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Sr No. Topic Page no.

1 Comparative features of AC locos 2
2 Pantograph 3
3 Main transformer 6
4 Tap changer 9
5 Rectifier 12
6 Static converter unit 13
7 Arno converter 15
8 Traction motor 17
9 DJ (circuit breaker) 20
10 Locomotive bogies 22
11 Brake system 24
12 Protective relays 27
13 Changes needed in traction 30
14 Three phase loco 31
15 Energy conservation in loco 34
1. Comparative features of A.C. locos
Horsepower 3850 5000 6000 5000 6000

Max. service speed 80 100 100 140 160


15250 15250 6068 15250 7059
Max. tractive effort at 33.5 t 42 t 47 t 30.8 t 30 t

Cont. tractive effort 20.6 t 24 t 33 t 24 t 26 t

Total weight of loco 126 t 123 t 123 t 112.8t 78 t

Break system AIR/ AIR/ AIR/ AIR AIR/

Transformer in KVA 3900 5400 6531 5400 7475

Wheel arrangement CO-CO CO-CO CO-CO CO-CO BO-BO

Traction motor o/p

voltage 750 750 2180 750 2180

current 840 900 540 900 370
power 585 630 1150 630 850
No. of axles 6 6 6 6 4

Adhesion 29 ℅ 35.70℅ 38 ℅ 35 ℅ 38 ℅


Gear ratio 18:64 18:64 DIRECT 23:58 DIRECT


Pantograph is a current collecting device which is

mounted on both ends of locomotive roof on insulator and collect the current
from OHE and supply it to power system of locomotive at various speed and
different climate/wind condition smoothly.


Basically compressed air raises and spring lowers the pantograph.

The sole function of compressed air is to cancel the lowering effort of the
spring and it has no direct effect on the pantograph. When the pantograph is
raised and the pressure is maintained in servomotor, the piston is kept still
and the articulation system is entirely kept panto free raised only by the
raising spring. Rising spring controls the oscillation of pantograph. Should
lack of air occur, the pantograph collapse by itself gradually by lowering
spring against the raising spring. The whole pantograph is alive, its own
parts are used as conductor, and the current collection is made on the frame
with the flexible shunts at moving parts.

When we put ZPT on ‘1’, the VEPT of rear panto gets energized
by battery supply and opens the compressed air path to panto servomotor
through throttle valve.
The compressed air are rushes to panto servomotor gradually
and presses the piston against the tension of lowering spring which moves
the eyelet rod backward, thus permitting rotation of horizontal spindle under
the tension of raising spring. As the horizontal spindle rotates the pantograph
raised through articulation assembly till it touches contact wire. After the
completion of piston stroke the air servomotor plays no further part.


When we put ZPT on ‘0’, the VEPT of concerned panto gets de-
energized and stop the air supply to panto servomotor and also exhausted the
remaining pressure of servomotor gradually through VEPT valve
As the pressure of servomotor gets exhausted piston return
under the action of lowering spring due to which eyelet rod moves forward
and rotates the horizontal spindle in such a way that the pantograph get
lowered through articulation system.


A throttle valve is provided in air path of panto servomotor. It

controls the rate of admission and escapes of air flow in such a way that
raising and lowering can be done with out shock either on contact wire or on
the base.

VEPT valve:

It is electro pneumatic valve operated by 110 volt control

supply and controlled by ZPT key. When ZPT key is kept on ‘1’ rear cab
VEPT gets energized and opens the path of air to panto servomotor and
when ZPT key if kept on ‘0’ VEPT gets de-energized and stop the air supply
towards panto servomotor. On its body there is a knob for manual operation
of VEPT in case of malfunctioning of VEPT.


For raising and lowering the panto the ZPT key is provided
on both the control staid, which having following positions.

0 - Both VEPT de-energize - both panto down.

1 - Rear VEPT energize - rear pento raised.
2 - Front VEPT energize - front panto raised.
½ - Both VEPT energize – both panto raised.

