Anda di halaman 1dari 7

BAB VI PERENCANAAN Tujuan Pembelajaran Umum Bab VI : Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan dan menyusun organisasi atau perusahaan perencanaan

dalam manajemen

Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus Bab VI : Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan dasar-dasar dan menyusun perencanaan serta pengembangannya dalam manajemen organisasi atau perusahaan 6.1. ARTI , TIPE DAN MAKSUD PERENCANAAN DALAM MANAJEMEN Tujuan Pembelajaran Umum Sub Bab VI : Mahasiswa dapat menyebut dan menjelaskan tentang arti, tipe dan maksud suatu perencanaan dalam manajemen organisasi atau perusahaan Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus Sub Bab VI : 1. Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan arti apa yang dapat diberikan perencanaan bagi organisasi; 2. Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan bagaimana tipe dan maksud perencanaan organisasi 6.1.1. Arti Perencanaan Dalam Manajemen Langkah awal dari proses manajemen adalah planning atau perencanaan yang memproses penetapan tujuan oleh manajer melalui logika dan metode atau cara-cara yang paling baik dalam mencapai tujuan tersebut (Stoner, 1995) What is Planning? Planning is a process that involves defining the organizations goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive set of plan to integrate and coordinate organizational work. Planning Activities : (1) Defining goals, (2) Establishing strategy, and (3) Developing sub plans to coordinate activities (Robbins & Dezenco, 2004) While studies of performance in organizations that plan are generally positive, we cant say that organizations that formally plan always out performance those that dont plan.

6.1.2. Tipe Dan Maksud Perencanaan Dalam Manajemen Purposes of Planning

Planning provides direction to managers and non managers alike. Planning reduces uncertainty by forcing managers to look ahead, anticipate change, consider the impact of change, and develop appropriate responses. Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities. Planning establish the goals or standards that are used in controlling

How Do Managers Plan? The role of goals and plan in planning Goals : desired outcomes for individuals, groups, or entire organizations. Plan : document that outline how goals are going to be met including resource allocations, schedules, and other necessary actions to accomplish the goals. Types of Goals Finance goals Strategic goals Stated Goals : official statements of what an organization says, and what it wants its various stakeholders to believe, its goals are. Real goals : goals that an organization actually pursues, as defined by the actions of its members.

Gambar 6.1. Tipe-tipe Rencana (Sumber: Robbins & Coulter, 2005, p.162) 1. Strategic plans : plans that apply to the entire organization, establish the organizations overall goals, and seek to position the organization in terms of its environment. 2. Operational plans : plan that specify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved. 3. Long-term plans : plan that a time frame beyond three years.

BREADTH

TIME FRA

4. 5. 6. 7.

Short-term plans : plan covering one year or less. Specific plans : plan that are clearly defined and that leave no room for interpretation. Directional plans : plan that are flexible and that set out general guidelines. Single-use plan : a one-time plan specifically designed to meet the needs of a unique situation. 8. Standing plans : ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly. 6.2. PENYUSUNAN , PENETAPAN SASARAN, PENGEMBANGAN DAN ISU TENTANG PERENCANAAN Tujuan Pembelajaran Umum Sub Bab VI : Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan tentang penyusunan, penetapan sasaran, pengembangan dan isu-isu tentang perencanaan dalam manajemen organisasi atau perusahaan Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus Sub Bab VI : 1. Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan penyusunan perencanaan bagi organisasi; 2. Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan penetapan perencanaan organisasi 3. Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan pengembangan manajemen dan isu-isunya 6.2.1. Penyusunan Perencanaan Bagi Organisasi Establish Goals and Developing Plans Approaches to establish goals Traditional goal setting : an approach to setting goals in which goals are set at the top level of organization and then broken into sub goals for each level of the organization. Means-ends chain : an integrated network of goals in which the accomplishment of goals at the level serves as the means for achieving the goals, or ends, at the next level. Management By Objectives (MBO): A management system in which specific performance goals are jointly determined by employees and their managers, progress toward accomplishing those goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress.

