาหนดให้เติมในช่องว่างให้ถูกต้อง
1. Do you_____( 1like, likes, be like) chocolate milk?
2.He _______(do does is )not want to come to the movies.
3. ______( Is Are Am) we too late to catch the bus?
4. It_____( is are am )a beautiful day today.
5.Sorry, Lisa______( am is be )not here at the moment.
6 . ________( Is Are Am) I correct?
7. Robert _____(is does are )not go to my school.
8.My parents______(live lives are live) in a 2 bedroom apartment.
9. We _______(do be ‘are ‘do are ) European.
10. You ______(looks ‘are ‘be )so happy today!

11. เลือกคำาตอบให้ถูกต้อง

1. She ___ four languages.


a. speak
b. speaks
2. Jane is a teacher. She ___ French.
a. teach
b. teaches
3. When the kettle ___, will you make some tea?
a. boil
b. boils
4. I always ___ the window at night because it is cold.
a. close
b. closes
5. Those shoes ___ too much.
a. cost
b. costs
6. The food in Japan is expensive. It ___ a lot to live there.
a. cost
b. costs
7. His job is great because he ___ a lot of people.
a. meet
b. meets
8. He always ___ his car on Sundays.
a. wash
b. washes
9. My watch is broken and it ___ to be fixed again.
a. need
b. needs
10. I ___ to watch movies.
a. love
b. loves
11. I ___ to the cinema at least once a week.
a. go
b. goes
12. They never ___ tea in the morning.
a. drink
b. drinks
13. We both ___ to the radio in the morning.
a. listen
b. listens
14. He ___ a big wedding.
a. want
b. wants
15.George ___ too much so he's getting fat.
a. eat
b. eats
16. The earth ___ round the sun, doesn't it?
a. go
b. goes
17. The shops in England ___ at 9:00 in the morning.
a. open
b. opens
18. The post office ___ at 5:30 pm.
a. close
b. closes
19. Jackie ___ two children now.
a. has
b. have
20. Mr. Smith ___ too much. He always has a cigarette in his mouth.
a. smoke
b. smokes
21. When the phone ___, please answer it.
a. ring
b. rings
Word Questions

Where do you live? In Paris.


When will we have lunch? At 1pm.
Who did she meet? She met Ram.
Why hasn't Tara done it? Because she can't.
Exception! verb be simple present and simple past
Where is Bombay? In India.
How was she? Very well.

WH- Question Practice

Teacher or pair student says: Ask me...

what my name is.


my nationality.
where I live.
how long I have lived there.
how much a packet of cigarettes costs.
where to buy sugar.
where to find a cash dispenser.
how big the room is.
how many legs the table has.
what the time is.
where the whiteboard is.
if I am well.
how I am.
if the post has arrived yet.
what the film was like.
what a crocodile looks like.
what Mary's address is.
how big Paris is.
how many people there are in London.
what my favourite film is.
what to do next.
when to leave to catch the bus.
how much money you will need.
how many people there are in the room.
how many cups of coffee I have each day.
how long the room is.
how wide the room is.
how high the ceiling is.
what the size of the room is.
where I bought my socks.
why I am not wearing a hat.
why I can’t speak Russian.
what ‘ameliorate’ means.
how much money I can lend you.
when I arrived at school.
what I saw at the cinema last night.
whether the film was good.
who my favorite film star is.
when Winston Churchill was born.
whether I like swimming.
whether I would like to go swimming now.
whether I am going on holiday this summer.
whether I have ever been abroad.
if I will lend you $100.
how to spell the word ‘irresistible’

Question words - 1

Fill in the question words What, Where, Why, When, How to form a meaningful
question.

Example: ____ often do you play football?


Answer: How often do you play football?

1. ____________ do you like best?


2. ____________does Bill get up in the morning?
3. ____________don't you go by bus, Max?
4. _____________ hobbies does Andrew like?
5. _____________do they go to every week?
6. _______________ old are you Mike?
7. _____________ is Susan's birthday?
8. _____________are my exercise books?
9. _____________ are you doing at the moment, Sally?
10. _____________ do the Robinsons live?
Question words - 2

Fill in the question words What, Where, Why, When, How to form a meaningful
question.

Example: ____ often do you play football?


Answer: How often do you play football?

1. ________________is the weather like today?


2. _______________don't you like apple-juice?
3. ________________about a walk through the forest?
4. _________________do you play volleyball?
5. ________________is my red sweat shirt, Mum?
6. ________________do Anne and Betty get to school every day?
7. _________________does your father go to work?
8. ________________is the dog's bone?
9. ________________are we going for a holiday by the sea again?
10. __________________do you like your coffee?
shopping phrases

What can I do for you? Can I help you?


This dress doesn't fit. It is too big.
Have you got a bigger one? It's too small.
It has been reduced to $10. It's on sale at the moment.
How much is it? How much does it cost?
What size are you? 38? I think you need size 38.
I'm looking for a summer dress. Have you got any summer dresses?
I'm afraid that's too expensive. Have you got anything cheaper?

Unit 7
Technology
Objective
Students will be able to read the dates
Students will be able to use past simple : the verb to be and past simple: regular
and irregular
Students will be able to know the computer vocabularies

Unit details
dates
past simple : the verb to be
past simple: regular and irregular
Computer vocabularies

