+
=
and with the angular frequency f=/2 we get
.
2 4
1
) (
2 2
C f i M f K
if H
+
=
The spectrum of the force is of the type
, ) ( S f S
FF
=
so that
( ) ( )
.
2 4
) (
0
2
2
2 2
2
df
C f M f K
S
t
x
+
=
To perform integration, it is worth to transform the above expression as
( ) ( )
d
M
K
K
S
t
x


.

\

(
+
=
2
1
2 1
) (
0
2
2
2 2
2
with
_______________________________________
 2 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
.
2
,
2
MK
C
M
K
f
= =
In the case, relevant for real structures, of small , we get
.
4
8
) (
2
2
K C
S
M
K
K
S
t
x
= =
The standard deviation of the response is hence
.
2
1
2 2
1
) (
K C
S
M
K S
K
t
x
= =
The distribution of the response being Gaussian with zero mean, the probability that the
response be less than
x
in absolute value is 68.27% (i.e. for the 68.27% of the time the
absolute value of the response is less than
x
), while it is of 95.45% for 2
x
. For the 50% of
the time, in addition, the absolute value of the response is less than 0.6745
x
.
To remark that
x
decreases with the damping and stiffness of the system in the same way,
and that increases with the spectral density.
The mean square value is dominated by the peak in the transfer function, corresponding to the
natural frequency of the system,
.
2
1
M
K
f
s
=
The results found so far are substantially valid also when the spectral density is not constant,
but sufficiently "flat", like the case in the figure.
A general remark:
x
is inversely proportional to the square root of . In the case of a
perfectly sinusoidal force, the magnification is 1/2. This means that damping has a greater
effect on a on a resonant response due to a sinusoidal force than on a response to a random
force.
F(t)
S
FF
(f )
S
S
FF
(f )
S
f
f
f
f
s
f
s
H(if )
t
Time history of a "white
noise" signal
White noise spectrum
Transfer function
Typical actual spectrum and
idealised white noise spectrum
_______________________________________
 3 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
2. Study of a singlecolumn structure.
Let us consider the simple case of a singlecolumn structure, composed by a vertical circular
cylinder of diameter D, surmounted by a deck carrying some facilities. Such a structure is
sometimes used in offshore engineering to host some simple facilities (a loading terminal for
instance, or a light or radio instruments for navigation, or even a wind mill for power
generation).
The scheme is that in the figure, along with the mechanical model; the data are reported in the
table, and refer to a light tower for navigation aid. The level of the pile fixity, in the absence
of more detailed data, is assumed to be about 6 D, i.e. 2 m.
Data Symbol Value
Pile external diameter D 324 mm
Wall thickness t 9.5 mm
Water depth d 8 m
Height of tip mass above SWL h 7 m
Pile mass m 73.8 kg/m
Tip mass M 300 kg
Inertial moment of the pile J 0.11610
3
m
4
Young's modules of the pile E 20510
9
N/m
2
Depth of the pile fixity level s 2 m
Effective pile length l 17 m
Damping ratio 0.008
Water density 1015 kg/m
3
a. To calculate the natural frequency of the structure.
Effective mass per unit length in water:
. kg/m 1 . 233 8 . 74 5 . 84 8 . 73
4
) 2 (
4
2 2
= + + =
+ + = + + =
t D D
m m m m
i w
Effective tip mass: it is calculated with the static scheme below
The result is M
T
= 1006 kg.
The bending stiffness of the pile is N/m. 14520
3
3
= =
l
EJ
K
T
The natural circular frequency is rad/s. 8 . 3
1
= =
T
T
M
K
The natural angular frequency is Hz. 6 . 0
2
1
1
= =
N
M
l
Sea bed
SWL
D
M
h
d
s
Pile fixity level
l
m
w
m
d+s h
M
T
M
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 4 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
b. To calculate the response to a monochromatic force: a horizontal sinusoidal force of
amplitude F
o
= 330 N and frequency N
f
= 0.33 Hz applied at the top.
The response is given by the general equation
. ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
t i
f f
f
e i H t F i H t x
= =
For a singledegree of freedom, the complex transfer function is
,
) (
1
) (
2
f f
f
C i M K
i H
+
=
and hence the amplitude of the response, in this case the horizontal displacement of the top of
the structure, is
( )
.
) (
1
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2
0 o
f f
o f f o f
F
C M K
F i H i H F i H x
+
= = =
In this case:
. m 032 . 0
, s/m N 2 . 61 2
rad/s, 07 . 2 2
=
= =
= =
o
f f
x
MK C
N
The maximum displacement can be calculated also as ,
s o
x Q x = where Q is the magnification
factor and x
s
the static response:
( )
, ,
4
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
K
F
x Q
o
s
=
+
=
with . 030 . 0
2
, 545 . 0
1
1
= = = = =
M
C f
We get hence . 41 . 1 and m 023 . 0 = = Q x
s
The dynamical response (in terms of deflection,
but also of stresses and strains, as the system is considered as having a linear mechanical
behaviour) is hence 41% higher than the static case.
c. To calculate the wave force and the overturning moment spectra: the sea state is defined by
a significant wave height H
s
= 1.5 m and a peak energy frequency f
m
=0.33 Hz.
First of all, we calculate the wave spectrum (i.e. the spectral density of the surface elevation)
S
(f); for this, we choose to use the PiersonMoskowitz spectrum, which is given, as a
function of H
s
and the zerocrossing period T
z
, by:
( )
.
4
) (
4
3
16
4
2
z
T
z
s
e
T
H
S
=
T
z
is related to f
m
by
_______________________________________
 5 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
. s 16 . 2
4 . 1
1
2 4 . 1 4 . 1
2
= = = = =
m
z m m
z
z
f
T f
T
Hence, in this case, the PiersonMoskowitz spectrum is
( ) ( )
.
10 225 . 8
4
) (
8
) (
4
2
4 4
3
10 462 . 1
5
3
1
4 5
2
16
4 5
2 4
f T f
z
s T
z
s
e
f
e
T f
H
f S e
T
H
S
z z
= = =
This wave spectrum is plotted in the next figure.
We take as cutoff frequency the value f *=1.5 Hz; actually, beyond this value the waves have
a such short period that their energy content is negligible.
Let us calculate now the mean square of the surface elevation :
( )
. m 14 . 0
16
) ( ) (
2 *
1
2
*
0 0
2
4
= = =
z
T f s
f
e
H
df f S df f S
The standard deviation is hence . m 374 . 0 =
= =
z
T f
z
z
f
f
e
T f
T
df f S
df f S f
df f S
df f S f
Using the linear approximation of Borgman, the wave force spectrum, concerning the linear
separation range, i.e. the case of the Morison's equation, is given by
+ =
2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2
4
8
sinh
cosh
4 ) ( ) (
i u d FF
k f k
kd
kz
f f S f S
,
with
;
4
,
2
1
2
D
C k D C k
M i D d
= =
the mean square value of the particles horizontal velocity is given by
S
( f )
[m/Hz]
f [Hz]
_______________________________________
 6 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
. ) ( ) ( ) (
0
2
0
2
= = df f S f H df f S
u uu u
To remark that the spectrum above depends not only upon f but also upon z, i.e. it is a
spectrum of the sectional force at the height z above the sea bed.
For what concerns C
D
and C
M
we choose C
D
= 1.3 and C
M
=2; in this way, k
d
=213.76 kg/m
and k
i
= 167.37 kg/m.
We need first to calculate
u
; the transfer function is
kd
kz
f f H
u
sinh
cosh
2 ) ( = .
This function depends upon the wave number k, which is related to the wave frequency by the
dispersion equation:
.
2
tanh
2
tanh
2 2
L
d
L
g
f kd gk
= =
The above wave spectrum shows that the wave with f<0.2 Hz are completely insignificant. a
numerical solution of the dispersion relation above gives for this value L= 34.9 m. Thus, only
waves with a length less than this value are significant, and for these waves the number
kd=2 d/L is greater than 1.44; hence, the deep water approximation can be used, that is
tanh kd1 so that
.
4
2
2
2
f
g
k gk
=
Hence, the expression of the mean square of the velocity wave force spectrum is
.
4
sinh
4
cosh
1
) ( ) ( ) (
*
0
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3 4
2
*
0
2
2
4 4


