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Ron Mancini

ABSTRACT This application report develops the equations for the ideal operational amplifier (op amp). It assumes that salient parameters are perfect. Several examples of op amp circuits are described.

Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Noninverting Op Amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Inverting Op Amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Adder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Differential Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complex Feedback Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Figures 1 The Noninverting Op Amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Inverting Op Amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Adder Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Differential Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Differential Amplifier With Common-Mode Input Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 T Network in Feedback Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Thevenins Theorem Applied to T Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Video Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Low-Pass Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 High-Pass Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 9

SLAA068A

Introduction

The name Ideal Op Amp is applied to this and similar analysis because the salient parameters of the op amp are assumed to be perfect. There is no such thing as an ideal op amp, but present day op amps come so close to ideal that Ideal Op Amp analysis becomes close to actual analysis. Op amps depart from the ideal in two ways. First, dc parameters, such as input offset voltage, are large enough to cause departure from the ideal. The ideal assumes that input offset voltage is zero. Second, ac parameters, such as gain, are a function of frequency, so they go from large values at dc to small values at high frequencies. Both error sources are treated in later Understanding . application notes published in this series. This assumption simplifies the analysis, thus it clears the path for insight. It is so much easier to see the forest when brush and huge trees do not surround you. Although the ideal op amp analysis makes use of perfect parameters, the analysis is often valid because some op amps approach perfection. In addition, when working at low frequencies, several kHz, the ideal op amp analysis produces accurate answers. Voltage feedback op amps are covered in this application note, and current feedback op amps are covered in later application notes. Several assumptions have to be made before the ideal op amp analysis can proceed. First, assume that the current flow into the input leads of the op amp is zero. This assumption is almost true in FET op amps where input currents can be less than a pA, but this is not always true in bipolar high-speed op amps where tens of A input currents are found. Second, the op amp gain is assumed to be infinite, hence it drives the output voltage to any value required to satisfy the input conditions. This assumes that the op amp output voltage can achieve any value. Saturation occurs when the output voltage comes close to a power supply rail, but reality does not negate the assumption, it only bounds it. Also, implicit in the infinite gain assumption is the need for zero input signal. The gain drives the output voltage until the voltage between the input leads (the error voltage) is zero. This leads to the third assumption that the voltage between the input leads is zero. The implication of zero voltage between the input leads means that if one input is tied to a hard voltage source such as ground, then the other input is at the same potential. The current flow into the input leads is zero, so the input impedance of the op amp is infinite. Four, the output impedance of the ideal op amp is zero. The ideal op amp can drive any load without an output impedance dropping voltage across it. The output impedance of most op amps is a fraction of an ohm for low current flows, so this assumption is valid in most cases. Five, the frequency response of the ideal op amp is flat; this means that the gain does not vary as frequency increases. By constraining the use of the op amp to the low frequencies, we make the frequency response assumption true.

PARAMETER NAME Input current Input offset voltage Input impedance Output impedance Gain PARAMETERS SYMBOL IIN VOS ZIN ZOUT a VALUE 0 0

SLAA068A

The noninverting op amp has the input signal connected to its noninverting input, thus its input source sees an infinite impedance. There is no input offset voltage because VOS = VE = 0, hence the negative input must be at the same voltage as the positive input. The op amp output drives current into RF until the negative input is at the voltage, VIN. This action causes VIN to appear across RG. The voltage divider rule is used with VOUT being the input to the voltage divider, and VIN being the output of the voltage divider. Since no current can flow into either op amp lead, use of the voltage divider rule is allowed. Equation 1 is written with the aid of the voltage divider rule, and algebraic manipulation yields equation 2 in the form for a gain parameter.

VIN VE + _ a RF VIN RG VOUT

+V

V OUT V IN

)R ) R +R R R +1)R

OUT

RG

(1) (2)

RG

When RG becomes very large with respect to RF, RF/RG0 and equation 2 reduces to equation 3. V OUT

+1

(3)

Under these conditions VOUT = 1 and the circuit becomes a unity gain buffer. RG is usually deleted to achieve the same results, and when RG is deleted, RF can also be deleted (RF must be shorted when it is deleted). When RF and RG are deleted, the op amp output is connected to its inverting input with a wire. Some op amps are self-destructive when RF is left out of the circuit, so RF is used in many buffer designs. When RF is included in a buffer circuit, its function is to protect the inverting input from an over voltage, and it can have almost any value (20k is often used). RF can never be left out of the circuit in a current feedback amplifier design because RF determines stability in current feedback amplifiers. Notice that the gain is only a function of the feedback and gain resistors, so the feedback has accomplished its function of making the gain independent of the op amp parameters. The gain is adjusted by varying the ratio of the resistors. The actual resistor values are determined by the impedance levels that the designer wants to establish. If RF = 10K and RG = 10K the gain is two as shown in equation 2, and if RF = 100K and RG = 100K the gain is still two. The impedance levels of 10 K or 100 K determine the current drain, the effect stray capacitance will have, and a few other points. The impedance level does not set the gain; the ratio of RF/RG does.