Teaching activity
Write and read the dates
Make sentences with past simple : the verb to be
Find out the past simple: regular and irregular
Find out the meaning of Computer vocabularies
Listen to the tape
Teaching materials
Course book
Tape
White board
Homework / Assignments
Write the usage of past simple: the verb to be
Dates
Use international date format (ISO)
How does one write a date on the Web? There are so many formats available, most of
them incompatible with others, that it can be a usability nightmare to choose a date
representation when writing for an international, cross-cultural audience, as is the
case on the web. Fortunately, there is one solution in the ISO-developed international
date format.
The date interpretation quagmire
The worst potential usability problems come when the date is written only with
numbers as in the following example, because the date's interpretation will be
different from one country to another.
Imagine the following date: 02/04/03
Which does it mean?
• 2nd of April 2003 (European style)
• 4th of February 2003 (USA style)
• 3rd of April 2002
Your answer will depend, mostly, on which country you live in.
In most cases, writing the date in full letters would be better than the example above.
Apr. 3rd, 2002, for example will be easy to understand for any English-speaking
audience.
But this system does not cross borders much better than its numerical counterparts:
does the French 12 Août 2042 actually mean, in English, August or October 12th?
The ISO date format
The international format defined by ISO (IS0 8601) tries to address all these problems
by defining a numerical date system as follows: YYYY-MM-DD where
• YYYY is the year [all the digits, i.e. 2012]
• MM is the month [01 (January) to 12 (December)]
• DD is the day [01 to 31]
For example, "3rd of April 2002", in this international format is written: 2002-04-03.
Note that this format can also be used to represent precise date and time, with time
zone information
Using numerical dates does have also some pitfalls with regard to readability and
usability, as explained in the Date formats FAQ. Albeit not perfect, ISO date format is,
however, the best choice for a date representation that is universally (and accurately)
understandable.
The Past Simple Tense of BE
The simple past is a tense used to describe complete actions or events that took
place in some time before now. The time can be specified by using some adverbs,
for example: yesterday, last night, last week, last month, last year, and so on. It is
important to keep in mind that the formation of this tense is different if you are working
with the verb to be or if you are working with the rest of the verbs. Let's begin then
with the verb To Be. Although the past form of the verbs is the same for all the
personal pronouns, the verb "to be" has two forms:
• I was
• he was
• she was
• it was
• you were
• they were
• we were
• you were
WAS for I, he, she, it and WERE for we, you , they. Look at these examples:
• She was worried about her grades in school.
• Maurice and Martha were in Washington last week.
• Joseph was very tired, but now he is fine.
• Last Christmas we were in my grandma's house.
• Yesterday they were very busy.
Remember that the past tense of "to be" follows the same structure we explained
before. So, when you want to turn these sentences into questions you have to do the
same changes you do for the present tense. Look:
• Was she worried about her grades in school?
• Were Maurice and Martha in Washington last week?
• Was Joseph was very tired?
• Were they in your grandma's house last Christmas?
• Were they very busy yesterday?
In the same way, if you want to change an affirmative sentence to negative you just
have to add the negative particle not after the verb "to be":
• She was not worried about her grades in school.
• Maurice and Martha were not in Washington last week.
• Joseph was not very tired, but now he is.
• Last Christmas we were not in my grandma's house.
• Yesterday they were not very busy.
Remember that the contractions of the verb "to be" and the negative word not are
common in spoken language.
The past tense for the other verbs in English is a little more complicated. Some are
regular verbs and follow one rule. Others are irregular verbs and their forms are very
different from the infinitive.
It requires that you learn the past form of every verb.
Let's begin with the regular verbs:
These verbs form their past by adding the particle -ed at the end of the infinitive. For
example:
• want -------> wanted
• copy -------> copied
• sign -------> signed
• fade -------> faded
• watch -------> watched

Now, see the verbs in context:


• My mother and her sister wanted to go shopping yesterday.
• She copied many things and now she does not have money.
• You signed a contract with a very important company. Congratulations!
• The snow flakes faded slowly.
• My family always watched "The Wonder Years".
You already know that to make interrogative sentences we need an auxiliary. In the
present we used DO and DOES For the past tense we use DID:
• Did your mother and her sister want to go shopping yesterday?
• Did she copy many things and now she does not have money?
• Did you sign a contract with a very important company? Congratulations!
• Did the snow flakes fade slowly?
• Did your family always watch "The Wonder Years"?
Just apply the structure of the present tense to the past to form negative sentences:
• My mother and her sister did not want to go shopping yesterday.
• She did not copy many things and now she has money.
• You did not sign a contract with a dishonest company. Congratulations!
• The snow flakes did not fade slowly.
• My family did not watch "Pokemon".
Do not forget that when you use an auxiliary the main verb remains unchanged.
It is time now to see what happens to irregular verbs. Basically, they follow the same
structure of the regular verbs, but you cannot just add -ed to the infinitive. These
verbs have their own form for the past:
• write -------> wrote
• see -------> saw
• bring -------> brought
• take -------> took
• sing -------> sang
• come -------> came
These examples illustrate the changes:
Monica wrote a nice article.
We did not see your parents yesterday.
I brought many presents from Australia.
Ana's brother did not take a difficult test.
That boy sang awfully in school.
Did they come home late last night?

Was/were
subject Main verb

I was late
You, we, they were late
children were late
He, she ,it was late
The man was late

Was-Were exercise
1. She is thirty now, so last year she __________ twenty-nine.
2. __________ it a good film?
3. I got married when I __________ twenty-seven.
4. It was a great day, but we ___________ so tired.
5. I didn't buy those jeans because they __________ too expensive.
6. When I ____________ a child we lived in Rome.
7. Where ____________ you yesterday afternoon?
8. _____________ the weather good while we were away?
9. They _____________ so naughty as kids.
10.Why _____________ he so angry?

past simple

Structure
In the positive form, for regular verbs, add an -ed to the base form of the verb. If the
verb ends in -y preceded by a consonant, change the -y to -ied. For irregular verbs
(most common irregular verbs).
I
You
He
She arrived late last night. (regular verb)
It came back late last night. (irregular verb)
We
You
They
Use the conjugated helping verb 'did' + not (didn't) + the base form of the verb to
make negatives.
I
You
He
She
didn't go to New York last week.
It
We
You
They

Use the conjugated helping verb 'did' + subject + the base form of the verb in
question forms.
I
You
He
She
When Did leave yesterday?
It
We
You
They

Past Simple Quiz


1. When ___________(they/arrive) last week?
2. She _________(not/understand) the question yesterday.
3 .Fred _________(take) a lot of pictures on his holiday last summer.
4. What ___________(you/get) for your birthday?
5. They ___________to get the bread this morning!
6. Alice ___________(play) tennis this morning.
7. Where ___________(you/go) last weekend?
8. I __________(want) to buy that computer, but it was too expensive.
9. Why ____________(they/not/come)?

Irregular verb lists


Past Past
Infinitive Simple participle
be was/were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn/sewed
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strike struck struck
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
thrown threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written
Computer vocabularies