.

\



.

\

= =
f
T f
z
s
f
u u
df e
d f
g
z f
g
f T
H
df f S f H z
z
This integral can be calculated numerically for different values of z (in the figure).
In the same way, the spectrum of the wave force per unit length can be found in the same
way, applying the expression given above. It is a function of f and z, and it is plotted in the
next figure, for different values of z.
z [m]
u
[m]
_______________________________________
 7 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
The spectrum of the total force acting upon the column is obtained after integration over z and
is given by:
.
4
sinh
4
4
tanh 2
4
cosh ) (
4
sinh
32
) ( ) (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
0
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
(
(
(
(
(


.

\

+


.

\

+
+


.

\



.

\

=
d f
g
d f
g
d f
g
k g f
dz z f
g
z
d f
g
k f
f S f S
i
d
u
d
FF
tot
The numerical integration over z gives the following diagram for the wave force spectrum:
The standard deviation of the total force spectrum can be calculated numerically, and gives:
. N 441 ) ( ) (
*
0 0
= =
f
FF FF
F
df f S df f S
tot tot
tot
The frequency at which the mean energy of the force occurs is
. Hz 59 . 0
) (
) (
) (
) (
*
0
*
0
2
0
0
2
= =
f
FF
f
FF
FF
FF
F
df f S
df f S f
df f S
df f S f
tot
tot
tot
tot
f [Hz]
S
FF
( f )
[N/Hz]
z= 8 m
z= 7.75 m
z= 7.5 m
z= 7.25 m
z= 7 m
z= 6.75 m
S
FFtot
( f )
[N/Hz]
f [Hz]
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 8 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
It is interesting to notice that
F
>
(
(
(


.

\

+ +
+


.

\



.

\

+
+


.

\



.

\

=
d f
g
g d f g
d f
g
d f
g
d g f
f
k g
dz z f
g
z z k f
d f
g
f S
f S
i
d
u d MM
We find also, with an analogous meaning, Nm, 7 . 1289 =
M
. Hz 464 . 0 =
M
d. To calculate the expected maximum value of the force and of the overturning moment in a
sea state of duration 5 hours.
Assumed the force to be a zeromean Gaussian random process, we have
( )
( )
( )
( )
.
ln 2
ln 2 ;
ln 2
ln 2


.

