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derivative. In this example we will consider a truck pulling a trailer. The truck exerts an external force pulling the trailer, the trailer also experiences rolling resistance and wind resistance, which can be combined as one friction force on the trailer.

This example problem can be modeled as a sliding block where the friction acts as a velocity dependant force, with a coefficient b.

FREE BODY DIAGRAM In order to draw a free body diagram of the above figure we must separately consider each and every force acting on the body and then draw them all onto the diagram. Force Applied Force Mathematical Expression f(t) (positive) Direction Toward the Right

Drawing the vectors in the table above yields the following free body diagram.

GOVERNING EQUATION Summing all of the forces on the body together in a mathematical equation yields the governing equation for this system. According to Newtons Laws, the sum of the forces acting on a body is equal to the mass times the acceleration. In this example there are two forces acting on the body, the applied force acting on the block, f(t), and the friction of the block on the stationary surface, quantified as b v pulling to the left, resisting the applied force. The summation of those two equal the mass times the acceleration. Using Newton's law: Sum of all Forces = m v' = f(t) - b v so f(t) - m v' - b v = 0

A first order system is one that is governed by a differential equation that consists of only a variable and its first derivative. In this example we will consider a truck pulling a trailer. The truck exerts an external force pulling the trailer, the trailer also experiences rolling resistance and wind resistance, which can be combined as one friction force on the trailer.

This example problem can be modeled as a sliding block where the friction acts as a velocity dependant force, with a coefficient B.

This is a first order system because the only variables in this system are the velocity, and the first derivative of the velocity, acceleration.

The modeling equation gathered from the free body diagram is in the time domain. We will now learn how to convert it into the frequency domain by performing the Laplace Transform and determining the transfer function of this first order system. In this example we will once again consider a truck pulling a trailer where the friction and wind resistance acts as a velocity dependant force, with a coefficient b. HOW TO FIND THE TRANSFER FUNCTION From the free body diagram we were able to extract the following governing equation: f(t) - m v' - b v = 0 The notation of the Laplace Transform is L{ } L{ v(t) } = V(s) L{ v(t) } = sV(s) v(0) L{ f(t) } = F(s) When finding the transfer function, zero initial conditions must be assumed, so v(0) = 0. Substituting into the governing equation we get: m[sV(s)] + b[V(s)] F(s) = 0 Rearranging we get: [ms + b]V(s) = F(s) The transfer function is defined as the output Laplace function over the input Laplace function, so the transfer function of this first order system is: V(s)/F(s) = 1/[ms+b]

We will now enter this transfer function into MATLAB. Because MATLAB cannot manipulate symbolic variables, we will now assign numerical values to each variable. m = 20,000kg b = 500kg/s >> m = 20000; >> b = 500;

In order to enter the transfer function into MATLAB, you must separate the numerator and denominator, which in this example are denoted by num and den respectively. The format for either matrix is to enter the coefficients of sn in descending order. >> num = [ 1 ]; >> den = [ m b ];

>> first_tf = tf(num, den) This will assign first_tf as the name of the transfer function as well as yield the following output: Transfer function: 1 ------------20000 s + 500

STEP RESPONSE USING THE TRANSFER FUNCTION Now that we have the transfer function entered into MATLAB we can use MATLAB to do many useful calculations including determining the step response. Because the transfer function is in the form of output over input and we are interested in finding the output, the transfer function must be multiplied by the input function. In this case we will plot the unit step response, taking the input to be 1 unit. This models what would happen if you applied 1N of force pushing this truck. >> u = 1; >> step(u * first_tf) The MATLAB output will be the following plot of the step response:

Obviously this truck is able to exert far more than 1N of force, which is why the truck moves so little. More realistically this truck should be able to exert around 20,000N of force. >> u = 20,000; >> step(u * first_tf)

This is far more like it. Given the truck is able to exert 20,000N of force, this truck, on level ground, has a top speed of 40m/s and takes 250s to reach that speed. IMPULSE RESPONSE USING THE TRANSFER FUNCTION MATLAB can also plot the impulse response of a transfer function. >> u = 1; >> impulse(u * first_tf)

The MATLAB output will be the following plot of the unit impulse response:

Now given an input impulse of 20,000N: >> u = 20000; >> impulse(u * first_tf)