• Operating pressure 6.6 to 8.0 kg/cm²
• Panto start lowering between 3.0 and 3.5 kg/cm²
• The articulation system is designed to allow an extension of 2.46
• Raising time (1.5 meter) is 6 to 10 second
• Lowering time (1.5 meter) is 6 to 10 second

This is a main transformer of locomotive. The 25 KV single

phase AC power supply of OHE is fed to the winding of regulating
transformer through main bushing. The winding is equally divided into
32 taps. These taps are connected to tap changer.
The complete winding of transformer is oil immersed in a tank
and oil is cooled through oil cooling system containing MPH and
Above the transformer there is oil conservator, the pipe
leading to it serving as safety valve. Above this safety valve there is an
oil overflow chamber with a discharge pipe leading the blown out oil
underneath the loco body. The air does not come in to contact with the oil
in the conservator direct by having been completely dried before by
means of silica gel air gryer.
The transformer is fitted with oil level indicator on both the
sides. There is a red mark at 15 c. normally the oil should not go below
the red mark.

The transformer has three lag. Lag one carries the winding of the
regulating transformer stepping down the voltage of the overhead system
to a value permissible for the equipment.

The series winding A-32 ---- A-33 has turns and a cross sectional
area of 27.45 mm²
The main winding A-0 ----- A-32 has 960 turns and a cross
sectional area of 27.45 mm²
Therefore, the total no. of turns in a complete winding of the
regulating transformer will be

N1= 80 + 960 = 1040 turns

According to the actual position of the tap changer i.e.

Pos 0, 1, 2, 3…28, 29,30,31,32

The active no. of turns varies from

NR = 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 ….840, 870,900,930,960 turns

In addition to the winding of the regulating transformer Leg 1

carries the electrically separated winding a-0 ---- a-1 of the auxiliary
circuits also. This winding has 18 turns and cross sectional area of 248
The leg 2 and 3 carries the primary and secondary windings of
the main transformer. The indication effect of the winding of leg 3 on the
winding of leg 2 varies according to the position of the tap changer.
The design of the two legs is similar, the difference being in the
cross sectional area only. The primary windings both legs are connected
in series and each leg has Np = 288 turns.
The beginning of the primary windings led to the terminal A 34
and is connected through the tap changer with the tapping A-0 to A-32 of
the regulating transformer. The end of the following is permanently
connected to A-0 internally.


Type HETT 3900

Phase Single
Cooling OFAF
No of taps 32
Primary Maximum 27.5 KV
Nominal 25.0 KV
Minimum 22.5 KV
Secondary Maximum 1058V in each winding
minimum 869 in each winding
Primary input 4170 KVA
Secondary output 3900 KVA
Aux. system 270 KVA
System Single phase, 50 c/s oil immersed, air cooled
with forced oil circulation primary single
winding and secondary with double winding
with equal ratings.
Rated secondary 2250 amps.
current of each

The tap changer is directly built on to the transformer. The tapings of

the transformers are bought out and arranged in circular fashion on an
insulated contact plate. There are to rows of contact segments which are
aligned on outer and inner circles of the contact plate. An arm which is
known as selector arm is driven by shaft at the center of the contact plate.
Two rollers are situated at the edge of the selector arm. These rings are
provided in front of the contact plate. The center shaft which extends outside
the tap changer casing is driven by an air servomotor known as SMGR. The
design of the air servo motor is such that once the selector arm begins its
movement, it can be stopped only at the required tap (not in between two
taps). The connection between the inner or outer ring to the transformer is
being established by means of CGR contactor.

The selector arm is actuated by the driving shaft through an

intermittent gearing comprising of drive wheel, Lantern gear pinion and
stopping wheel. This driving shaft also operates the CGR cam shaft in
sequence with the operation of contact rollers. The opening and closing
sequence of CGR contactors are given below:


Even notches open closed closed
In bet. notches closed closed open
Odd notches closed open open