\

+ =


.

\

+ =
T
T M
T
T F
M
M MM max
F
F FF max
T is the duration of the sea state, in seconds: . s 18000 3600 5 = = T is the Euler's constant:
=0.5772. We get hence F
max
= 1956.8 N and M
max
= 5656.5 Nm.
e. To calculate the response, in terms of horizontal displacement at the SWL, of the structure
to the previous sea state.
The calculation of the response passes through the transfer function of the response. This
transfer function describes the way the structure responses dynamically to the exciting force
acting upon it. In this case, the exciting force, the wave force, is a force distributed on the
column, with a hyperbolic variation with water depth and maximum at the still water level.
S
MM
( f )
[Nm/Hz]
f [Hz]
_______________________________________
 9 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
So, we need the response of the structure to such an exciting force. This can be done, but it is
very cumbersome. So, we prefer to follow another simpler way, which gives a sufficiently
approximated result.
In fact, as already said, the force has a hyperbolic distribution: this means that it varies very
quickly with the depth. A good approximation of it, and anyway a conservative
approximation, is to consider that the wave force is a concentrated load applied to the
structure in correspondence of the still water level, see the figure.
We know the transfer function for the case of the simple oscillator, that is, for the case of the
last model on the right in the figure above. In order to have a good approximation, the
equivalent mass M
o
must be determined such that the natural frequency of the final model is
equal to that of the previous model (central model in the figure above).
Hence:
. kg 4942
3
1
=


.

\

= = = =
o
T
T
o
T o
T
T
o
o
o
l
l
M
K
K
M M
M
K
M
K
The response of the structure is now given by the relationship
), ( ) ( ) (
2
f S if H f S
tot
FF xx
=
with S
FF
( f ) the wave force spectrum found above and the transfer function
.
2 1
1
) (
2
2
2
2
2


.

\

+
(
(


.

\

=
o o
o
N
f
N
f
K
if H
In this case, for what said above N
o
=N
1
= 0.6 Hz, and
N/m. 71340
3
3
= =
o
o
l
EJ
K Hence, see also the figure,
 
.
000711 . 0 7778 . 2 1 5089395600
1
) (
2
2
2
2
)
`
+
=
f f
if H
H(if)
[m/N]
f [Hz]
M
l
Concentrated
wave load
l
o
=d+s
M
o
l
o
Sea bed
SWL
Pile fixity level
Distributed
wave load
M
d
s
l
_______________________________________
 10 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
The spectrum of the response is hence readily found and represented in the figure below.
To be remarked that the response at the natural frequency (0.6 Hz) is much more significant
than the response at the peak of the force spectrum ( 0.38 Hz). The frequency at which most
of the energy is concentrated is
. Hz 595 . 0
) (
) (
) (
) (
*
0
*
0
2
0
0
2
= =
f
xx
f
xx
xx
xx
x
df f S
df f S f
df f S
df f S f
to be remarked that this value is practically coincident with the natural frequency of the
structure, 0.6 Hz, because the response is narrowbanded.
The standard deviation of the response is
m 051 . 0 ) ( ) (
*
0 0
= =
f
xx xx x
df f S df f S
and the expected maximum horizontal displacement at the SWL in a 5 hours sea state is
( )
( )
. m 226 . 0
ln 2
ln 2 =


.

\

+ =
T
T x
x
x xx max
For the 68.27% of time, the horizontal displacement is hence less than 5.1 cm.
f. To calculate the natural frequency of the structure by the Rayleigh method.
In this method, actually an energy method, the system is assumed to be undamped and the
frequency is found equating the maximum potential energy and the maximum kinetic energy
on a period. This leads to the expression of :
.
0
2 2
0
2
2
+
=
l
i
i i
l
y M dx Ay
dx y EJ
In the equation above, y(x) is the deflection mode shape of the beam. In the Rayleigh method
y(x) must be assumed and the result depends upon its choice; nevertheless, usually simple
choices of y(x), leading to simple calculations, give good results, and most part of times, the
choice of y(x) is not critical. To show this point, we use two different choices for y(x). The
f [Hz]
S
xx
( f )
[m/Hz]
_______________________________________
 11 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
fundamental restriction in the choice of y(x) is that it must satisfy the boundary condition at
the point of fixity or support, in our case the clamped edge.
In the first choice we use a trigonometric approximation, ,
2
cos 1 ) (
o
y
l
x
x y 
.