This shows that given an impulse of 20,000N, the speed of the truck drops from 1m/s and takes approximately 250s to come to rest. BODE PLOT USING THE TRANSFER FUNCTION MATLABs bode command plots the frequency response of a system as a bode plot. >> bode(first_tf) The MATLAB output will be the following bode plot of the frequency response:

While trucks are rarely tested in this way, this plot shows the response of this truck with a sinusoidal application of the throttle. STATE SPACE FROM TRANSFER FUNCTION In the next section of this example problem we will learn how to determine the statespace representation of this first order system. To find a state space representation of the system from the transfer function in the form x' = Ax + Bu y = Cx + Du use MATLAB's tf2ss command: >> [A, B, C, D] = tf2ss(num,den) The MATLAB output will be: A = -0.0250 B = 1

C = 5.0000e-005 D = 0

In order to find the entire state space system instead of the separate matrices from the transfer function, use the following command: >> first_ss = ss(first_tf) MATLAB will assign the state space system under the name first_ss, and output the following: a = x1 x1 -0.025

b = u1 x1 0.007813

c = x1 y1 0.0064

d = u1 y1 Continuous-time model. 0

In this example we will once again consider a truck pulling a trailer where the friction and wind resistance acts as a velocity dependant force, with a coefficient B. The state space model of this first order system in the form v = A v + B u y =Cv+Du where y is the output equation

can be found using the following steps. Identifying energy storage elements Selecting states Identifying trivial state equations Determining other state equations using element laws and interconnections Vector-matrix form

IDENTIFY ENERGY STORAGE ELEMENTS In order to determine your state variable, you must identify energy storage elements. In this case we have 3 forces acting on the body, the applied force, the friction force, and the inertial force.

State Variables v

SELECTING STATES So we can see from this table that the only state variable in our first order system is v. IDENTIFYING TRIVIAL STATE EQUATIONS This first order system does not have any trivial state equations.

DETERMINING OTHER STATE EQUATIONS USING ELEMENT LAWS AND INTERCONNECTIONS The equation gathered from the free body equation was mv' + bv f(t) = 0 Rearranging we get: v' = -b/m v + f(t)/m and the output we are seeking is for the state variable, v, so: y=v Now we have the derivative of the state variable in terms of the state variable and other known quantities.

PUTTING INTO VECTOR-MATRIX FORM Now to put the equation above into the form: v' = Av + Bf(t) y = Cv + Df(t) so A = -b/m B = 1/m C=1 D=0

HOW TO INPUT THE STATE SPACE MODEL INTO MATLAB We will now enter this state space model into MATLAB. Because MATLAB cannot manipulate symbolic variables, we will now assign numerical values to each variable. m = 20,000kg b = 500kg/s

>> m = 20000; >> b = 500; >> A = -b/m; >> B = 1/m; >> C = 1; >> D = 0; >> first_ss = ss(A, B, C, D); EXTRACTING A, B, C, D MATRICES FROM A STATE SPACE MODEL In order to extract the A, B, C, and D matrices from a previously defined state space model, use MATLAB's ssdata command. >> [A, B, C, D] = ssdata(first_ss) A = -0.0250 B = 5.0000e-005 C = 1 D = 0 STEP RESPONSE USING THE STATE SPACE MODEL Now that we have the state space model entered into MATLAB we can use MATLAB to do many useful calculations including determining the step response. In this case we will plot the unit step response, taking the input to be 1 unit. >> u = 1; >> step(u * first_ss)

The MATLAB output will be the following plot of the step response:

IMPULSE RESPONSE USING THE STATE SPACE MODEL MATLAB can also plot the impulse response of a state space model. >> impulse(u * first_ss) The MATLAB output will be the following plot of the impulse response:

BODE PLOT USING THE STATE SPACE MODEL MATLABs bode command plots the frequency response of a system as a bode plot. >>bode(first_ss) The MATLAB output will be the following bode plot:

TRANSFER FUNCTION FROM STATE SPACE To find the transfer function of the system from the state space model use MATLAB's ss2tf command: >> [num,den] = ss2tf(A, B, C, D) The MATLAB output will be: num = 1.0e-004 * 0 0.5000 den = 1.0000 0.0250 In order to find the transfer function itself instead of the numerator and denominator from the state space model, use the following command:

>> first_tf = tf(first_ss) MATLAB will assign the transfer function under the name first_tf, and output the following: Transfer function: 5e-005 --------s + 0.025 Using the transfer function or state space model gathered in the previous sections, MATLAB can find the Poles and Zeros, Step Response, Impulse Response, and Bode Plot of this first order system. In this example we will once again consider a truck pulling a trailer represented by the transfer function in the form G(s) = b/(s+a) = K/( s+1):

POLES The pole of a first order system occurs at -a. In this example: a = 0.0250, so This system has one pole at s = -0.0250 This means that when s = -0.0250, the denominator equals zero and the value of the transfer function is infinite. To find the pole(s) of the system using MATLAB's pole function. >> pole(first_tf) ans = -0.0250 The pole is on the negative real axis, so the system is stable. If the pole was on the positive real axis, then the system would be unstable. ZEROS The zero of a system is when the numerator of the transfer function equals zero, which makes the value of the transfer function zero. By inspection the numerator of this example problem equals 1, so no value of s will yield a numerator equaling zero.

To find the zero(s) of the system, use MATLAB's tzero function. >> tzero(first_tf) ans = Empty matrix: 0-by-1 This system has no zero, meaning that no value of s will make the numerator equal zero.

STEP RESPONSE In this case we will plot the unit step response, taking the input to be 1 unit. This plot represents what would happen if 1N of force was applied to pushing this truck: >> u = 1; >> step(u * first_tf) The MATLAB output will be the following plot of the step response:

Obviously this truck is able to exert far more than 1N of force, which is why the truck moves so little. More realistically this truck should be able to exert around 20,000N of force. >> u = 20,000; >> step(u * first_tf)

This is more like it. Given the truck is able to exert 20,000N of force, this truck, on level ground, has a top speed of 40m/s and takes 250s to reach that speed.

DC GAIN The DC gain is the ratio of the steady state step response to the magnitude of a step input. The DC Gain is the value of the transfer function when s = 0. When s = 0 G(s)= 1/500 = 0.002.

MATLAB can calculate the DC Gain of this first order system using the dcgain function:

>> dcgain(first_tf) ans = 0.0020 TIME CONSTANT In order to find the time constant, , the system must be put in the form of G(s) = K/ ( s+1). 1/(20000s+500) => 1/(40s+1) Using MATLAB: >> 20000/500 ans = 40 The time constant of this system, , is 40s.

SETTLING TIME The settling time is the time it takes to fall within a certain percentage of the steady state value for a step input or equivalently to decrease to a certain percentage of the initial value for an impulse input. The settling times for this system are: 10% 2 /a or 2 80s 5% 3 /a or 3 120s 2% 4 /a or 4 160s

If a constant throttle input is applied to our truck example, it would take 80s for the truck to reach within 10% of the terminal velocity of that throttle setting. Conversely it would take 120s to reach within 5% of the maximum speed, and 160s to reach within 2% of the maximum speed.

IMPULSE RESPONSE MATLAB can also plot the impulse response of a system. >> u = 1; >> impulse(u * first_tf)

The MATLAB output will be the following plot of the unit impulse response:

Now given an input impulse of 20,000N: >> u = 20000; >> impulse(u * first_tf)

This shows that given an impulse of 20,000N, the speed of the truck drops from 1m/s and takes approximately 250s to come to rest. BODE PLOT MATLABs bode command plots the frequency response of a system as a bode plot. >>bode(first_tf) The MATLAB output will be the following bode plot:

While trucks are rarely tested in this way, this plot shows the response of this truck with a sinusoidal application of the throttle. In a first order system, the low frequency magnitude of the bode plot is 20log(10) of the DC gain, which in the case of this example equals 20log(10).002 = -53.98. The magnitude plot has a bend at the frequency equal to the absolute value of the pole, which in this example is at the frequency 0.025. The magnitude then decreases at 20dB for every factor of ten increase in frequency. The phase plot is asymptotic to 0 degrees at low frequency, and asymptotic to -90 degrees at high frequency. Between frequency 0.1a and 10a, the phase changes by approximately -45 degrees for every factor of ten increase in frequency (-45 degrees/decade).