Before moving contact roller leaves the zero tap contact segment, it
touches the first tap segment. During this the CGR1 contactor closes
inserting the diverter resistance RGR in between tap ‘0’and tap ‘1’ through
RGR. This resistance RGR restricts the short circuit current when the
selector arm further moves fully on tap 1, the inner contact roller breaks the
contact with zero tap. Meanwhile CGR II contactor opens and cuts off RGR
from circuit, Like wise when the selector arm moves from first tap to second
tap. The contact roller will continue to make connection between inner
segment and inner ring. This is due to over lapping contact segment. At the
same time CGR I, CGR II are closed again setting the resistor RGR in
between the short circuited winding. Now the service current flows from the
contact ring in the selector through the resistor RGR. When the selector arm
further moves, the outer roller leaves the tap 1 segment and breaks the
contact. At the same time CGR gets opened and CGRII and CGR III are
closed. This again cuts off the resistor RGR.
The opening and closing of CGR contacts is carried out by cam
shaft which is driven by the main shaft through gear arrangements. This
ensures a perfect relationship between the movement of selector arm and the
operation of CGR contactors.
A high resistor RGR serves as the connection between equal
potential, which ensures that branches of the circuit being interrupted at the
given potential.

The servo motor which drives the graduator is controlled by electro

valves VE1 and VE2 for progression and regression respectively. These
electro valves are remote controlled from driver desk by the master
controller MP. The master controller hand wheel MP has 4 position 0, --, +
and N.
When MP is placed on ‘+’ VE! Will be energized and progression
will take place. When MP is placed on ‘0’ VE2 will be energized and
regression will take place. ‘—‘position is used for notch by notch regression
and N shows the neutral position.
Position ‘—‘and ‘+’ are unstable position, if the hand wheel is
released in such position it is returned to N by spring force. If P is placed on
0 the tap changer regresses to ‘0’ notch at a time.

In electric loco mainly two silicon rectifier blocks RSI 1 and RSI 2 are
provided for converting AC to DC. They are bridge connected. Continuous
current retting of each block is 1000 amps.
Each rectifier blocks are provided with set of tells tale fuses. Each
rectifier bridge consists of four arms and each arm carries four fuses. In case
of puncturing of silicon diode in a particular block, the main fuse melts and
the corresponding tell tale fuse also melts which causes the micro switch to
operate. By closing of micro switch, the related relay will be energized
which make glows respected pilot lamp in cab 1 and cab 2 the defective
block or arm can be curtained by visual inspection of rectifier cabinet . The
melted tell tale fuse can be identified by the black button projecting out.

The maintenance of the rectifier is limited to an inspection every

three months to check whether the cell is screwed tightly in to position. Any
dirt which may have accumulated in the rectifier must be removed by using
a rag and brush. It should be specially observed that the protecting cover of
each cell is always clean. If a protecting cover becomes brittle or is no
longer tightly fitted to the cell casing, this cap must e replaced.


Replacement of Arno converter by solid state converter unit has always been
a cherished dream of rolling stock engineers for utilizing the 415 V +/- 5%
balanced supply for feeding the auxiliary motors of locomotive. Failure of
auxiliary motors, especially the compressor motor has been causing concern
to the maintenance engineers apart from failure of the Arno converter itself.
SE rly had first opportunity in the year 1988 to make use of static inverters
on 6 nos WAG6A locomotives imported from M/s ASEA, Sweden.
Thereafter, it was the turn of western and central railways to maintain and
operate 180 KVA SI units on WCAM2 and WCAM3 /WCAG1 locomotives
respectively. Currently, electric loco shed, kalian boasts of highest holding of
electric locos equipped with “state of art” static inverter unit manufactured
by M/s. GEC Alsthom, rich experience has been gained by kalian loco shed
in maintaining these static inverter.


On WCM3 locos, SI unit made by ACEC Belgium has been provided.

This set converts 1500 V DC supply to 415 v AC for supply to all auxiliary
machines. RFPR, CHBA, cab heaters and 230 V AC for TFS 1 & 2. This set
consists of chopper and inverter unit with electronic and computerized
circuits provided in cubicles and mounted in side the locomotive. It is cooled
by three blowers MVCON 1-2-3. This is located behind cab no. 2 drivers
seat in corridor.

The whole unit consists of:

• RS 1-3, QRS 1-3 under AC catenary(25 KV AC)
• Feeding and control block with current sensor.
• Input fuses CCIN, contactors CIN, CCUL. Input inductance DC link
resistance chopper inverter.
• Three phase contactor for cooler blower motors.
• Indication panel


SI unit gets activated when CCBA fuse is intact. HBA is in No. 1 position.
110 V DC supply is available for feeding the control block. It will be
indicated on SI unit by illuminating “control OK” green indication. When
the HV supply is available by closing DJ in AC section or DS section , in put
contactor CIN closes, ‘ in put voltage ok” green indication will illuminates
with CCIN fuse intact and SI unit starts functioning.
No sooner DJ is closed SI unit makes the 415 V AC 3 phase supply
available and “output voltage ok” green indicator will illuminate. At the
same time MVCON 1-2-3 starts automatically for cooling down the SI unit.