\

=
y
o
being the
end deflection. In this way it is
( )
( )
. Hz 766 . 0
2
, rad/s 81 . 4
300 4 . 52 5 . 282
10 47 . 1
kg; 300
; kg 9 . 334 kg 4 . 52 kg 5 . 282
N/m; 10 47 . 1
32
1
2
2 4
2 2 2
2 2 2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2 4 2
3
4
0
2
0
2
= = =
+ +
=
= =
= + = + =
= = =
N
y
y
y y M y M
y y y dx y m m dx y m dx Ay
y y
l
EJ
dx y EJ dx y EJ
o
o
i
o o i i
o o o
l
w
l l
o o
l l
o
Let us now to take a polynomial for y(x): ( )
2 2
4l x ax y = , with a a constant; we get:
( )
( )
. Hz 748 . 0
2
, rad/s 7 . 4
10 695 . 1 4049 . 0 767 . 1
10 54 . 8
kg; 10 695 . 1
; kg 10 049 . 4 10 767 . 1
N/m; 10 54 . 8
1
2 14
2 15
2 14 2
2 13 2 14
0
2
0
2
0
2
2 15
0
2
0
2
= = =
+ +
=
=
+ = + =
= =
N
a
a
a y M
a a dx y m m dx y m dx Ay
a dx y EJ dx y EJ
i
i i
l
w
l l
l l
o
It can be easily checked that both the assumptions made for y(x) respect the conditions at the
clamped edge, i.e. y(0)=y'(0)=0.
The difference between the first and the second approximation is 2.3% of the first; however,
the difference with respect to the natural frequency previously calculated with a rigidlike
model, 0.6 Hz, is 21.7%, which shows that this last was not a so good approximation.
g. To calculate the wave loads produced by a H= 1.5 m high wave having a period T= 3 s.
The frequency is =2/T= 2.094 Hz. The wave length can be calculated by the dispersion
equation:
.
2
tanh
2
tanh
2
2
L
d
L
g
T
kd gk
= =
The numerical solution of this equation gives L= 14.03 m. The wave number is k=0.448 m
1
and kd= 3.58>1: the deep waters condition can be applied. In fact, tanh kd= 0.998, so that
. m 06 . 14
2
2
2
=
gT
L gk
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 12 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
To avoid the numerical solution of the dispersion equation, the deep waters approximation
can be used at first and once the value of L found, its validity checked.
The ratio . 2 . 0 023 . 0
03 . 14
324 . 0
< = =
L
D
The KeuleganCarpenter number is
. 4 53 . 14
tanh
max
> = = =
D
H
kd (D/L)
(H/L)
D
T u
KC
The highest value of the wave height for the given value of the wave length is
2
7
tanh
7
max
= =
L
kd
L
H ,
so that 5 . 0 75 . 0 /
max
> = H H .
The consequence of these evaluations is that for the case in object the wave action should be
calculated in the nonlinear separation range that is, using the Lighthill correction to the
Morison's equation:
,
5 4 3 2 1
F F F F F F + + + + =
with:
F
1
: the FroudeKrylov term, computed in deep waters and with the linear wave theory:
; cos 42 . 1231 cos
4
2
1
1
t t C g a
D
ds
t
F
M
= = =
n
in this calculation we have get C
M
=2; in fact, the Reynolds number in deep waters is
5 6
10 9 . 3 10 3 =
L
H D
Re ; the diagrams usually employed give for a smooth
cylinder and for these values of Re and KC, C
M
=1.8; conservatively, we take C
M
=2;
F
2
: the drag force, computed in the theoretical framework of the linear deep waters
wave theory:
; sin sin 77 . 589 sin sin
4
1
2
2
t t t t D g a C F
D
= =
we have taken the value C
D
= 1.3, once again corresponding to the above values of Re
and KC for a smooth cylinder;
F
3
: due to the quadratic term of the velocity potential in a second order Stokeslike
potential decomposition:
; 2 sin 13 . 10 2 sin 3
28 0
ln 16
2
3 4 2 2
1 3
t t
k b
,
k b g a ds ) ( w F
d z
= 
.

\

= =
=
F
4
: due to the kinetic pressure, relative to the only linear potential:
; 2 sin 7 . 51 2 sin
4
cos ) (
2
1
2 2 2
1 4
t t k b g a ds F
S
= = =
F
5
: present only if the cylinder cross the free surface; it is due to the fact that the
boundary condition is written on the actual surface, and not on z=d:
_______________________________________
 13 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
. 2 sin 8 . 206 4 cos
2
4
2
1
5
t F dl
t g
F
C
= = 
.

\

=
The time variation of the five components is shown in the next figure.
The contribution of the first and second order terms is put in light in the next figure.
The secondorder terms are smaller than the firstorder ones, but in this case not completely
negligible. In fact, by differentiation and numerical solution, one gets the following values of
the maximum of the different components:
F
1
+F
2

