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2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme 1.

With the rise of new media, censorship is needed now more than ever. Do you agree? Verification of key terms: The rise of new media: Increasing popularity and dominance of the Internet i.e. blogging, citizen journalism, social networking sites, wikis, podcasting, electronic mail; mobile devices such as the camera phone and digital cameras; multimedia; video games and virtual worlds etc. Censorship: Monitoring and regulation of media content; cutting out of any content deemed immoral or inappropriate according to the standards of the censors (including censorship boards, readers, parents etc.) Assumptions: New media has become increasingly popular and is widely used. Censorship is an effective solution to the problems brought on by the rise of the new media. Possible Approaches: With the rise of new media, censorship is needed now more than ever. With the rise of new media, censorship is not needed now more than ever. The need for censorship is less than / the same as before. The rise of new media has given rise to social problems. Some control is needed but it is impossible to effectively use censorship. Possible Points: Censorship is needed now more than ever. Democratisation of the media (the freedom to publish): Has increased the range, volume and complexity of information made available to the public Enhanced the ease with which information is accessed Not governed by the professional standards / ethics that journalists adhere to (can be attributed to the anonymity and freedom offered by the Internet) Resulted in the invasion of privacy (voyeurism) Affected as a result the accuracy, veracity, objectivity of the information provided, due to a lack of ability or responsibility in ensuring quality and considering the consequences of ones words / actions Censorship is not needed now more than ever. New media however is: Vital in giving everyone a voice Subject to the self-regulation / policing of the online community, and therefore held accountable to its audience Accessed by a more discerning audience (more media-literate and informed) An important supplement to mainstream media and therefore adhere to the same professional standards they uphold An important alternative to mainstream media, which people have increasingly grown to distrust Also concerned about upholding their reputation and brand Beneficial in terms of: providing more choices providing multiple perspectives and viewpoints, allowing the audience to form more informed opinions offering a more personal, unmediated / raw, first-hand / ground-level account of events (unhindered by journalistic standards & agenda)

2. The end of poverty will always remain just an ideal. Discuss. Verification of key terms: always: forever

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme ideal: will not become a reality; impossible to resolve; inevitable poverty: (1) different degrees of poverty: extreme poverty - living on an income of less than $1 a day moderate poverty - living on $1 to $2 a day relative poverty - basic needs are met but just barely (2) different categories of poverty: long-term poverty the aged poor, the chronically sick who cannot work, those with permanent disabilities, abandoned women who are left with kids to raise and debts to clear, people crippled by drug abuse, a gambling habit or battles with alcoholism. short-term poverty people who are retrenched or lose their jobs when there is an economic downturn or structural changes. the destitute people who are truly down-and-out. They have no means of support and no hope of employment; resort to begging or sleeping on the streets. With little or no education and few skills to offer, they have no job, no family or are estranged from their kin.

Assumptions: Poverty still exists. The rapid technological/ scientific/ economic advancement of so many nations has helped to reduce poverty but it has not been totally eradicated. It is difficult to eradicate poverty. Possible Approaches: Yes. The end of poverty will always be an ideal. No. It is possible to end poverty. Although it is impossible for us to end poverty, there is a high chance of us reducing it further. Always just an ideal but that does not mean we dont try. Possible Points: Vicious cycle and a myriad of factors contribute to peoples poverty, which makes the end of poverty an ideal. Natural catastrophes, ineffective efforts (of various international bodies, governments and non-governmental organisations), corrupt governments, civil wars, lack of access to education, basic healthcare (even hygiene) and basic necessities (food, clean water, shelter) gives them no chance to break out of the cycle. Even if extreme poverty were eradicated, moderate poverty will still exist because even as we offer to help the poor, we seem to stop (helping as much) once they are better off/ seem less poor than before. We do seem to be able to entertain the idea of helping the poor until they are as well off as ourselves. The success of Capitalism exacerbates the situation. That perhaps explains why even in countries with an extensive welfare system (e.g. Britain) which supposedly takes care of the disadvantaged class, poverty still exists. Human nature/ selfishness and greed allow us to passively watch the poor suffer. History has proven that communism and a state of utopia (and the end of poverty) goes against human nature; it is simply not feasible. We are not likely to ever attempt to achieve utopia as the results of the previous attempt was far from ideal. 3. Can Singapores education system succeed in moulding the future of the nation? Verification of key terms: Singapores education system: Formal education system led by the Ministry of Education moulding the future of the nation: Preparing the country to achieve her goals in all aspects of life (social, political, economic etc.), which is in turn dependent on developing the abilities of her citizens / human resource Preparing all citizens to achieve their goals and fulfil their potential; emphasis is on the breadth / scope/ diversity of the education system and its ability to balance national and individual interests