System parameters such as the time constant and the DC gain can be found using the step response or bode plot. For the sake of example, consider the truck from the preceding example problem. With a different load in the trailer, the driver experiences a slower acceleration as seen in the following step response due to increased mass and increased friction due to the added load bearing down on the tires. Assuming the truck has the same engine which produces 20,000N of force. PART 1 - IDENTIFICATION USING THE STEP RESPONSE

ESTIMATING ORDER This system appears to be a first order system, because the response does not oscillate and has a non-zero slope when t = 0. For this reason we will model this system as a first order system. DC GAIN The DC gain is the ratio of the steady state step response to the magnitude of a step input. The steady state step response can be determined from the plot of the step response, and the magnitude of the step input is given as u=20000.

The DC Gain is: DC Gain = steady state output / step magnitude Using MATLAB: >> u = 20000; >> ss = 33.2; >> K = ss/u K = 0.0017 The DC Gain of this system is approximately 0.0017. SETTLING TIME To find the settling time of the system, locate the time on the plot when the magnitude crosses the desired percentage of the final value. For instance to find the 10% settling time of this system, look for where the response reaches 0.9 of the final value:

The 10% settling time is approximately 132 seconds for this system. Settling times for other percentages can be found using the same method. TIME CONSTANT The time constant, , of the system is the time at which the response is 1 - 1/e = 63% of the final value. The relationship between the time constant and the pole of a system is: pole = -1 / . Other handy approximate relations for finding the time constant are: = 10% Settling Time / 2.3 = 5% Settling Time / 3 = 2% Settling Time / 4 Because the 10% settling time is 132 seconds, the time constant is: = 10% Settling Time / 2.3 = 132s / 2.3 = 57s The time constant of this system is approximately 57 seconds.

It is also possible to find the time constant of the system by following the procedure for finding the settling time except for a percentage of 37%.

ESTIMATING ORDER The bode plot indicates that the system is first order, because the phase decreased from zero degrees to an asymptote of -90 degrees. Another indication that the system is first order is that the magnitude plot at high frequency is decreasing at -20 dB per decade. DC GAIN The DC Gain of a system can be calculated from the low frequency asymptote of the magnitude plot.

In Simulink it is very straightforward to represent a physical system or a model. In general, a dynamic system can be constructed from just basic physical laws. We will demonstrate through an example. In this example we will again consider a truck pulling a trailer. This example problem can be modeled as a sliding block where the friction acts as a velocity dependant force, with a coefficient B.

The governing equation gathered from the free body diagram is: f(t) - m v' - b v = 0 which can be rearranged to find an expression for x". v' = 1/m [ f(t) - b v ] CREATING THE MODEL To begin the construction of the Simulink model, we must first start Simulink and open a new model window. To start Simulink, type simulink at the MATLAB prompt, or click on the icon.

To start a new model in Simulink, click File on the Simulink Library Browser window's tool bar, click on New and then click on Model or equivalently type Ctrl+N.

CONSTRUCTING THE DERIVATIVE RELATIONS A first order system is one that is governed by a differential equation that consists of only a variable and its first derivative. The first step in creating a model of this system is to create the relation between the velocity and its first derivative, which is acceleration. Since velocity is the integral of acceleration, place an integrator block in the model. In the Simulink Library Browser expand Simulink. Then single-click on Continuous. Then drag an Integrator block into the Simulink model.

The input of this integrator is v' and the output is v. Add lines coming in and out of the integrator and label them by double clicking on them and typing in the text box. Also label the integrator by double clicking on its name and changing it.

CONSTRUCTING THE DAMPING FORCE Now construct the signal representing the damping force. The damping force is v multiplied by the damping constant. We can pull v from the output of the Integration from v' to v block. The Simulink equivalent to multiplication is the Gain block. From the Simulink Library Browser window add a Gain block by expanding Simulink and then clicking on Math Operations and then dragging the Gain block into the model.

The number inside the triangle indicates the gain of the Gain block. To change the gain of this Gain block from 1 to b, right click on the Gain block and click on Gain parameters... A new window labeled Block Parameters: Gain will pop up. Change the value in the field for Gain from 1 to b.

The input of the Gain block is currently on the left side. To make the line connection simpler, we would like the input of the Gain block to be on the right. To flip a Gain block, right click on the block and select Format and select Flip block.

Also it may be useful to relabel this Gain block Damping Coefficient. Do so by clicking on the title and typing in the text box that opens.