Arno converter is a device which convert single phase AC in to three

phase AC. The three phase supply needed for the three phase induction
motors which used in blowers, exhausters an oil pumps. To supply three
phase power to three phase induction motors arno converter is used. Arno
converter is rotating device technical data of arno converter provided by
M/s. Jyoti Ltd. Baroda Is given below.

Single phase input Three phase out put

KVA 150 KVA 120
Volts 380 Volts 380
Amps 395 Amps 190
Frame VA- 330 Frame VA- 330
Class ‘B’ Class ‘B’

Connection Star
RPM 420
Cycle 50

Due to the voltage variation the speed of the arno is also varies so the out
put three phase supply is not constant but varies with the OHE voltage
which is not desired. Due to this reason now a days arno converter are
replaced by solid state static converter unit which is known as SI unit.
8. TRACTION MOTORS (DC series motor)

The traction motor is a dc series motor four pole or six pole forced
ventilated machine arranged for axle mounting on sleeve baring and
supported on the opposite by the resilient suspension unit, transverse
movement is limited by the flanges of axle. These motors are axle hung,
nose suspended type and are provided with grease lubricated roller bearings
for armature as well as for suspension. Special provision has been made in
design of the motors to ensure the locomotive operates satisfactorily on
flooded track, to max. Flood level of 20 cm , above rail level.

The main parts of motors are given below

1. Magnet frame armature and shields.
2. Brush holders and brushes.
3. Commutator
4. Armature
5. Stator
6. Armature windings
7. Field windings
8. Inter poles
9. Armature bearings
10.Axle bearing
Technical data

Type HS 15250 A
Continuous out put 630 KW
Volts 750 V
Current 900 Amp.
Speed 895 RPM
Number 6 Per Loco
Field Series field with commutating poles
Insulation Class H
No. of poles Main 6, commutating 6
Ventilation 90 cu meter/min

Generally in locos there are six traction motors. Three motors per
bogies and each motor driving one axle directly through gears. The motors
M1 to M6nare supplied jointly by the two silicon rectifiers connected in
parallel through contactors L1 an L2. Each rectifier units RSI is connected to
separate secondary winding TFP 1, 2 and the smoothing the current thus
rectified in carried out by means of two smoothing reactors SL1 and SL2.


The traction motor double reverser J1 and J2 which are pneumatically

controlled connected the field coils of the motors in such a way that these
carry current in one direction or in the other, thus enabling the locomotive to
run in both direction or in the other , thus enabling the locomotive to run in
both directions .
The shaft of the reverser is connected with the servo motors each controlled
by 2 electro valves, each valve corresponding to a direction of running .
these electro valves are remote controlled from the driver desk by operating
the reverser handle ‘ MPJ ‘ which has three position

• Position ‘F’ – loco moves forward.

• Position ‘0’ – handle can be extracted electro valves de energized and
reverser remains in the occupied position.
• Position ‘R’ – Loco moves in reverse direction.

By increasing the notch of the tap changer using SMGR the we can
increasing the speed of the traction motor after applying maximum tension
to the traction motor if the required speed can not be attended , the field coils
of the traction motors can be shunting is done dead resistance are introduced
in parallel to the field coils.
Shunting is effected in 3 steps by four electro pneumatic contactors for
each motor or pair of motor. These contactors are remote controlled by the
shunting controller MPS which has 5 positions. Shunting can only be done if
20 or more notches are taken, as the cam contact of GR on the control circuit
of shunting contractors will close only on notches 20 – 30.
Shunting should only be done when it is absolutely necessary and only
a after having applied the max. Permissible tension to the traction motors. It
should be ensured that the max. Permissible limit of intensity is however not


For isolating traction motors a ‘motor cut out switch’ HMCS is
provided which has got the 4 position.