backup download
monitor
binary e-mail
network
bit field
peripheral
browser floppy disk (diskette)
pixel
byte gigabyte (GB)
processor (micro-)
cable hard disk/hard drive
RAM
CD-ROM hardware
RAM vs. Hard Disk
cell HTML
record
chat icon
scanner
chip (integr. circuit) initialize
software
computer Internet
spreadsheet
CPU kilobyte (K)
URL
cursor megabyte (MB)
virus
database memory
World Wide Web (or Web
disk drive modem
Computer Vocabulary and meaning
Memory - Memory is for the
Anti-virus software - A program that temporary storing of information
finds and removes viruses from a while a computer is being used. See
computer. RAM, ROM and Cache.
Backup - A copy on floppy disk or MHz - Megahertz. This describes
tape of files on a PC's hard disk. A the speed of computer equipment.
backup is used in case the hard The higher the MHz the better the
disk file(s) are erased or damaged. performance.
Bit, bytes - A bit is the smallest Modem - Equipment connected to a
piece of information that computers computer for sending/receiving
use. For simplicity, a PC uses bits in digital information by telephone line.
groups of 8 called bytes (8 bits = 1 You need a modem to connect to
byte). the Internet, to send electronic mail
Boot, boot up, boot disk - You boot and to fax.
(or boot up) your computer when OCR - Optical Character
you switch it on and wait while it Recognition. OCR lets a PC read a
prepares itself. Instructions for fax or scanned image and convert it
startup are given to the computer to actual lettering.
from the boot disk, which is usually Parallel port - A socket at the back
the hard disk. of a computer for connecting
Browser, to browse - A browser is a external equipment or peripherals,
program like Netscape or Internet especially printers.
Explorer. You use it to view or PC card - A device that is the same
browse the Internet. size as a thick credit card, for
Bug - A (small) defect or fault in a plugging into a slot on notebook
program. computers. You can buy memory,
Cache - A kind of memory used to modems and hard disks as PC
make a computer work faster. cards.
CD-ROM - A disk for storing
Unit 8
Careers
Objective
The students will be able to know Vocabulary for job and careers
The students will be able to use Past simple : questions and negatives
The students will be able to know and use Past simple : irregular verbs
Unit details
Vocabulary for job and careers
Past simple : questions and negatives
Past simple : irregular verbs
Teaching activity
Discussion about Vocabulary for job and careers
Make sentences with Past simple : questions and negatives
Finding out Past simple : irregular verbs
Listen to the tape
Do exercises
Teaching materials
Course book
Tape
White board
Homework / Assignments
Find out more careers and write down what do they do with their careers.
Pictures of careers
Naming of careers

Nuns
General Nurses
Aviators. Photographers
Brass Bands Physicists
Circus Police
Civil Servants Politicians
Dancers Publicans
Doctors Railway Workers
Entertainers Scientists
Horse Racing Teachers
Miners
Writers

Some of careers and meaning

• MERCHANT : an occupation that might mean anything involving the buying


and selling of a variety of products
• PACKER : one who packed goods for preservation, such as pickles or herring
• PAINTRESS : a woman employed in the pottery industry to hand-paint the
finished articles
• PALING MAN : one who dealt in eels; fishmonger
• PAN SMITH : one who made pans; metalworker
• PANTER : keeper of the pantry
• PARKER : one who kept a park; a caretaker
• PILOT : one licensed to steer ships through difficult waters
• TAILOR : one who made or repaired clothes

Negatives and Questions in the Simple Past Tense

In the simple past tense, negative and question forms are made using the auxiliary verb
"do" (in its past form, "did") followed by the simple form of the main verb. This page
explains the rules.

Forming a negative
Negatives in the simple present are formed by adding didn't (informal) or did not
(formal) before the simple form of the verb. The verb BE is an exception to this; in the
case of BE, we just add n't (informal) or not (formal) after "was" or "were":
Simple past statement Informal negative Formal negative

I had a car. I didn't have a car. I did not have a car.

You ate my toast. You didn't eat my toast. You did not eat my toast.

He was here yesterday. He wasn't here yesterday. He was not here yesterday.

They were in the park. They weren't in the park. They were not in the park.

Forming a yes/no question


Yes/no questions are also created using the auxiliary did. This time, the auxiliary is
placed before the subject. The verb BE is an exception; in this case, we move BE before
the subject. Here are the rules:
Simple past statement Yes/no question

He brought his friend. Did he bring his friend?

They had a party. Did they have a party?

You were here. Were you here?

She was sick. Was she sick?

Forming a WH- question


WH- questions (using words such as "what", "when", "where" etc.) are also created by
putting the auxiliary did before the subject (or moving BE, as explained above). Then,
you add the WH- word at the beginning. Here are some examples:
Statement Yes/no question WH- question

Did the building fall Why did the building fall


The building fell down.
down? down?

They lived in Did they live in


Where did they live?
Vancouver. Vancouver?

The store was closed. Was the store closed? Why was the store closed?

They were wolves. Were they wolves? What were they?

Unit 9
On the move
Objectives
The students will be able to know the travel vocabularies
The students will be able to use the modal verb ”can” and have to
The students will be able to know the Meaning e - mail
The students will be able to use Asking and giving advice
The students will be able to know the Tipping and giving business cards in
different cultures
Unit details
Travel vocabulary
Can for possibility and permission
Have to for necessary
Meaning e - mail
Asking and giving advice
Tipping and giving business cards in different cultures

Teaching activity
Discussion and find out the Travel vocabularies
Explaining the usage of “can and have to “
Do exercises of “can and have to “
Find the meaning of e – mail
Do role play ” Asking and giving advice”
Discussion about Tipping and giving business cards in different cultures

Teaching materials
Course book
Tape
White board
Homework / Assignments
Find out the different cultures around the world

Travel vocabulary

The words below are some of the most important used when talking about
Travel.
By rail By bus / coach By air By sea

station bus terminal airport port

train bus aircraft ship

catch / get on /
catch / get on get on / board embark
board
get off /
get off get off disembark
disembark

platform departure gate departure gate quay / dock

passenger jet /
passenger train coach / bus liner
airplane

journey journey flight voyage

depart / leave depart / leave take off sail

arrive arrive land dock

engine driver's seat cockpit bridge

engine driver bus driver pilot captain

corridor / aisle aisle aisle gangway

Air Travel

1 aisle n. corridor in aeroplane between the seats [there are usually


one or two]
2 baggage claim n. place where passengers go to find their luggage (cases
etc) at the end of a flight
3 board v. to get on or enter an aeroplane - on board adv.
4 boarding pass n. special ticket showing that passenger has checked in and
may board plane
5 check in v. to register for a flight, inc. checking of tickets, passports,
luggage etc - also n.
6 confirmation n. passenger’s telephone validation of return reservation;
reconfirmation
7 departures n. large display in airport showing times, destinations etc of
board departing flights
8 domestic adj. national, not international [a domestic flight is entirely
within one country]
9 duty free adj. [of products: cigarettes, perfume etc] not taxable; exempt
from customs taxes
10 excess baggage n. luggage that is more than the permitted or allowed weight
11 flight n. an aeroplane scheduled to fly a certain route at a certain
time
12 gate n. the point in an airport at which a particular flight arrives and
departs
13 hand luggage n. light bags, briefcases etc that may be carried on board by
passengers
14 IATA abbr. International Air Transport Association
15 immigration n. government official responsible for checking passengers’
officer passports
16 jet lag n. extreme tiredness etc after a long flight between extreme
time zones
17 runway n. the strip on which planes land and take off
18 stopover n. a break for a day or two on an international flight
19 ticket n. receipt for transportation etc. An air ticket has one coupon
for each journey
20 transit n. A transit passenger is one stopping at an airport that is not
his destination

Can for possibility and permission

1. Present
You can
Modal Use 2. Past Negative Forms
also use:
3. Future
1. I can speak Chinese
2. SHIFTS TO "COULD" 1. I can't speak Swahili.
I could speak Chinese when 2. SHIFTS TO "COULD"
I was a kid. I couldn't speak Swahili.
can
3. SHIFTS TO "BE ABLE TO" 3. SHIFTS TO "BE ABLE to be able
general ability
TO"
I will be able to speak I won't be able to speak
Chinese by the time I finish Swahili.
my course.
can 1. With a burst of 1. People can't pick up to be able
ability during a adrenaline, people can pick cars.
specific event up cars. 2. SHIFTS TO "BE ABLE
2. SHIFTS TO "BE ABLE TO" TO"
Even the weight lifter,
With a sudden burst of couldn't lift the car off the
adrenaline, he was able to child's leg.
lift the car off the child's leg.
3. SHIFTS TO "BE ABLE
3. SHIFTS TO "BE ABLE TO" TO"
Even three men working
With a sudden burst of
adrenaline, he will be able together won't be able to
to lift the car. lift the car.