In order to multiply v with the Damping Coefficient to calculate the damping force, we need to drag a line from the input of the Damping Coefficient to the line marked v. Be sure it connects to the line with the small rectangle as shown.

The damping force is now the output of the Damping Coefficient block. Drag a line out of the output and label it Damping Force.

SUMMING OF FORCES The governing equation shows that two forces sum to form the total force on the body -- one external force and the Damping Force created above. Summation uses the Sum block. From the Simulink Library Browser window, expand Simulink and click on Math Operations and then scroll down in the right column to find Sum. Drag the Sum block into the model.

The default Sum block has two positive inputs. This system has one positive input and one negative input. To change the polarity of an input, right click on the Sum block and select Sum parameters.... A new window titled Block Parameters: Sum will open up. In the field marked List of signs change the value from |++ to |+-.

It is useful to name the Sum block. To turn on the naming of the Sum block, right click on the block and select Format and then select Show name. Change the name by clicking on it and typing in the text box.

Now the name of the Sum block is in the way of one of the input terminals. To flip the name to the top of the block, right click on the block and select Format and select Flip name.

Now to connect the Damping Force to the negative input terminal of the Sum block, drag the end of the arrow labeled Damping Force to a negative input of the Sum block.

The second input of our Sum block is reserved for the external force. Different analyses of this system use different sources for the applied force. Simply draw a line out of the positive input of the Sum block and label it External Forces. Later on, the output of a source will attach to this arrow.

The output of the Sum block is the Sum of all of the forces acting on the system. Draw a line out of the input and label it Sum of All Forces.

CREATING V'

From Newton's Law, the Sum of All Forces is equal to mv'. So dividing the sum of all forces results in v'. To multiply the Sum of All Forces by 1/m, add a Gain block with value 1/m.

The block is too small to display the value of the gain. Enlarge the block slightly by clicking on it and dragging the corner rectangles. Also it is beneficial to rename this Gain block Division by m.

Now connect the line labeled Sum of All Forces to the input of Division by m, and connect the line marked v' to the output of Division by m.

Save the model by selecting File in the toolbar of the model and selecting Save as.... The finished Simulink model can be downloaded here: first.mdl The model is now complete and ready for running.

RUNNING THE MODEL Many useful analyses of the model can be done using Simulink. Before the model can be run, values for the variables used in the model must be defined. We will use the same values used in the Transfer Function and State Space Model sections of this first order example problem. Enter the following values into the MATLAB window prompt. Note: Simulink reads variable values directly from MATLAB commands. >> m = 20000; >> b = 500; SIMULATING THE STEP RESPONSE Once the model has been created in MATLAB it is easy to simulate the response to a step input. In order to simulate the step response you need to add a source to provide the external force, and you need a sink to view the response of the system. In the Simulink Library Browser window, expand Simulink and click on Sources and

then drag the Step source from the right column into the model. Connect the tail of the arrow labeled External Forces to the Step source output.

To monitor the value of x add a scope sink. Go to the Simulink Library Browser window, expand Simulink, click on Sinks, and then drag the Scope sink from the right column into the model. Connect the head of the arrow labeled x to the Scope sink.

The default parameters for the Step source are a Step time of 1, an Initial value of 0, a Final value of 1, and a Sample time of 0. To change the parameters of the Step source, right click on the Step source and select Step parameters.... In the Block Parameters: Step window that opens up, change the parameters to whatever is desired. We will use the same values as used in the Transfer Function and State Space Model sections of this example problem. To find the response to a step input of magnitude 20,000N with the step starting at time t=0, change the parameters to the following: a Step time of 0, an Initial value of 0, a Final value of 20000, and a Sample time of 0.

To run the simulation, click Simulation in the tool bar and select Start, or equivalently hit Ctrl+T on the keyboard, or click the button on the tool bar. To view the output of the Scope sink which is monitoring the value of x, double click on the Scope in the model. The following plot of the step response will appear in a new window.

button.

As you can see, the autoscale function did not pick an appropriate set of axes for this plot. The default Simulation time is set at 10 seconds, which is not long enough to display important features of the response. To change the Simulation time, click on Simulation on the model toolbar, and select Simulation parameters. In the Simulation Parameters: First window that pops up, change the Stop time to 250 seconds.

Running the simulation again and selecting autoscale yields the following plot of the step response.