The high voltage circuit breaker DJ is special type of electro

pneumatic contactor mounted on the roof of the loco. The electrical
equipment of the loco is connected to or disconnected from the OHE by
means of the circuit breaker. it is designed to open the circuit rapidly about
0.03 compressed air apart from operating the breaker acts as a means of
extinguishing the are also.


The opening and closing of the DJ is effected by a servo motor

which is supplied with compressed air from the reservoir TDJ minimum
pressure 6.5 KG. if the air pressure is less than 6.5 KG it is possible to close
DJ but it can not be open if the pressure is very less and the loco may risk an
over current.
To close DJ it is necessary to admit compressed air on the right side
of the piston. This is affected by a closing device, which is operated by the
electro valve EFDJ, when EFDJ is energized, the passage opens air is
admitted on the right side of the piston and the DJ closes. The air pressure
which was admitted close the DJ is automatically exhausted after the DJ
At the same time it should be ensured that air pressure does not
enter the left side of the piston, otherwise this air pressure will cause the DJ
to open and cause a second detonation. To prevent the air pressure from
entering the left side the piston, the electro valve MTDJ which controls the
opening device must be energized. When MTDJ is energized the opening
device passage is closed and air pressure can not enter the left of the piston.
The DJ is locked in the closed or open position by a mechanical
locking device and prevents it from leaving the position due to vibration etc.
For closing DJ, energized EFDJ and MTDJ together. After DJ has
closed EFDJ is to be de-energized, and for opening DJ, de-energized MTDJ
can be done either of voluntarily by the driver or by the action of the safety
relays. DJ can be controlled from the driver cab simply by using the BLDJ
switch on the switch panel. The pilot lamp LSDJ gives the indication that DJ
is currently open or close. If the lamp is glow it shows the DJ is open.


Mostly the air blast type circuit breaker is used as a DJ is electric traction
but now a days OCB are replaced by the vacuum circuit breaker due to the
following advantages

1. Less maintenance
2. Space saving
3. Greater reliability
4. Simplified control
5. Quite in operation

Bogies in locomotive are provided to permits long length of

locomotive body to negotiate the curves. A small length of bogies is
desirable. The length of bogies is decided wheel base. Bogie wheel base
shall be well proportioned to permit the bogie negotiating the curve and also
prevent tipping and jerking. The locomotive has two or more bogies on
which the body is mounted. The distance between the centers of extreme
wheel known as the total wheel base.


Bogies are classified based on

• No of axles
• Type of axle drive
The type of axle drive and no. of axle in bogies is also called the
wheel arrangement. Wheel arrangements are classified as B, BO, CO

B - Two axles & axles mechanically coupled

BO - Two axles & axles are independently driven
CO - Three axles & axles are independently driven

Locomotive always have two or more bogies. So the wheel

arrangement of the locomotive is designed as B-B, BO-BO, CO-CO.


Different type of wheel arrangement is available on existing fleet of

Indian railways locomotives as under:

Wheel arrangement Locomotive type



A bogie of a locomotive is an assembly of following components.

1. Bogie frame
2. Wheels
3. Axles
4. Springs
5. Axles boxes
6. Supports for traction motors
7. Support for brake rigging brake cylinder
8. Friction dampers/snubbers.


Suspensions in bogies are provided to reduce the vibrations. The

vibrations are picked up by the wheel which is mounted on railway track
which it self if shaking up the down due to irregularities in the surface. The
suspension system also balances the vertical loads between the wheels and
provides passenger comfort by reducing vibration in the vehicle body.
The suspension between the axle and the bogies frame constitute the
primary suspension. The suspension between the bogies fram and the vehicle
body is called secondary suspension.

Mainly three type of bogies are used is given below.

1. Trimount bogie
2. Flexi coil bogie
3. High adhesion bogie


A. Pneumatic circuit of loco

• MR air system
• BP charging system
• Vacuum charging system of different loco
• Loco brake system of different loco
B. Pneumatic valves
Function, location, use of different pneumatic valves/equipment like;
A-9, SA-9, DAB, MU-2B, DV, VEF, AIV, HB-5, H-5, H-4, VA-1R,
COC etc.