1. I have some free time. I


1. I don't have any time. I
can help her now.
can't help her now.
2. SHIFTS TO "BE ABLE TO"
2. SHIFTS TO "BE ABLE
TO"
can I had some free time
I didn't have time to be able
opportunity yesterday. I was able to
yesterday. I wasn't able to
help her at that time.
help her at that time.
3. I'll have some free time
3. I won't have any time
tomorrow. I can help her
later. I can't help her then.
then.
1. I can drive Susan's car 1. I can't drive Susan's car
when she is out of town. when she is out of town.
2. SHIFTS TO "BE 2. SHIFTS TO "BE
ALLOWED" ALLOWED"
can I was allowed to drive I wasn't allowed to drive
permission Susan's car while she was Susan's car while she was may
out of town last week. out of town last week.
3. I can drive Susan's car 3. I can't drive Susan's car
while she is out of town next while she is out of town
week. next week.
can Can I have a glass of water? Can't I have a glass of could
water?
Can you give me a lift to
Can't you give me a lift to
school?
request school? may
(Requests usually refer to
(Requests usually refer to
the near future.)
the near future.)
Anyone can become rich It can't cost more than a
and famous if they know the dollar or two.
right people. You can't be 45! I thought
can Learning a language can be you were about 18 years
possibility / a real challenge. old. could
impossibility
(This use is usually a (This use is usually a
generalization or an generalization or an
supposition.) supposition.)

Have to for necessary

1. Present
You can
Modal Use 2. Past Negative Forms
also use:
3. Future
have to 1. That has to be Jerry. 1. SHIFTS TO "MUST" must,
certainty They said he was tall That must not have been have got to
with bright red hair. Jerry we saw. He was
2. That has to have been supposed to have red hair.
the right restaurant. 2. SHIFTS TO "MUST"
There are no other That must not have been the
right restaurant. I guess there
restaurants on this street. is another one around here
somewhere.
3. NONE
3. NONE
1. She doesn't have to read
"Grapes of Wrath." It's
1. She has to read four
optional reading for extra
books for this literature
credit.
class.
2. She didn't have to write a
2. She had to finish the
have to critique of "The Scarlet Letter."
first book before the must
necessity She had to give a
midterm.
presentation to her class.
3. She will have to finish
3. She won't have to take any
the other books before
other literature classes.
the final exam.
American Literature 101 is the
only required course.
don't have to 1. I don't have to take
choice/ any tests. The course is
no obligation just for fun.
2. I didn't have to take
the test. The teacher let
me do a report instead.
3. I won't have to take
the test. It's going to be
for extra credit and I
don't need the points.

REMEMBER: "Do not have to" vs. "Must not"


"Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. "Must not"
suggests that you are prohibited from doing something

Meaning e - mail
What is the meaning of Email
Email. Electronic mail delivered via the internet.
Email is the equivalent of a normal physical letter, only that it is written on a computer
and delivered via the internet. That makes email extremely fast and also inexpensive.
The recent rise in spam (see also What is the meaning of Spam), i.e. unwanted email
however may pose a threat to email as today's preferred means of communication
online.
Importance of Email for your small business
The two most important facets about email are that it is extremely fast and
inexpensive. For small businesses this can cut costs dramatically in comparison to
standard letters. Just like many years ago faxes drove down the cost of business
communication, so does email today. Emails can contain pictures, documents,
programs and many other attachments. As long as the attachment is on your
computer. For a business to send an email is basically cost free, as the bandwidth
used is minimal and most businesses have flat fee internet connections anyway.
To send or receive email your business needs to have a domain name and on this
domain at least one mail user account. If you have an internet connection through an
ISP you will already have the possibility for an email account. There are also free
web-based email services available via the internet, such as Yahoo or Lycos. As a
professional business however you should stay away from using a free web-based
email service or the email accounts from your ISP. You could easily be seen as old-
fashioned or even technology shy if you don't have your own domain for your
business.
If you don't have your own domain name yet, write to us! You will be surprised to find
out how affordable your own domain name is!

Asking and giving advice


Asking for Advice
What do you think I should do?
What do you suggest?
What would you do (in this situation)?
Giving Advice
I think you should get a lawyer.
Maybe you should try someplace else.
Why don’t you call the company?

Tipping and giving business cards in different cultures


To tip, or not to tip? Mmmm... it's not that straightforward. Even when we've
established that we ought to give a tip for something - that this is, indeed, a 'tipping
situation' - the question is, how much? And to whom, exactly? And to make matters
that little bit more complicated, the rules for tipping vary greatly from country to
country. What's perfectly normal behaviour in a Tokyo restaurant might be thought
rude in a Texan diner. Below you will find some great advice provided by the h2g2
Community that should help us all through this cultural minefield.
Tipping by Geography
Australia
Tipping in Australia is basically non-existent.

Canada
Most service staff in Canada expect something in the 10-20% tip range, depending
on what city, if it's French or English Canada, and the level of service. Tipping is
expected for restaurants, bars, food delivery and taxis. You should not try to tip the
police, especially the Royal Canadian Mountain Police - they will not appreciate it.
15% is a good tip in a restaurant. In Montreal, tips for a good meal at a good
restaurant with good service should be tipped more. In most of English Canada, you
would find it a lot harder to have the same experience, and anyway would not be
expected to tip as much.
On the other hand, you should not tip if service is bad. If the service is really bad,
leave a nickel - they should get the message. There is no excuse for bad service - it's
so easy to give! And if you work in the service industry, the little effort can gain you a
personal reward - tips!
China
You'll never have to tip anywhere in China. It's the one consolation from the fact that
foreigners are charged more as a matter of government policy.
When I was in Shanghai 15 years ago, people would run after me with a couple of
Jiao change. Last year they kept a couple of dollars unless I waited them out. Mind
you, the service has improved a thousand per cent.
Egypt
In Egypt you are expected to tip - it's a way of life. If you go on a cruise on the Nile or
on Lake Nasser, at the end of the cruise you will be asked to leave tips for the boat
crew and any one else involved in the tours. Tipping the guide is at your discretion,
but a good guide is worth a good tip.
Similarly, if you go to somewhere like Luxury or Aswan and use a caleche (horse-
drawn 'buggy') to get about, the driver will expect a tip on top of the agreed fare. It's
up to you whether you pay it, but the man will look aggrieved if you don't! Taxi drivers
don't get tipped.
Estonia
Tipping in Estonia is not very common. Taxi drivers like to keep the change and