max
= 1231.42 N for t =0 (and t= 1.5 s);
F
2
+F
3
+F
4

max
= 268.63 N for t =0.375 s (and t = 1.125 s, 1.875 s, 2.625 s);
(F
tot
)
max
=1455.49 N for t =0.3 s.
The increase in the value of the maximum force considering the secondorder terms is hence
of 224.07 N, i.e. the 18.2% of the maximum first order force; in addition, this maximum
produces with a delay equal to T/10.
For the purpose of the structural calculation, the bending moment at the clamped edge is
perhaps more important. In this case, considering, as already done, the wave action as a
concentrated load applied at the SWL, we get . Nm 9 . 14554
max
max
= =
o tot
l F M
h. To determine the minimum current velocity that produce flowinduced oscillations by
vortex shedding and the amplitude of these oscillations.
First of all we control the stability parameter .
2
2
D
m
K
e
s
= If K
s
>1.8 inline oscillations do
not occur, while if K
s
>10 crossflow oscillations do not occur.
The effective mass per unitlength is given by
t
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
5
F [N]
t
F
1
+ F
2
F
3
+ F
4
+ F
5
F
tot F [N]
_______________________________________
 14 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
,
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
0
2
0
2 2 2
0
2
0
2
+ +
= =
d
d l
d
w
d
l
e
ds s
l M ds s m ds s m
ds s
ds s m
m
being the mode. If we take for the mode the polynomial approximation already used,
( )
2 2
4l x ax = , we get m
e
=1526 kg/m. Hence, considering that the logarithmic decrement is
= 2 = 0.05, it is K
s
=1.4<1.8: inline oscillations and crossflow oscillations can occur.
The knowledge of the natural frequency and of K
s
allows the
calculation of the reduced velocity V
r
, corresponding to the
onset of vortex shedding instability, by the diagram in the
figure. As natural frequency, we use that calculated by the
energy method with the polynomial approximation used above:
N
1
= 0.748 Hz.
Hence we get for the reduced velocity the value V
r
=2.2 and
consequently, being ,
1
D N
V
V
r
= the value of the current velocity
producing the onset of instability is V= 0.53 m/s. The instability
is located in the second region, and the following diagram gives
the relative amplitude as a function of K
s
. For the value of
concern, we obtain:
. m 013 . 0 04 . 0 = = = D x
max
The case of crossflow oscillations must also be considered. In
this case, the value of the reduced velocity at the onset of vortex
shedding and that in correspondence of the maximum amplitude
of oscillations, are given by the next diagram as a function of
Re. Being Re a function of V, just as V
r
, an iterative calculation
must be done.
So, trying V
r
= 4.8 we get V= 1.16 m/s and Re=339215; the value
of V
r
corresponding to this value of Re is about 4.4; we try hence
V
r
= 4.5 and we get V= 1.1 m/s and Re=318014; this value is
acceptable. Hence, the crossflow vibrations begin at V= 1.1
m/s.
The value of V
r
giving the maximum amplitude of oscillations
can be found with the same technique using the second curve on
the same diagram. We obtain V
r
= 5.5, that corresponds to
V=1.33 m/s. By the diagram aside, for the value of K
s
previously
calculated, we obtain
. m 456 . 0 4 . 1 = = = D x
max
Such a value of the oscillations is of course completely intolerable for a structure, which
shows the importance of considering the vortex shedding effects in designing offshore
structures.
V
r
K
s
V
r
K
s
V
r
Re
V
r
Re
K
s
(for Vr=1.9)
(for Vr=2.5)
K
s
(for Vr=1.9)
(for Vr=2.5)
K
s
K
s
_______________________________________
 15 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
3. Wave slamming analysis.
The scope of this exercise is to calculate the dynamical response of a horizontal brace of a
jacket structure subjected to wave slamming. The brace can be considered as a beam clamped
at both the edges; it has a hollow circular section and it is empty. The wave can be described
by the linear wave theory and using the deep waters approximation.
The data are summarized below:
Beam length: L= 10 m;
External diameter: D= 10"= 254 mm;
Thickness: t=1/2"=12.7 mm;
Young's modulus: E= 210 GPa;
Steel density:
s
:=7850 kg/m
3
;
Water density:
w
:=1015 kg/m
3
;
Wave height: H
w
=10 m;
Wave period: T
w
= 10 s;
Damping ratio: = 0.03.
Preliminary calculations:
Cross area: ; m 10 63 . 9
4
] ) 2 ( [
2 3
2 2
=
=
t D D
A
Mass per unit length: m=
s
A=75.57 kg/m;
Inertia moment: ; m 10 03 . 7
64
] ) 2 ( [
4 5
4 4
=
=
t D D
J
Wave frequency: ; rad/s 628 . 0
2
= =
w
w
T
Wave number: ; m 04 . 0
1
2
= =
g
k
Wave length: ; m 13 . 156
2
= =
k
L
w
Wave steepness: ; 128 . 0 =
L
H
Ratio to maximum wave steepness: ; 897 . 0 128 . 0 7
) / (
/
max
= =
L H
L H
Wave slamming force per unit length: ; N/m 4 . 15987
8
2 2
= = H D f
w ws
Total wave slamming force: ; N 159874 = = L f f
ws ws
tot
_______________________________________
 16 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
Dynamical response calculation: the wave slamming is modelled as an impulsive distributed
force acting instantaneously on a system having only one degree of freedom (i.e., only the
first frequency is considered), determined by the mode shape. The response to such a force is
given by:
), ( ) ( ) , ( t h f x t x y
ws
=
where (x) is the mode shape and h(t) the impulse response function:
. 1 sin
1
1
) (
2
2

.

\

=
t e
m
t h
t
The mode (x) and the frequency must hence be calculated. We use the Rayleigh approach,
using as mode the static deformation of the beam under a unitary distributed load:
.
2 2 12
1
) (
2
2 3
4


.