Understanding Basic Analog Ideal Op Amps

3

SLAA068A

The noninverting input of the inverting op amp circuit is grounded. One assumption we made is that the input error voltage is zero, so the feedback keeps inverting the input of the op amp at a virtual ground (not actual ground but acting like ground). The current flow in the input leads is assumed to be zero, hence the current flowing through RG equals the current flowing through RF. Using Kirchoffs law, we write equation 4. Algebraic manipulation gives us equation 5.

I1 VIN RG IB VE + IB _ a RF VOUT I2

+ V + * I + * VR R

IN G 2

OUT F

(4) (5)

V OUT V IN

R +*R

Notice that the gain is only a function of the feedback and gain resistors, so the feedback has accomplished its function of making the gain independent of the op amp parameters. The actual resistor values are determined by the impedance levels that the designer wants to establish. If RF=10K and RG=10K the gain is minus one as shown in equation 5, and if RF=100K and RG=100K the gain is still minus one. The impedance levels of 10K or 100K determine the current drain, the effect stray capacitance will have, and a few other points, but the impedance level does not set the gain; the ratio of RF/RG does. One final note; the output signal is the input signal amplified and inverted. The input impedance is set by RG because the inverting input lead is held at a virtual ground.

The Adder

An adder circuit can be made by connecting more inputs to the inverting op amp. The opposite end of the resistor connected to the inverting input is held at virtual ground by the feedback; therefore, adding new inputs does not affect the response of the existing inputs.

V1 R1 V2 R2 VN + RN _ VOUT RF

Figure 3. The Adder Circuit Superposition is used to calculate the output voltages resulting from each input, and the output voltages are added algebraically to obtain the total output voltage. Equation 6 is the output equation when V1 and V2 are grounded. Equations 7 and 8 are the other superposition equations, and the final result is given in equation 9.

SLAA068A

R +*R

VN V1 V2 R )R V )R R

F 2 2 F

+*R R +*R R

F 1 F 2

+*

RF V R1 1

VN

The differential amplifier circuit amplifies the difference between signals applied to the inputs. Superposition is used to calculate the output voltage resulting from each input voltage, and then the two output voltages are added to arrive at the final output voltage.

R1 V1 R2 V+ + VOUT

V _

V2

R3

R4

Figure 4. The Differential Amplifier The op amp input voltage resulting from the input source, V1, is calculated in equations 10 and 11. The voltage divider rule is used to calculate the voltage, V+, and the noninverting gain equation (equation 2) is used to calculate the noninverting output voltage, VOUT1. V)

+V

R2

1

R1

)R

(10)

2

V OUT1

+ V)(G)) + V

R +V *R

2 4 3

R2

1

R1

)R

R3

2

R3

)R

(11)

The inverting gain (equation 5) is used to calculate the stage gain for VOUT2 in equation 12. These inverting and noninverting gains are added in equation 13. V OUT2 V OUT (12) R3

2

+V

R2

1

R1

)R

2

)R *V R

4 3

R4 R3

(13)

+ V *V

1

R4 R3

Understanding Basic Analog Ideal Op Amps

(14)

SLAA068A

It is now obvious that the differential signal, (V1V2), is multiplied by the stage gain, so the name differential amplifier suits the circuit. Because it only amplifies the differential portion of the input signal, it rejects the common-mode portion of the input signal. A common-mode signal is illustrated in Figure 5. Because the differential amplifier strips off or rejects the common-mode signal, this circuit configuration is often employed to strip dc or injected common-mode noise off a signal.

RG RF V1 + _ VOUT

VCM

V2

RG

RF

Figure 5. Differential Amplifier With Common-Mode Input Signal The disadvantage of this circuit is that the two input impedances cannot be matched when it functions as a differential amplifier, thus there are two and three op amp versions of this circuit specially designed for high performance applications requiring matched input impedances.

When complex feedback networks are put into the feedback loop, the circuits get harder to analyze because the gain equations can not be used. The usual technique is to write node or loop equations, and to solve these equations. Because a component is grounded, superposition is not of any use, but Thevenins theorem usually can be used as is shown in the example problem given below. Sometimes it is desirable to have a low resistance path to ground in the feedback loop. Standard inverting op amps can not do this when the driving circuit sets the input resistor value, and the gain specification sets the feedback resistor value. Inserting a T network in the feedback loop yields a degree of freedom that enables both specifications to be met with a low dc resistance path in the feedback loop.

X VIN R1 R2 _ a + Y VOUT R4 R3

Figure 6. T Network in Feedback Loop Break the circuit at point XY, stand on the terminals looking into R4, and calculate the Thevenin equivalent voltage as shown in equation 15. The Thevenin equivalent impedance is calculated in equation 16.