sometimes waiters in a fancy restaurant would too, but they won't be insulted if you
don't do it. You'll noticed that some small cafés and pubs have a jar or box on the
counter labeled 'Tip' on it. Looks like it's working too. At least it's a smart idea.
France
In France, in restaurants, though not at bars, service must be included in the price,
by law. It is usually about 15% or so.
Germany
Tipping seems strange to many Germans. The people you expect to tip attendants

for example) have a fixed price (50pfg) but tipping hairdressers and the like may
seem akin to starting a revolution.
I almost never tip taxi drivers, since mostly they don't even open the door for me.
But I do leave a prissier for the bin men on the first collection after Christmas.
Despite my nagging suspicion that they earn more than me.
Hong Kong
Hong Kong taxi drivers do not expect tips (which is a darn good thing as they mostly
don't deserve them) unless they are taking you to the airport or the MTR station which
connects with the airport, when the cost of carrying luggage mysteriously multiplies.
I flagged a driver who spoke a little English, drove very well, cut five minutes off my
usual journey time, and opened the door when we got there. He got the equivalent
of 50p (last of the big spenders, here) and was happy with it.
Italy
No tip is expected in restaurants throughout Italy. If you feel guilty, just remember that
you are being charged a coppertop ('cover charge') or possibly for pane ('bread'), as
well. If you're feeling generous, you can leave some coins on the table as you leave.
Japan
Don't.
Mexico
In Mexico tipping is expected for almost any service - if not just a common courtesy
to help compensate people who are paid little for their work except for tips. Taxis,
restaurants, food delivery folks all should be tipped. Generosity is appreciated,
stinginess or no tip for bad service is understood or grudgingly accepted; it might be
that your waiter believes in Karma - just make sure that if you go back again, return a
favor.
In Monterey, you can find a parking meter and pump some coins in but it could be a
meter with a short time limit. If this is the case, you can ask the patrolling meter cop to
watch the meter with an appropriate 'tip' to keep him motivated, just in case it runs
past the maximum time and you promptly get a ticket.
If you take a cab in Mexico City, they have to use the taximeter by law. If the meter is
'broken' you can get out and catch the next cab which will be waiting right behind.
Otherwise, if you are adventurous, know where you are going and your Spanish is
good enough, then you can negotiate a price. If you do, make sure you settle the
price with tip included or calculate your negotiating price minus a tip. Otherwise it is
common courtesy to tip the metered amount. If you are traveling all over Mexico City,
you should know where you are going as the taxi driver may not, and may not have a
map. It is not like catching a cab in London where they all have the 'knowledge'.
If you do find an organized cabbie who gets you where you want efficiently you
should consider that. If he is not so organized, and you have to pull out your city road
map - consider that he probably has a hard time making money driving you around
for hours except on the extra income from tips, and the cab fare is very reasonable to
begin with - maybe the road map (Guia Roji for example) would make a very nice tip.
New Zealand
Don't tip. Ever. You don't have to, people will generally be nice to you as long as you
don't treat them like your personal slave. Service is almost always included, as is the
sales tax, so the price you see is the price you get. The only exceptions are:
• Exceptionally good service
• If the menu says 'Service not Included' (rare)
• Telling the taxi driver to keep the change (so he doesn't have to fumble around
for 35 cents)
Conversely, New Zealanders (and Australians too) are notoriously bad tippers, and
consequently get bad service sometimes in other countries.
United Kingdom
All British people know this: you do not tip cash at the bar in a pub. If you are
impressed with the barkeep's service, you can offer to buy them a drink. Such an
offer will be genuinely appreciated, even though it may not be accepted. If it is, the
barkeep might take the tip in the form of cash to 'have one [a drink] later'. This will
generally be for half a pint of beer, or a small measure of spirits - you would not
expect them to take for a larger drink unless you specifically asked them to.
It seems to be a grey area whether to tip for meals served in a pub. Generally, you
have to decide whether a particular establishment is a pub that serves food (don't tip)
or a restaurant with a bar (do tip).
United States
Restaurants in the USA usually call for a 15-20% tip, however, if your server is a
complete jerk, you aren't expected to give them a dime of your pocket-money. Of
course, you may have the misfortune of going to a restaurant that automatically
includes a 15% tip in the check, but for all those US males out there who pull out their
little calculators every time they receive the bill, having the tip already indicated for
them can save a lot of embarrassment.
In pubs, you are expected to put a dollar or two into the pot at the bar. However,
since you usually pay only at the end (rather than for each drink as you go), this does
not get too excessive!
In most states of the US the tax is around 7-8%, so you just tip twice the tax - a little
more or less depending on the service you got. Easy-peasy lemon-squeezy.
However, some people just don't understand what the big deal is with figuring out
what 15% of the total is... You just take ten percent of the total, divide that by two, and
then find the sum of both figures!

• Tipping By Profession
Hairdressers
Below is an example of an international tipping dilemma that can, and will, affect
us all....
I never know how much to tip a hairdresser. I'd probably say ten percent, but if you
go somewhere expensive and have your hair cut it can cost up to £70, even up to
£150 if you have highlights or something. Then paying 10% of £150 is £15 and that
seems an awful lot for a tip. And do you tip the person who cut it, and/or the person
who washed it, and/or the person who coloured it, or none of them?
What about if the person who cuts your hair is the owner of the salon? Do you tip him?
He's making the profit from cutting your hair already...
So here's what one Researcher suggests...
I agree that 10% on a haircut costing £150 does seem a lot, but then it has to be
seen in a relative context. The amount of work done to warrant that price (eg,
highlights) are labour intensive. Unless, that is, one is visiting the latest, 'in'
hairdresser, because one has the money to be 'high maintenance' and can therefore
afford to tip £15 or more.
Generally I tip £1 to the person who washes my hair, and 10% to the hairdresser who
cuts it, normally rounding it up to £5 for anything below £50, and the next round
number for anything above that. So actually, yes, on reflection, I find I fall in line with
the 10% tip.
It is important to bear in mind that it is very much worth tipping slightly over the odds
if you are pleased with the way your hairdresser cuts your hair, as, tipping well
establishes loyalty, and they, being pleased by your tip, will put more effort and care
into your next visit.