\

+ =
x
L Lx
x
EJ
x
The deformation in the middle of the beam, under the wave slamming force considered as a
static load, is hence
. m 028 . 0
384
) ( )
2
(
4
= = = =
EJ
L f L
x f
ws
ws s
The frequency is given by
,
2
0
2
0
2
m
EJ
L
dx my
dx y EJ
L
L
=
=
with
. 45 . 22 14 6
0
2
0
2
2
=
=
L
L
dx y
dx y
L
Finally,
rad/s. 2 . 99
14 6
2
= =
m
EJ
L
The dynamic response can then be calculated:
). 15 . 99 sin( 10 33 . 1 ) (
) (
) , (
976 . 2 4
t e t h
x f
t x y
t
ws
= =
This is also, for each x, the dynamical magnification factor, i.e. the ratio between the dynamic
and static response. This function is plotted below, and it is apparent that the dynamic effect is
very important but also rapidly vanishing. Actually, the fact that the wave period is much
higher than the natural period of the beam has as a result that the impulses given by two
successive wave slamming have not mutual influence. In other words, the dynamic response
is dominated by the response to only one slamming.
_______________________________________
 17 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
4. Dynamics of a MINITLP.
The scope of this exercise is to analyze the dynamic behaviour of a MINITLP, i.e. of a TLP
having only one column. The scheme is that in the figure, and the data are summarized in the
table below. To a first approximation, used here, the tethers and the pontoons are considered
as rigid and the wave action on them is neglected. The tethers are linked to the pontoons and
to the sea bed by pin joints; so, the system behaves articulated and has only one degree of
freedom (twisting is neglected here).
a. Wave force: the first thing to do is to calculate the wave force.
The frequency is =2/T= 1.01 Hz. The wave length can be calculated by the dispersion
equation, written for deep waters:
. m 60
2
m 105 . 0
1 
2
2
= = =
k
L
g
k gk
We have also kd= 52.35>1: the deep waters condition can actually be applied.
The ratio . 2 . 0 25 . 0
60
15
> = =
L
D
The KeuleganCarpenter number is
. 4 616 . 1
tanh
max
< = = =
D
H
kd (D/L)
(H/L)
D
T u
KC
The highest value of the wave height for the given value of the wave length is
Data Symbol Value
Column diameter D 15 m
Column immersion p 30 m
Column height c 40 m
Water depth d 500 m
Water clearance h 470 m
Total TLP mass M
TLP
10
6
kg
Air gap ag 0.5 m
Wave height H 7.7 m
Wave period T 6.2 s
Water density 1025 kg/m
3
h(t)
zoom
t [s]
h(t)
t [s]
D
p
h
d
x
z
o
_______________________________________
 18 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
, m 57 . 8
7
tanh
7
max
= =
L
kd
L
H
so that 5 . 0 9 . 0 /
max
> = H H .
The consequence of these evaluations is that for the case in object the wave action should be
calculated in the nonlinear diffraction range. As the cylinder is truncated, the nonlinear
Garrett solution gives the wave forces. We use the simplified solution given by Vannucci.
Before calculating the wave loads, we compute some parameters used in the formulae:
column radius: b=D/2= 7.5 m;
radius parameter: =kb= 52.36;
depth parameter: =kd=0.78;
clearance parameter: =kh=49.22;
ratio /=0.94;
wave amplitude: a=H/2=3.85 m;
wave parameter: =ka=0.40;
wave amplitude buoyancy: B= g a b =6.85410
6
N.
With the above parameters, by the following diagrams we can calculate the reduction
coefficients
x
and
z
.
Considering the above diagrams and conservatively, we can take for both the coefficients the
value 1.
Finally, as <1, we can use the approximated expressions of the Bessel's functions appearing
in the formulae of the first order forces.
The wave loads are hence:
a first order horizontal force:
; N cos 10 180 . 1 cos
cosh
sinh sinh
16
8
7
4 2
t t
B
X
x
+
=
a first order vertical force:
; N cos 10 33 . 5 cos
cosh
sinh
16
4
5
4 2
t t
e B
Z
z
=
+
+
=
a horizontal drift;
5
10
15
20
0.5
1
1.5
2
0.6
0.8
1
0 5 10 15 20
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
/=0.9
/=0.8
=0.5
x
5
10
15
20
0.5
1
1.5
2
0.6
0.8
1
0 5 10 15 20
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
/=0.9
/=0.8
=0.5
x
5
10
15
20
0.5
1
1.5
2
0.98
0.99
1
0 5 10 15 20
0.965
0.97
0.975
0.98
0.985
0.99
0.995
1
a) b)
0.9
0.6
0.3
/=0
/=0.8
=0.5
z
5
10
15
20
0.5
1
1.5
2
0.98
0.99
1
0 5 10 15 20
0.965
0.97
0.975
0.98
0.985
0.99
0.995
1
a) b)
0.9
0.6
0.3
/=0
/=0.8
=0.5
z
_______________________________________
 19 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
,
2 sinh
2 sinh 2 sinh 2 2
2 sinh
2 sinh 2 sinh 2 2 ) 1 (
) (
2
2
0
3 2
(
( + +
+
+
+
+
=
m m B
X
m
m D
with
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ), , , , ,
, , , , ,
,
) )( (
, ,
2
1
2
1
2 2
1 1
m m m m
m m m m
m m m m
m m m m
m
Y Y N
J J M
N M N M
M N N M
=
=
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
where
( ) ;
I
I
1
sinh
2 sinh + 2
8
, ,
2
2
2 2
1
2
2

.

\


.

\



.