The Downs Objec


Gambar 6.2. Penyusunan Tujuan Tradisional yang Menurun (Sumber: Robbins & Coulter, 2005, p.162) 6.2.2. Penetapan Perencanaan Organisasi Characteristics of Well-Designed Goals Written in terms of outcomes rather than actions Measurable and quantifiable Clear as to a time frame Challenging yet attainable Written down Communicated to all necessary organizational members Steps in Goal Setting 1. Review the organizations mission 2. Evaluated available resources 3. Determine the goals individually or with input from others 4. Write down the goals and communicate them to all who need to know 5. Review results and whether goals are being met. Developing Plans Contingency Factors in Planning Level in organization, at upper organizational levels, planning becomes more strategy oriented.

Degree of environmental uncertainty, when it high, plans should be specific, but flexible. Managers must be prepared to amend plans as theyre implemented. Length of future comment . The more that current plans affect future commitments, the longer the time frame is for which managers should plan. Commitment concept : plans should extend far enough to meet those commitments made today.

Pla nning in the Hi


Gambar 6.3. Perencanaan dalam Hirarki Organisasi ( Robbins & Coulter, 2004 ) Approaches to Planning Formal planning department : a group of planning specialists whose sole responsibility was helping to write various organizational plans. 6.2.3. Pengembangan Dan Isu-Isu Manajemen Tentang Perencanaan Contemporary issues in Planning Criticisms of Planning 1. Planning may create rigidity 2. Plans cant be developed for a dynamic environment 3. Formal plans cant be replace intuition and creativity 4. Planning focuses managers success, which may lead to failure Effective Planning in Dynamic Environments How can managers effectively plan when the external environments is continually changing?

We have already discusses uncertain environment as one of the main contingency factors that affect the types of plans managers develop. Because dynamic environments are more the norm than the exception for todays managers, lets revisit how to plan in an uncertain environment. RANGKUMAN Planning is a process that involves defining the organizations goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive set of plant to integrate and coordinate organizational work. Purposes of Planning provides direction to managers and non managers alike, reduces uncertainty by forcing managers to look ahead, anticipate change, consider the impact of change, and develop appropriate responses, reduces overlapping and wasteful activities and establish the goals or standards that are used in controlling Ada lima langkah penyusunan sasaran organisasi, yaitu review the organizations mission, evaluated available resources, determine the goals individually or with input from others , write down the goals and communicate them to all who need to know dan review results and whether goals are being met. Perencanan dalam organisasi hirarkinya sesuai dengan level manajemen, semakin tinggi tingkatannya perencanaan semakin kearah strategis dengan dasar perencanaan tingkat bawah bersifat operasional LATIHAN SOAL 1. Sebutkan jenis-jenis perencanaan dalam manajemen sesuai konsep yang telah saudara pelajari ! 2. Jelaskan perbedaan sasaraan, perencanaan dan rencana dengan memberikan contoh yang ada dalam suatu organisasi atau perusahaan! 3. Ambil contoh sebuah sasaran yang ingin dicapai oleh manajemen perusahaan yang saudara ketahui, lakukan penilaian dengan karakteristik penetapan sasaran yang baik ! LEMBAR PRE-TEST Jika saudara ingin mempunyai usaha atau bisnis apa yang pertama kali akan saudara lakukan untuk mewujudkan keinginan saudara tersebut ? LEMBAR POST-TEST Setelah mempelajari perencanaan , langkah apa yang saudara ambil untuk mewujudkan keinginan bisnis tersebut berdasar konsep yang telah saudara pelajari DAFTAR PUSTAKA [1] Boddy, David. (2005). Management: An Introduction. (3rd Ed). London: Pearson Education, Inc.. [2] DuBrin, Andrew J. (2006). Essentials of Management. (7th Ed). New York: Thomson South-Western

[3] Robbins, Stephen P., & Coulter, Mary. (2005). Management. (8th Ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. [4] Weihrich, Heinz & Koontz, Harold. (2005). Management: A Global Perspective. (11th Ed). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education