Hotel Porters
In the experience of one Australian Researcher's fiancé who works as a hotel porter,
tips don't necessarily mean money. Below is a list of Items received:
• Two tickets to the Sydney Opera House (Box seats) from a gentlemen with a
previous engagement.
• Four unworn fashion concept dresses (of which three actually fit) from an
American dress designer who could not be bothered repacking them into her
over-full suit case.
• A $50 dollar phone card with $42 dollars left on it from an elderly couple flying
out that day.
• A Black Forest cake from a guest as a farewell present.
One thing that irks most porters is receiving tips in the guest's home currency. It is
usually in coin (which the banks refuse to change) and it gives the impression that
the guest is just dumping their unwanted and unusable coins on the porter. To begin
with it's nice with all the different coins etc, but after awhile the novelty wears off.
However...
I always feel embarrassed when I arrive at the hotel because I generally have not
yet changed money into the local currency or if I have the wretched airline kiosk
has given me only large denomination notes.
A Coach Driver Speaks
One Researcher explains the rules of the road for those who want to receive good
tips:
I worked for 20 years as a coach driver in the UK. The work involved both private
hire work (day trips, taking people to shows, weddings, discos, etc) and extended
tour work (seven to ten-day holiday trips in UK and Europe). Coach drivers wages
are generally very close to the minimum wage level and, therefore, they expect to
be tipped every time the coach leaves the depot. Most times you get something -
occasionally you don't. Strangely those who can least afford it (eg, pensioners on a
day trip) always give something to the driver.
On tour work you can usually expect an average of 50p per person per day
assuming that you are good at the job and everyone has a good tour. A one-day
private hire will usually be worth a tip of £10-£25.
Another area where tour drivers augment their income is to take the group to a
'Woollen Mill', 'Freeport' or a 'pay to get in' attraction. Most of these organisations
pay a commission on money spent by passengers. As with most areas of tipping,
the more you put in - the more you get out. If you turn up with a clean coach and a
friendly attitude you are more likely to go home with a pocketful of appreciation.
• Tipping Awareness
An Understandable Faux Pas
It can happen to best of us, as this Researcher's personal experience illustrates:
Once in an Indian restaurant in Massachusetts we were pleased with the meal and
the service and wanted to tip. We paid for the meal and wanted to give a 'normal'
tip to the waiter. But he replied, 'This is not wanted'. So we left the restaurant
without leaving a tip.
The next time in the same restaurant with the same waiter, we just assumed he
didn't take tips for some reason. But when leaving the restaurant, he called after
us, asking why we didn't give him any tip. We apologised and referred to our last
encounter, but he said he was hoping to be tipped, which we finally did.
What might have gone wrong here?
In many eastern countries it is common to say one thing and mean another. Declining
a tip is just part of the ritual of actually giving one. It's the same as saying 'please
enter my unworthy hovel' when entering the Taj Mahal. It's an elaborate dance, so it
helps to know the rules.
Waiters and Waitresses
In many places around the world, the waiting staff get paid far below minimum wage
because they make up the rest of their salary in tips.
Not tipping the waiter is simply rude. A good rule of thumb for a waiter who does a

good job is simply to divide five into your check and give 20 percent (far too many
people give ten percent because of the ease of maths, yet 20 percent is just as easy
- therefore far too many people are just plain cheap!)
Things which should not impact your tipping:
• Not getting your steak cooked properly
• The restaurant being out of your favourite dish
• The cleanliness of the rest rooms
• Difficulty in finding a parking space
• Having a conflict with another diner (loud children, people smoking in a non-
smoking section)
• Having a bad day
• Having difficulty with your date
• Anything else beyond the human control of your waiter or waitress
These people rely on your handouts to make a living. They should never be punished
monetarily for something they can't control. However, if they spill soup in your lap or
forget to bring you a dish or a drink - dock their tip but never, ever let it fall below ten
percent
10 Powerful Networking Tips Using Business Cards"