\

+
=
n
n
n
n
m
m
n
m
three terms are sufficient for the convergence of the above series: X
D
=3.3310
5
N;
a vertical drift:
( )
+
+
=
1 = m
2 2
0
2 2
2
2 4 2
,
1
2 sinh
sinh 8
dr r
N M
B
Z
m m
b
m m
D
B A
with
,
1
2
1
2
2 2
1

.

\


.

\

+
+

.

\

=
h
b n
I
h
r n
I
n
n
h b
r
b
m
m
m
n
m
m
A
;
1
2
1
2
2 2
(
(
(
(

.

\


.

\

+
+ 
.

\

=
=
h
b n
I
h
r n
I
n
n
b
r
r
m
m
m
n
m
m
B
with six terms in the series above, we obtain Z
D
= 1444.3 N;
a second order time depending horizontal force, approximated by the following term,
due to only the first order velocity potential:
, 2 cos
2 sinh
2 2 2 sinh 2 sinh
2 sinh
2 2 2 sinh 2 sinh 3 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
3 2
2
t Q P
Q P
B
X
(
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
with
_______________________________________
 20 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )( );
; ;
; ) 1 ( 1 ; ) 1 ( 1
; 1 ; 1
2
1
2
1
2 2
1 1 1 1
0
2
0
2
0
1
0
1
+ +
+ + + +
=
+ + =
= + =
+ = + =
= =
m m m m m
m m m m m m m m m m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
N M N M R
N N M M Q M N N M P
R
Q
m m Q
R
P
m m P
R
Q
Q
R
P
P
with three terms in the series, we obtain X
2
=2.8210
6
cos 2t N;
a second order time depending vertical force, approximated by the following term, due
to only the first order velocity potential:
, 2 cos
3
2 sinh
1 2 cosh
1
4
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 3 2
2
t V U
B
Z
+


.

\

+
+
=
with
( ) ( )
( ) ; 2
; 1 ; 1
2
2 2 2 2
0 0
m m m m m m m m m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
N M ; W N M ; V N M U
W
V
m V
W
U
m U
+ = = =
= =
=
=
with three terms in the series, we obtain Z
2
=12.2 cos 2t N.
Finally, the results show that:
Z/X=0.045;
X
D
/X=0.028;
Z
D
/X=1.2210
4
;
X
2
/X=0.239;
Z
2
/X=2.0210
8
.
Hence, we will consider in the following only the forces X, Z, X
D
and X
2
. In addition, and
conservatively, we assume that X and X
2
have the same phase, while Z has a phase of ; in
fact, this is the condition which maximizes the displacements of the platform (when the
horizontal force is the highest, the vertical force is maximum downward). Hence, the wave
actions are:
along x:
; N cos 10 180 . 1
7
t X =
X
2
=2.8210
6
cos 2t N;
X
D
=3.3310
5
N;
along z:
. N ) cos( 10 33 . 5
5
= t Z
h
M
A()
x
z
o
Z(t)
X(t)
X
2
(t)
X
D
_______________________________________
 21 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
The mechanical model is hence that in the figure above, acted upon by the above forces; the
only degree of freedom is the angle ; the mass M is the total mass of the system plus the
added mass; considering the ratio p/D=2, the added mass coefficient is C
A
= 0.72 (obtained by
interpolation of the data in the figure below, from Sarpkaya & Isaacson).
Hence, the dynamical mass is
. kg 10 912 . 4
4
6
2
= + =
TLP A
M p
D
C M
Conservatively, we neglect in the dynamical analysis the radiation damping, caused by the
scattering of waves from the moving hull.
The stiffness of the system is given by the restoring force A, the buoyancy, which depends
upon :
  . N ) cos 95 . 0 1 ( 10 7864 . 8 ) cos 1 (
4
) (
8
2
= + = g M h p g
D
A
TLP
The minimum restoring force is at rest, =0, where it is about 3 times the highest horizontal
force. The maximum possible angle is that for which the immersion of the hull leaves out of
water the height ag+a=4.35 m. Hence, the maximum allowed additional immersion of the hull
is c(ag+a)=5.65 m. This value is obtained for an angle
adm
such that
. 893 , 8 988 . 0 1 cos = =
+ +
+ =
adm
h
c ag a p
The variation of A with is shown in the figure.
We can now write the motion equation of the system:
. 0 =
L L
&
t
The Lagrangian L is
, U K + = L
with:
K: kinetic energy of the system; we make the simplifying assumptions that the tethers
have a negligible inertia with respect to that of the TLP and that the mass of the TLP is
concentrated at the top of the tethers (this last assumption is justified by the actual
lengths):
;
2
1
2
&
TLP
I K =
[]
A()
[N]
_______________________________________
 22 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
I
TLP
is the inertial moment of the TLP with respect to the point o:
;
2
1
2 2 2
&
h M K h M I
TLP TLP TLP
= =
U: total potential of the forces acting upon the system:
,
2
Z X X X A
U U U U U U
D
+ + + + =
with
U
A
: potential of the restoring force A(); if p() is the draught of the hull and
z() its vertical position, we have:
  ; ) cos 1 (
2
1
cos ) (
2
1
) (
2 2 2 2
+ = = h p b g h g M p b g z g M U
TLP TLP A
U
X
: potential of the horizontal wave force X; if x() is the horizontal position
of the hull, we have:
; cos sin sin ) ( t h X h X x X U
X
= = =
U
X
2
: potential of the secondorder horizontal wave force X
2
:
; 2 cos sin sin ) (
2 2 2
2
t h X h X x X U
X
= = =
U
X
D
: potential of the horizontal drift:
; sin ) ( h X x X U
D D X
D
= =
U
Z
: potential of the vertical wave force:
). cos( cos cos ) ( = = = t h Z Zh z Z U
Z
To remark that the derivatives of the potentials with respect to give the moments of the
respective forces about the point o.
The equation of motion is hence:
 