SINUSOIDAL RESPONSE To find the sinusoidal response of a model, the source should be either a signal generator source or a sine wave source, and the sink should be a scope. Before adding any new source, first delete any existing source by clicking on it and hitting delete on your keyboard. The sine wave source allows a bias input which enables one to find the sinusoidal response about a nonzero speed, which is more appropriate for a truck. To add a sine wave source, expand Simulink in the Simulink Library Browser window and select Sources and then drag the Sine Wave source into the model and connect its output to the tail of the arrow labeled External Forces. Add the Scope using the same method prescribed from above when finding the Step Response.

To set the signal output of the Sine Wave source, double click on the Sine Wave icon. To model the response of the truck to a constant throttle input of 10,000N which has a sinusoidal variation of +/-5000N with a frequency of 0.05Hz, change the values as shown below.

Be sure the values for the variables m, and b have been defined in the MATLAB Command Window. Once the input, the output, and all of the variables have been defined, the model can be run. To run the simulation, click Simulation in the tool bar and select Start, or equivalently hit Ctrl+T on the keyboard, or click the button on the tool bar. Make sure your Simulation time is set to 250 seconds. To view the output of the Scope sink which is monitoring the value of v, double click on the Scope in the model and click autoscale. The following plot of the sinusoidal response will appear in a new window.

The response really hasn't reached a steady state. The simulation time is still too short. Also the curve appears to be jagged because the step size is too big. To observe the steady state response more clearly, change the simulation time to 400 seconds and change the step size to approximately 1/20th of the period of the sine wave. In this case the period is 20 seconds, so the step size should be 1 second. To change the step size of the simulation, click Simulation in the model tool bar and select Simulation parameters.... Alternately you can press Ctrl+E to bring up the Simulation Parameters window. Change the Max step size to 1.

To look more closely at the steady state response, zoom in to the time period between 300 and 400 seconds by using the zoom x button 22 m/s by using the zoom y buttom . , and between 18 and

OBTAINING THE MATLAB MODEL MATLAB can extract the matricies of a state space representation of a Simulink model by using the linmod command. The syntax for the linmod function is:

>> [ A, B, C, D ] = linmod('system') where A, B, C, and D are from the standard vector-matrix form of a state space model and system is the name of the Simulink model. In order to use the linmod command with a Simulink system, the sources and sinks need to be changed. To delete any existing sources and sinks, simply click on them and hit the delete key on your keyboard.

The correct source to run linmod is the subsystem input. To insert this source, go to the Simulink Library Browser window, expand Simulink, click on Sources, and find the source In1 and drag it into the system.

The correct sink to run linmod is the subsystem input. To insert this sink, go to the Simulink Library Browser window, expand Simulink, click on Sinks, and find the sink Out1 and drag it into the system.

Be sure the values for the variables m, and b have been defined in the MATLAB Command Window. Once the input, the output, and all of the variables have been defined, the MATLAB model can be obtained. In the case of our tutorial: >> [ A, B, C, D ] = linmod('first') This defines A, B, C, and D as matricies that define a state space model in standard vector-matrix form and outputs the following: A = -0.0250 B = 5.0000e-005 C = 1.0000 D = 0

Carnegie Mellon University | University of Michigan Mechanical Engineering Department

The DC Gain is: DC Gain = 10M(0)/20 where M(0) is the magnitude of the bode plot when j =0. Using MATLAB: >> M0 = -55.6; >> K = 10^(M0/20) K = 0.0017 The DC Gain of the system is approximately 0.0017.

TIME CONSTANT The time constant is the reciprocal of the frequency when the phase plot is -45 degrees. The time constant is also the frequency at which the low frequency

asymptote intersects the high frequency asymptote. Or equivalently the frequency when the magnitude is 3dB less than the low frequency asymptote.

From the plot it can be seen that the frequency is 0.0172 rad/sec when the phase is at -45 degrees. Using MATLAB: >> 1/0.0172 ans = 58.1395 The time constant, , of this system is approximately 58 seconds.

SETTLING TIME The settling time of the system can be found using the time constant. 10% Settling Time = 2.3 5% Settling Time = 3 2% Settling Time = 4

So the 10% settling time for a system is 2.3 times the time constant, or in this case: >> 2.3 * 58 ans = 133.4 The 10% settling time for this system is approximately 133 seconds. The settling time for other percentages can be calculated in a similar fashion.

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