Whether you are looking for a job or running a business, giving out business cards is
crucial to marketing your skills or services. Even as a job seeker, develop the mindset
of running the business of YOU, Inc. Business cards speak volumes about who you
are, what you offer and how serious you are marketing YOU, Inc. as a business. Oh!
So, you have a resume and don't need business cards. Can you carry 10 resumes in
your wallet' Do you or can you carry your resume everywhere you go' A church bell
ringing lets people know they are open for business. Your business card is your bell.
Here are some proven tips using business cards to increase your chances of landing
a job or creating a business opportunity.
1. Never leave home without them.
Before leaving home, your checklist should be expanded to include business cards,
as part of "do I have my wallet/money, house keys, driver's license'" Any 'per chance'
meeting is an opportunity to give out a business card. A morning run or a quick trip to
the local store could be an opportunity to network. My wife and I always ask each
other 'do you have business cards', before leaving the house. Make it a habit to carry
business cards.
2. Insert a business card when mailing bill payments.
Bills contain advertisements. Why can't you advertise your skills or services the same
way' Insert a business card with your payment. You may not think a person in South
Dakota who opens your credit card bill payment can help you. Never underestimate
the power of networking. A movie, entitled '6 Degrees of Separation' points out we
are 6 people away from knowing someone of influence. You could be 6 people away
from knowing the President of the United Sates, your favorite movie star or someone
who is in a position to hire your skills or services. Each of us knows someone, who
knows someone, who knows someone etc. Developing this powerful networking
attitude will be a fundamental source of continued success.
3. Use proper business card etiquette.
Whenever you give a business card, ask for a business card. When given a business
card, don't just take it and place it in your pocket. Make the person feel important by
looking at their card for a few seconds. You might see something that could be a
topic of discussion. Write comments on the card such as date, location and common
points of interest. These comments will prove valuable when following up with that
person. This also demonstrates a sincere interest in the other person. Then place it in
your wallet. This lets them know they reside in a special place with you. "Skill with
People" by Les Giblin is a book that expands on this approach. Make people feel
important, in order to make yourself important to them.
4. Be generous. Give business cards out to everyone,
including family and friends. Don't let vanity stop you from giving out your last
business card or giving 2 at a time to each person. I have met many people who
have totally missed the purpose of a business card. I once asked a person for a
second business card, so I could refer his services. His response was "I only have a
few cards left and I need them", as he looked again at his name on the card.
Hoarding your business cards only makes your wallet feel full, not your bank account.
5. Ask for referrals.
When giving a business card, people feel more comfortable when you ask; 'I would
appreciate a referral, if you know anyone that could use my services'. Don't make
people feel like they are on the spot. This approach disarms people much better than
asking them, 'is your company hiring'' People naturally like to do favors for people.
Saying 'could you do me a favor by referring my services to someone'. This always
places you in a better position with them. They will feel better about helping you. Give
them 2 cards.
6. Maximize every "per chance" meeting.
You never know when you might meet someone who can help you. Family or friends
social events could produce unexpected encounters with people. Don't discount
those events. So you're going to a birthday party for your friend's kid. You never know
who you might meet. At a family holiday gathering last year, I met someone that has
been instrumental in developing our business this year. Who would have thought this
could happen by giving him a simple business card.
7. Place yourself at the right place at the right time.
Have you been to a job fair or business conference and been disappointed with the
networking results' Turn the tables around. Consider volunteering to help out at the
job fair or other types of events. This puts you in a better strategic position for
presenting your resume or business card. Company representatives might view you
differently, if they know you are willing to go the extra mile in helping them make their
presence easier to manage. Get involved by visiting Eventme.com,
TheLunchClub.net, Craigslist.com or view the calendar of events for
JacobJavitsCenter.com to place yourself in opportunities for giving out your business
card. Volunteering for events has been a very successful resource for my business
partner and I to expanding our business. Zig Ziglar, one of the most successful sales
trainers in the world says "if you help enough people get what they want in life, you
will get what you want in life".
8. Use "In Your Face" follow up.
Did you ever have a job interview or meeting with a recruiter, potential client or
employer and wonder why they never called you back' 'Out of sight, out of mind' is
the operative phrase to remember. Today's economic climate dictates you might be
competing with 20, 50, 100 or more other people for the same position or contract.
It's quite a task for people to keep track of each individual meeting. So it's up to you
to give a person a reason to call you back. Immediately after a meeting snail mail a
hand written note thanking the person for their time. Insert your business card. Now
you're in the driver's seat in standing out from other people. If you get no response,
do it again. Patience and persistence pays off.
9. Use promotions to promote YOU, Inc.
Newspapers often have stories of people being promoted to high levels in different
organizations' This is an opportunity for you. Consider getting some invitation size
blank greeting cards. Use the Internet's search capabilities to find out the address of
the company's executive offices. Send the blank invitation type card with a hand
written note sincerely congratulating a person on their promotion. Insert your
business card. For the cost of a 37-cent stamp, you have just made someone's day
and may create an impression that makes a person feel compelled to respond back
to you. Make it a habit to do this once a week. Remember '6 Degrees of Separation'.
You just never know . . . People open invitation type envelops faster than any others.
10. Brand yourself with a slogan.
Print a slogan on your business card that answers the question 'Why should I hire
you' Or "What makes you different from everyone else'" A catchy phrase or slogan
insures people ALWAYS associate a company name with their product or services.
People remember even after the commercial is over. That's called branding.
Companies pay big bucks to advertising agencies to come up with these lasting
slogans. Consider doing the exact same thing on your business card. This is your
insurance people remember you, after you meet. Don't just put Hortence Smiley,
Accountant on your business card. Add something like "Financial Services With
Integrity". A slogan makes all the difference between getting hired or not, because
people will remember you long after a meeting.
Happy trails networking . . .
Keywords: marketing, strategy, business, sales, networking, advertising,

Unit 10
In the news
Objective
Students will be able to know types news and vocabulary for the news
Students will be able to use The going to future: positive ,negative, question
form, short answer
Students will be able to know the company words
Unit details
Types news
Vocabulary for the news
The going to future: positive ,negative, question form, short answer
Company words

Teaching activity
Discussion about types news
Finding out vocabulary for the news
Explaining the usage of The going to future: positive ,negative, question form,
short answer
Finding out company words
Listen to the tape
Do exercises
Teaching materials
Course book
Tape
White board

Homework / Assignments
Find out the news types vocabularies from the newspaper
News Types
News Items have been categorised using a set of News Types. Currently, the
active News Types are "Announcements", "Events", "Media Releases",
"Academic Matters", "Alumni News", "Guild News", "Positions Vacant" "Staff
Development" and "Classifieds".
Academic Matters
News items on Admission, Enrolment, Timetables, Examination Results, Training
or Workshops for Students, Teaching and Learning Resources, Scholarships,
Awards, Academic Staff Development
Alumni News
News items of interest to Murdoch alumni.
Announcements
Priority news items, eg. Establishment of new Research Centres and Institutes,
which may, if deemed necessary, also be listed under other News Types.
Events
Annual/Biennial events on set days, eg. Courses and Careers Days,
Orientation Day, Vet Dog Wash Day. Also, Conferences, seminars and
workshops that are to be held at Murdoch or sponsored by Murdoch and
public lectures and visiting speakers. Social and cultural events such as Music
Club performances, Film screenings, Drama, Dinners, Luncheons, Art
Exhibitions. Sport and health events such as Health workshops and sporting
events at Murdoch.

Guild News
Provides students with news of Guild activities and services, including and
Recreation & Sports Centre notices.

Media Releases
Text of statements issued to the media by staff at Murdoch University.
(NOTE: News items produced by the media may not match the News Items
displayed by the University's News & Events system.)
Positions Vacant
Notices of job opportunities at Murdoch, including some positions only
available to internal applicants.
Staff Development
Staff Development activities held for staff at Murdoch University.
Classifieds
Advertisements relevant to members of the Murdoch community, eg.
accommodation wanted

Vocabulary for the news

Newspaper Vocabulary
There are two types of newspaper - broadsheets and tabloids.
Broadsheets are the ones with large pages, and are often more serious.
Tabloids have smaller pages, and make all news as eye-catching as
possible.
The words belo. After 2003 most of the broadsheets, who were losing out to the
tabloids, made their pages smaller mainly so that commuters could read them easily
while sitting - or standing - on crowded public transport. There are very few
broadsheets left in circulation.
Non-native speakers of English often have difficulty in understanding newspaper
headlines and vocabulary. Using this chart will make reading the newspapers easier!
The words tabloids use are shorter and snappier, catch the eye, use up less space,
are more emotive - and help sell newspapers!
This chart is aimed at fairly advanced students of English may be used in both types,
but are mainly seen in the tabloids