. 0 ) cos( sin cos 2 cos cos
cos cos sin ) cos 1 ( sin
2
2 2
= +
+ +
t h Z h X t h X
t h X h h p gb gh M h M
D
TLP
& &
The equation is nonlinear, and its numerical solution gives the following variation of with
the time:
t [s]
[rad]
_______________________________________
 23 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
The maximum value of the angle is about 0.015 rad, i.e. 0.859 (which is <
adm
), to which
correspond a horizontal displacement of 7.04 m and an additional immersion of 0.053 m, for
an increase of the buoyancy of 0.17% (93952 N) with respect to the buoyancy at =0
(5.3310
7
N).
The value of
stat
for which the TLP is in static equilibrium under the only action of the drift is
given by the equilibrium equation
  . 0 cos sin ) cos 1 ( sin 0 ) (
2
= + + = + h X h h p gb gh M U U
D TLP X A
D
The solution is
stat
=0.4384, to which corresponds the horizontal displacement
. m 6 . 3 sin = =
stat stat
h x
The linearized motion equation is readily obtained, considering only the constant term in a
McLaurin time expansion of the vertical wave force and considering that
. 2 cos cos
) ( 1 cos , sin
2
2 2
h X t h X t h X
gh Z M p b Mh
D
TLP
+ + =
= +
& &
This gives the frequency and period
. s 8 . 48
1
H 020 . 0
2
rad/s 129 . 0
) (
2
= = = =
=
=
TLP
TLP
TLP
TLP
TLP
TLP
f
T z f
h M
g Z M p b
The ratio between the wave and TLP frequency is =7.87, hence very far from resonance.
The response, with the linearized motion equation, can be found also by the superposition of
the responses to each force, found by the transfer function:
]. ) 0 ( Re[ ] ) 2 ( Re[ ] ) ( Re[ ) (
0 2
2
t i
D
t i t i
e X i H e X i H Xe i H t
+ + =
The transfer function to a harmonic force of frequency
f
is
;
) (
1
) (
2
f f
f
c i m k
i H
+
=
in this case, the damping coefficient c=0, so that the transfer function is real valued.
The stiffness is k= g Z M p b
TLP
) (
2
and the inertia is m=Mh, so that
.
) (
1
) (
1 1
) (
2 2 2 2 2
f TLP f TLP f
f
Mh m m k
H
=
We obtain hence:
.
) (
1
2 cos
) 4 (
1
cos
) (
1
) (
2
2
2 2 2 2
D
TLP TLP TLP
X
g Z M p b
t X
Mh
t X
Mh
t
+
This equation shows that the linearized response is obtained as the sum of two harmonics,
_______________________________________
 24 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
having the wave frequency and the double of the wave frequency, superposed to a constant
force which gives the mean position (the last term). Introducing the numerical values gives:
. 10 7 . 8 ) 027 . 2 cos( 10 9 . 2 ) 013 . 1 cos( 10 06 . 5 ) (
3 4 3
+ = t t t
lin
The variation of (t)
lin
is plotted in blue in the following figure, superposed to the nonlinear
response (in red).
The magnification factors for the two time depending forces are
. 004 . 0
4
, 016 . 0
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
=
= =
=
TLP
TLP
X
TLP
TLP
X
Q Q
Actually, the dynamical behaviour of the TLP diminishes the response to the exciting forces
with respect to the case where they act statically, essentially due to the fact that the wave
forces have a frequency much higher than the natural frequency of the TLP.
Finally, the linearized mean position is given by the third term in the above equation, which
corresponds to an angle of 0.498, the 13.7% more than the value found by the nonlinear
equilibrium equation. This fact is also visible on the diagrams of the figure above.
,
lin
[rad]
t [s]
_______________________________________
 25 
P. Vannucci Examples of offshore structures calculation
References
O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. W. Lewis & K. G. Stagg (Eds.): Numerical methods in offshore
engineering. J. Wiley, 1978.
M. G. Hallam, N. J. Heaf & L. R. Wotton (Eds.): Dynamics of marine structures.
Report UR8 CIRIA, 1978.
T. Sarpkaya & Isaacson: Mechanics of wave forces on offshore structures. Van
Nostrand, 1981.
B. Mc Clelland & M. D. Reifel (Eds.): Planning and design of fixed offshore
platforms. Van Nostrand, 1986.
P. Vannucci: Cours de Mcanique pour l'Industrie du Ptrole Offshore Engineering.
2006.
Some of the figures and subjects in this document have been partially taken from the above
authors; they are sincerely acknowledged.
__________________
P.Vannucci
January 6, 2007