IRABB.2 dual brake system had been designed by Indian railways for
application in main line WAG5/WAG7/WAP1 AC locos for hauling both
graduated release automatic air braked train as well as standard vacuum
braked train. The system comprises WABCO brake elements, already
provided in 28-LAV-1 brake system used in WDM-2 class diesel-electric
locos in Indian railways.

The system is a composite one and distinctly comprises the following

elementary brake system.

1. Independent loco brake system with MU operation.

2. Twine pipe graduated automatic brakes for hauling air braked train.
3. Standard vacuum brake controls for hauling vacuum braked train.

Besides, the IRAVB.2 brake system also supplies compressed air for
operation of the following auxiliaries.

1. Load
2. Pantograph
3. Electro pneumatic sanding
4. Pneumatic horn
5. Pneumatic wipers.

The complete IRAVB 2 dual brake system is compressed air controlled and
essentially comprises 3 no. MCP of 000 liters, or its varies with the type of
loco. FAD for supply of compresses air 8-10 kg/cm² 2 nos. of MPV of 250
liters. FAD for evacuating vacuum train pipe at 20-20” HG, and relevant
elementary valves for achieving the system and features.

Depending upon the air braked train length either 2 or 3 MCP are kept ‘ON’
for vacuum braked train one compressor and one MPV are kept ‘ON’.


Compressor/compressors delivers compressed air at 8-10 kg/cm² to

system via respective check valve (NRV) to flow past. After cooler
centrifugal dirt collector, MR-1, MR-2, NRV, MR-3, MR-4 and then
to air brake system.

1. Independent loco brake system
2. Syn. Loco brake system
3. BP charging system
4. Vacuum brake system.


The system by which the brakes on loco are applied or released

independently is called as straight air brake system. The main parts of the
system are as follows.

1. SA-9 valves
2. MU-2B valve
3. C-2 relay valve
4. Duplex check valve
5. Bogies COC with vent.
6. Brake cylinders.


When the A-9 brake valve handle is moved to emergency position,

the BP pressure drop to zero at a much faster rate than that at normal service
application, and as such ensures a faster emergency brake application. The
BP can be drop to ‘0’ by putting A-9 to emergency even through the COC of
A-9 are closed.

1. High voltage overload relay QLM

The relay QLM is fed by means of the high voltage current
transformer TFILM (250/5A).This causes the high voltage circuit breaker DJ
to trip out, if the current taken in by the main transformer exceed the setting
value of the relay 300A.

2. Overload relays for silicon rectifiers (QRSI 1 and QRSI 2)

The relays QRSI 1-2 are fed by means of the rectifier current
transformer RSILM 1 and 2(4000/5a) which causes the high voltage circuit
breaker to trip, if the current taken in by the rectifiers exceeds the setting
value of the relays (3600 A).

3. Braking excitation overload relay (QE)

The relay QE is fed by means of the excitation current transformer
ELM (1000/5 A) which causes the braking excitation contactors C145 to trip
out, if the current taken in by the excitation winding of the motor exceeds
the setting value of the relays (900 A)

4. Braking overload relay QF-1 and QF-2

The relays of QF 1-2 are connected to the shunts SHF 1-2, which
cause the braking excitation contactors C145 to trip out, if the current taken
in by braking resistance RF 1 and 2 exceeds the setting value of the relays

5. Slipping device differential relays QD 1-2

When slip relays of current differential type are provided. When
current difference is 125A in between motors 1 and 3 and motors 4 and 6,
the relay operates, in case of slipping, it feeds relay Q-48, there by
energizing sanding electro valves VESA and sand is applied to
corresponding wheels relay Q-51 is also energized causing regression of
graduator till the slipping stops.

6. Main circuit earthing relay QOF 1-2

In case of failure of insulation of traction power circuit to earth. The
battery supply available to the relay trips the relay through the earth fault
and in turn opens the HV circuit breaker DJ.
The switch HQOP 1-2 makes it possible to isolate the relay QOP for
2 and replace it through a resistance RQOP in order to limit the fault current.
Now it will be possible to switch on again the circuit breaker DJ in order to
bring the locomotive to shed.

7. Traction motor over voltage relay Q-20

Relay Q-20 which is connected via resistance RQ-20 across rectifier
output causes buzzer SON 1-2 to work, if voltage exceeds 865v, when
voltage falls to740 v, buzzer stops working.