Newspaper Word Meaning Example of use in Newspaper Headlines


axe cut, cancel Council axes swimming pools
back support, agree with Council backs bid for new tram link
ban exclude, prohibit Lager louts banned from city centre
bar exclude, ban Lager louts barred from city centre
bid attempt, try Boy bids for round-the-world record
blast criticise, condemn Ministers blasted for huge pay rise
blow setback Blow to hopes for end to strike
boost increase Huge boost in exports
breakthrough success Breakthrough in fight against cancer
call request, suggestion Call for new congestion charge
clash disagree, disagreement Minister clashes with Home Secretary
crackdown control, purge Police crackdown on drugs
curb restrict Call for curb on late-night pubs and clubs
drama incident, happening Drama as pop singer is booed by angry crowd
dump dismiss, sack, jilt Man in murder trial dumps defence lawyer
embrace meet, agree to Government embraces new initiative on crime
face confront Prime Minister faces journalists
fear, fears worry, worries Fears for missing schoolgirl
feud quarrel, row Neighbours feud about parking spaces
fury anger Fury as police arrest famous boxer
go on rampage cause chaos Fans go on rampage after soccer match
grab confiscate, steal Police grab stolen computers
hit affect Snow hits traffic on motorway
hurdle difficulty, obstacle Funding hurdle in bid to solve tube crisis
key answer, solution Gun is key to finding murderer
opt for choose Government opts for French high speed trains
oust replace, sack MP ousted by consitiuents
outrage anger Outrage as killer is freed through legal error
plan proposal MP's back plan for 5th Terminal
plea request Mayor's plea for more Government cash
pledge promise London Mayor pledges better tube service
probe investigate, ~ion Probe into cash missing from airport
purge control, crackdown Purge on Capital's gun crime
push for ask for, insist on Public pushes for better public services
quit resign, leave Top executive found stealing quits post
quiz question, interrogate Police quiz suspected terrorist
rap criticise, reprove Opposition raps Prime Minister
raid attack Police raid houses of drug dealers
riddle mystery Missing musician riddle
row argument,disagreement Row over plans to lock up asylum seekers
soap (opera) popular TV series East Enders, Coronation Street
set to ready to, about to Balloonist set to break world record
sex-romp sex, affair Soap stars caught in sex romp
shake-up reform Shake-up in police bureaucracy
shun avoid, hide from Recluse actor shuns limelight
sink destroy, eliminate Lack of cash sinks plans for memorial
slam criticise Prime Minister slammed by Opposition for backing
United States on war.
snag difficulty, problem New tramline hits snag
snub avoid, fail to meet French President snubs Prime Minister
soar increase, rise Crime figures soar in city centre
split division, separation Government split on whether to go to war
storm attack,anger,leave angrily Police storm crack house
Storm over plans to demolish houses
Angry teachers storm out of pay negotiations
swoop raid Police swoop on illegal strip club
threat possibility Threat of more strike action by post office staff
turmoil controversy, trouble Turmoil as new road plan comes into effect
vow promise Home Secretary vows to cut street crime
war rivalry Ice cream war breaks out between rival gangs
wed marry Robin weds sweetheart

The news headline

Two types of headlines


There are two types of headlines. Most news stories in the Bangkok Post use
sentence headlines although they may be shortened by omitting certain words as you
will see later. Many feature stories and some very short news stories use phrase
headlines or titles which leave out the verb. Here are some examples of both:
Sentence headlines Police rescue 12 divers as launch sinks off Phi Phi
Pen manufacturers still see good future for luxury
pens
Phrase headlines Getting in touch with the spirits
Heroism and cowardice at the “Top of the World”
Reward for tracing suspect

The grammar of sentence headlines


Almost all sentence headlines in the Bangkok Post use the present tense—despite
the fact that they generally describe past events. The present tense gives the subject
a sense of freshness and immediacy, making it more interesting to read.
Headlines pack a great deal of information into a limited space, so it is not surprising
that Bangkok Post headline writers use several methods to conserve space. One
obvious example is to use abbreviations (“PM” for “Prime Minister”, etc.). But they
also use a special grammar, omitting articles (“a” and “the”) and the verb “to be”
wherever possible.

Cooperation agreement signed


(A cooperation agreement is signed)

Australian ex-judge sworn in to represent UK queen


(An Australian ex-judge is sworn in to represent the United Kingdom queen)

Be sure to notice that the omission of the verb “to be” can make the headline appear
to be in the past tense when it is actually present tense, passive voice
Headline vocabulary
Another way to conserve space in headlines is to use short words instead of long
ones. In the example below notice the various ways the headline writer can shorten
the headline “MP criticises dishonest election plan”.
The Bangkok Post uses about one hundred easily-learned short words in its news
headlines. Here are a few of the most common.
probe investigate, investigation
graft corruption
bid attempt, offer

row quarrel or disagreement

The going to future


Be going to + Verb
The future with 'going to' is used to express planned
(base form)
events or intentions. These events or intentions are
Frank is going to study
decided on before the moment of speaking.
Medicine.
NOTE
Where are they going to
'Going to' or '-ing' are often both correct for planed events.
stay when they come?
'Going to' should be used for distant future intentions
She isn't going to buy
(example: He's going to study Law)
the new house afterall.
Be going to + Verb
(base form)
Oh no! Look at those
clouds. It's going to Used for future predictions based on physical (usually
rain. visual) evidence.
Be careful! You're
going to drop those
dishes!
Present Continuous (be
Used for planned or personally scheduled events. Usually
+ '-ing')
used with principle verbs such as: come, go, begin, start,
He's coming tomorrow
finish, have, etc.
afternoon.
NOTE
What are we having for
'Going to' or '-ing' are often both correct for planed events.
dinner?
'Going to' should be used for distant future intentions
I'm not seeing the
(example: He's going to study Law)
doctor until Friday.

structure

Future with 'going to'


Conjugate the helping verb "be" + 'going to' + verb (base form).
I'm going to (I am)
You're going to (You are)
He's going to (He is)
She's going to (She is)
work this evening.
It's going to (It is)
We're going to (We are)
You're going to (You are)
They're going to (They are)

Conjugate the helping verb "be" + not + going to verb (base form)

I'm not going to (I am not)


You aren't going to (You are not)
He isn't going to (He is not)
She isn't going to (She is not)
come this evening.
It isn't going to (It is not)
We aren't going to (We are not)
You aren't going to (You are not)
They aren't going to (They are not)

Question word + conjugate the helping verb 'be' + subject going to + verb (base
form)
am I going to
are you going to
is he going to
What is she going to do tomorrow?
is it going to are we going to
are you going to
are they going to

Exercises

1. It (rain) ___________________
2. They (eat)_________________stew.
3. I (wear)__________________blue shoes tonight.
4. We (not / help)__________________you.
5. Jack (not / walk)___________________home.
6. (cook / you)______________dinner?
7. Sue (share / not)________________her biscuits.
8. (leave / they)______________the house?
9. (take part / she)______________in the contest?
10. I (not / spend)_______________my holiday abroad this year

Write questions in going to future.


1. (he / cook dinner / tonight)______________________________________
2. (you / run / in the race)________________________________________
3. (they / climb / that mountain)____________________________________
4. (she / exercise / at the gym / in the afternoon)_____________________
5. (you / carry / that heavy box)_____________________________________
6. (computer / crash)_____________________________________________
7. (we / eat / fish / tonight)________________________________________
8. (he / play football / tomorrow)____________________________________
9. (Lucy / call / a taxi)_____________________________________________
10.(you / sing / a song / for us)____________________________________