SLAA068A

V TH R TH

+V R R R ) +R R

4 OUT 3 3 4

(15)

4

(16)

Replace the output circuit with the Thevenin equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 7, and calculate the gain with the aid of the inverting gain equation as shown in equation 17.

VIN R1 R2 _ a + VTH RTH

Figure 7. Thevenins Theorem Applied to T Network Substituting the Thevenin equivalents into equation 17 yields equation 18.

*V +R )R V R *V +R )R

TH IN 2 1 OUT 2

TH

(17) R3

TH

V IN

R1

)R +R ) R R R R

4 2 3 4 1 3

R3

R4

)R

(18)

V OUT V IN

R2

) R ) RRR

2 3 4

(19)

R1

Specifications for the circuit you are required to build are an inverting amplifier with an input resistance of 10K (RG = 10K), a gain of 100, and a feedback resistance of 20K or less. The inverting op amp circuit can not meet these specifications because RF must equal 1000K. Inserting a T network with R2 =R4= 10K and R3 = 485K does meet the specifications.

Video Amplifiers

Video signals contain high frequencies, and they use coaxial cable to transmit and receive signals. The cable connecting these circuits has a characteristic impedance of 75 . To prevent reflections, which cause distortion and ghosting, the input and output circuit impedances must match the 75 cable. Matching the input impedance is simple for a noninverting amplifier because its input impedance is very high; just make RIN = 75 . RF and RG can be selected as very high values, in the k range, so that they have minimal affect on the impedance of the input or output circuit. A matching resistor, RM, is placed in series with the op amp output to raise its output impedance to 75 ; a terminating resistor, RT, is placed at the input of the next stage to match the cable.

Understanding Basic Analog Ideal Op Amps

7

SLAA068A

VIN RIN + _ a RF RG RT RM VOUT

Figure 8. Video Amplifier The matching and terminating resistors are equal in value, and they form a voltage divider of 1/2 because RT is not loaded. Very often RF is selected equal to RG so that the op amp gain equals two. Then the system gain, which is the op amp gain multiplied by the divider gain, is equal to one (2 1/2 = 1).

Capacitors

Capacitors are a key component in a circuit designers tool kit, thus a short discussion on evaluating their affect on circuit performance is in order. Capacitors have an impedance of XC = 1 (2fC). Note that when the frequency is zero the capacitive impedance (also known as reactance) is infinite, and that when the frequency is infinite the capacitive impedance is zero. These end-points are derived from the final value theorem, and they are used to get a rough idea of the affect of a capacitor. When a capacitor is used with a resistor, they form what is called a break-point. Without going into complicated math, just accept that the break frequency occurs at f = 1/(2 RC) and the gain is 3 dB at the break frequency.

CF

VIN

RG _ a +

RF VOUT

Figure 9. Low-Pass Filter The low pass filter circuit has a capacitor in parallel with the feedback resistor. The gain for the low pass filter is given in equation 20. V OUT V IN

+ * X R R

C G

(20)

At very low frequencies XC , so RF dominates the parallel combination in equation 20, and the capacitor has no effect. The gain at low frequencies is RF/RG. At very high frequencies XC 0, so the feedback resistor is shorted out, thus reducing the circuit gain to zero. At the frequency where XC = RF the gain is reduced to half or 3 dB because equal impedances in parallel equal half the value of either impedance. Connecting the capacitor in parallel with RG where it has the opposite effect makes a high pass filter. Equation 21 gives the equation for the high pass filter.

SLAA068A

VIN + _ RG CG a VOUT

RF

+ 1 ) X R R

F C

(21)

G

At very low frequencies XC , so RG dominates the parallel combination in equation 21, and the capacitor has no effect. The gain at low frequencies is 1+RF/RG. At very high frequencies XC 0, so the gain setting resistor is shorted out thus increasing the circuit gain to maximum. This simple technique is used to predict the form of a circuit transfer function rapidly. Better analysis techniques are presented in more advanced application notes for those applications requiring more precision.

Conclusions

When the proper assumptions are made, the analysis of op amp circuits is straightforward. These assumptions, which include zero input current, zero input offset voltage, and infinite gain, are not an unrealistic assumption because the new op amps make them true in many applications. When the signal is comprised of low frequencies, the gain assumption is valid because op amps have very high gain at low frequencies. When CMOS op amps are used, the input current is in the femto amp range; close enough to zero for most applications. Laser trimmed input circuits reduce the input offset voltage to a few micro volts; close enough to zero for most applications. The ideal op amp is becoming real; especially for undemanding applications. The math required for ideal op amp analysis is not rigorous, thus most people should be able to analyze simple op amp circuits. The more advanced applications require complex op amp circuits, but there are many of these shown in the applications literature. Grab a TI op amp and have fun.

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