8. No voltage relay or low volts relay Q-30

The relay Q-30 drops out if the single phase auxiliary/winding
voltage drops below 215 volts. Its contacts switch off relay Q-44, there by
tripping DJ. Relay Q-30 is switched on directly/via the contacts of the relay
Q-45 and is fed via resistor RQ-30 after the relay Q-45 opens/drops.

9. Arno starting relay QCVAR

Relay QCVAR has been put across ‘w’ phase and neutral of arno to
ensure its proper starting. This cuts out arno starting contact for C118. This
is English electric relay. It picks up at 155-160 volts a.c.

10. Battery charger signaling relay QV-61

This relay which has been provided across the battery
Charging CHBA, indicates the working of the charger. This relay is
English electric makes and operates at a voltage of 68-136 v d.c.


An assembly consisting of a capacitor and a resistor is connected in

parallel across each cell. This arrangement prevents dangerous over voltage
across the cell which occur upon cut of the commutation.
At the same time, these RC- elements also dampen the dangerous
over-voltages (surges occurring in the catenary) which may be transmitted to
the rectifier via the transformer.

Over voltage in catenary, which may be transmitted via the main

transformer are reduced to a safe value by the following circuit elements

• RC-element each consisting of resistor RCAPTFP of 15 ohms in

series with a capacitor CAPTFP of 6.25 mfd.
• Cathode –drop lighting arrestor ETTFP with a spark over voltage of
• Capacitors CAPTFP on the secondary winding of the main
transformer with an assembly of 12 capacitors 0.5 mfd. Each with
center point earthed. These capacitors serve to discharge to earth any
over voltage transmitted capacitively.

Further protection of the cells is obtained by the DC damping system

for each bridge.

Presently all the locomotives are using DC traction motors, use of which
has following related problems:

• The speed /torque regulation is achieved by using either tap changer

on transformer or through resistance control on majority of
locomotives, where as better speed control techniques are available
these days. Moreover, FRPCPY for tap changer and its associated
equipments is about 20%.

• There are conventional protection and relay schemes to alert the

driver. No automatic fault diagnosis is available for the driver. In most
of the cases, the driver uses his discretion to get past the problem.

• DC motor has inherent problems of brush, gear, commutator and low

power to weight ratio. DC motor is essentially a high current low
voltage design which calls for expensive large diameter cables and
large electro pneumatic reverser, contactors, switches, etc.

• Thyristorised DC traction motor drives through make the DC motor

drive more efficient, suffer because of high harmonic injection into
power supply. Loss associated with large filters had to be carried on
locomotives to overcome this. Emphasis on regeneration is increasing
day by day to reduce energy bill as well as to save energy for grater
national causes.

• With ever increasing need for hauling loads, there is need to make
max. use of available adhesion. Whereas, existing DC motor are
running on their maximum.

1. Three phase traction motor are robust and require little maintenance.
Apart from bearings, it has no parts which are subjected to wear and is
insensitive to dust, vibration and heat.
2. There is no commutator and so commutator peripheral speed, place no
limit on motor speed. AC traction motors can easily operate at 4000
rpm in contrast to DC machines which normally operate at speeds of
2500 rpm.

3. The limitation imposed by bar-to-bar voltage in case of DC

commutator motor, is no more a hindrance in case of squirrel cage
induction motors. This means that the power flow from transformer to
converter to DC link and down to inverter/motor is chosen at higher
operating voltages as against nominal system of 750 V, 1000 Amp.
With DC machines equivalent three phase propulsion is configured
around 2800 V, 300 Amp. Due to heavy reduction in operating current
power cables are much lighter and losses are reduced.
4. Power to weight ratio of induction motor is much higher than the DC
motor. AS a typical example 1500 KW max. Per axle with h induction
motor as compared to 800 KW max. Per axle with DC motors.

WAG 9 WAG 9h
5. Since the torque speed characteristics of induction motor is markedly
steeper than that of attained by conventional DC machines, the
induction machine can take better advantages of maximum possible
tractive effort and a higher mean adhesion coefficient can be expected.

6. As the adhesion coefficient is higher, it is possible to transfer a part of

the braking force of the trailing load to electrical braking in the
locomotive, i.e. in the case where regenerative breaking is used, the
regenerated electric energy can be increased.

7. Almost all moving contactors, switches, relays, reversers are

eliminated and operation is sequenced by means of solid state logic.

8. High power/weight ratio of induction motors and reduction in cable

thickness, reduction in number of conductors, switches etc. result in
reduction in physical dimension and weight of entire system.

9. The induction motor drives are about 20 % energy efficient as

compared to DC drives.

10.Microprocessor control software has flexibility to provide software

based solution to local operational problems.

11.Microprocessor control is used for drive control. The microprocessor

allow the redundancy of power equipment, due to built-in controls

12. Microprocessor based fault diagnostic system guides driving crew

about the fault location and suggests remedial action. It also keeps
records of faults, which can be analyzed by shed staff.

13.Elaborate data-acquisition system along with microprocessor based

knowledge bank helps condition monitoring of the equipment and
thus assist in condition based maintenance, instead of time based

14.Three phase drive allows regeneration and unity power factor

operation with low S&T harmonics. Electric braking down to
standstill is possible. It improves operational efficiency besides
reduction in maintenance efforts. The energy saving due to
regeneration and improved power factor sizable.

15.Use to rugged induction motors, reduction in electromechanical

contactors, reduction in overall current level, condition monitoring
and diagnostic aid, significantly reduce the maintenance effort
required and improve reliability in case of three phase locomotives.
To use these advantages of induction motor, it is necessary to supply it
with a three phase variable frequency variable voltage. This could not be
achieved under technically and economically acceptable condition un till the
advent of GTOs and microprocessor based control system in the last few


• Use of gradients for coasting. Level section can also be used for
coasting by following proper driving techniques.

• Number of scheduled halts/ unscheduled halts and speed restriction

should be minimum avoid late lowering of signals control chain

• Talk to engg. Dept. for realignment of track for reduction in length of

track ,reduction in curves, reduction in speed restrictions, reduction in
gradients etc. these measures may be economical at some locations by
taking in to view energy conservation, increased line capacity,
reduction in running time and increased availability of rolling stock.

• Running at booked speed saves sizeable amount of energy but affects

line capacity, promote use of long welded rails for low track
resistance. Monitor profile of rail and wheel.

• Lubricate outer flange of curved rail for reduction in resistance

between rolling stock wheel flange and rail, power factor correction in
locos will reduce line losses

• Aerodynamic design of loco will reduce air resistance between rolling

stock body should be reduced and no projections should be added
during maintenance. Reduce the tare weight of coach and wagon.
• Driver should be trained for good driving techniques. Provide energy
meter to monitor. Release brakes fully before starting. Switch off
auxiliaries when not required provide coasting boards at all suitable

• Switch of electric locos when idle more than 45 minutes. Avoid

running of trains via loop. Do not run trains with out guards as speed

• Restrictions are to be followed. Control brake binding in rain.

Improve brake power of train. Carry goods via shortest route.

• Avoid use of resistance in locomotives. Use tube lights and FRP fan
blades in EMU/coach/locos

• Use efficient speed control methods. Do not use resistance for speed
control. Thyristor control, chopper control and 3 phase technology
with frequency control etc can be useful.

• Use regenerative braking.

• Avoid running of light locos. Reduce running of dead locos. Repair in

nearest loco shed. Reduce running of empty rakes. Reduce running of
EMUs on holidays.

• Power factor : induction motor, welding transformer, florescent tubes,

induction furnaces etc, are the main sources of low power factor. Use
capacitor to improve power factor. Because this reduce maximum
demand charges based on KVA, reduce line losses and improves

• Reduce material handling need by proper layout of working section in

• Control leakages of water, gas, air, electricity etc.

• Lubricate motors pumps etc, periodically. Maintain the equipments

periodically for running at high efficiency. Dust, grease etc, cause
poor heat/light transfer and hence causes poor efficiency of motor,
condensers, intercoolers, light sources etc. control idle running of

• Train and award staff for energy conservation measures. Display

energy conservation board.

• Review existing installation for latest design, location etc. and do

energy audit.

• Measure and monitor energy consumption at different machines,

sections, etc. this will help in knowing efficient machines, section etc.
appoint energy managers for auditing energy.