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme Assumptions: Moulding the future of the nation is the objective of Singapores education system. Singapores education system is supposed to succeed in moulding the future of the nation. It is difficult to mould the future of the nation. Possible Approaches: Singapores education system can succeed in moulding the future of the nation. Singapores education system cannot / will never succeed in moulding the future of the nation. Possible Points: Singapores education system can succeed. Ensures universal, equal access to education an inclusive education that addresses the needs of minorities (e.g. special education, students from low-income families, preschool education) compulsory primary school education ensures social mobility (e.g. grants, Edusave, Opportunity Fund) Responsive to the developments, demands of the modern world (e.g. emphasis on intellectual capital sciences & engineering) Providing an all-rounded education that caters to the diverse abilities, talents, interests and learning styles of individuals less emphasis on academic achievements greater flexibility and choices (e.g. IP, specialised independent schools, discretionary admission criteria, introduction of new O Level subjects) character and talent development (e.g. CCAs, CIP) Quality education ensured through innovations in teaching practices, curricula and so on Therefore ensuring a well-educated, well-trained and skilled population that can compete in the global market for jobs and business. 4. A high intelligence quotient, emotional quotient or adversity quotient which one of these would you rather have? Verification of key terms: Intelligence quotient: A score derived from one of several different standardized tests attempting to measure intelligence; also used as predictors of educational achievement. People with low IQ scores are sometimes placed in special-needs education, and people with high IQ scores are sometimes placed in gifted programs or enrichment programs. Emotional quotient: A measure of ones ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. Singapores education system cannot succeed. Still tailored to the demands of the economy and nation-building focus on the majority rather than minority; efficiency and needsdriven Limitations of meritocracy closes the door to those who fare poorly in national examinations, as academic achievements still key in this competitive society Failure to provide an all-rounded education less emphasis on character and moral education (non-material aspects) Impossible to know the future

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme

Adversity quotient: A measure and predictor of an individuals (and a teams or an organizations) resilience and success.

Assumptions: There are only 3 recognised types of quotients. One can have a high score for only one of these quotients at any one time. A clear choice has to be made among the 3 quotients.

Possible Approaches: One of the quotients among the three is clearly the best One is unable to choose between two quotients but the 3rd quotient is clearly not favoured. There is no clear winner among the 3 quotients. They are all essential to the development of oneself. Possible Points: Every argument should compare at least 2 quotient IQ High IQ allows people to put their first foot into a certain field. High IQ has always (for the past 2000 years) been valued as the epitome of Mans ability and will continue to be so despite current fashionable theories about EQ or even AQ. IQ is pretty much established at birth. Its better to have a high IQ at birth as it is harder to nurture IQ than say, EQ. EQ While the '80s and '90s saw an unprecedented number of people who went on to get MBAs and postgraduate degrees which helped them advance in their careers, today with so many people having the same high levels of knowledge and technical expertise, this route has reached maximum effective. What sets people apart now are their abilities to manage themselves and develop productive relationships with others; it all boils down to being emotionally intelligent A key quotient in a globalised world that demands good soft skills for successful communication; contributes to a thriving service and tourism industry. When our emotional needs are satisfied we feel better, and when we feel better we are more productive, motivated, patient, creative, cooperative, open-minded, flexible, understanding, caring, empathic and compassionate. AQ Important in an adversity-rich world. In an age of corporate downsizing, mega-mergers, and lightening-quick technological change, employers are pressured to get more work done with fewer people, in less time, with less budget, and in new ways. The new kind of worker is one with the ability to weather adversity. Work used to mean things that one had to do, or were paid to do, usually for other people. Now, it increasingly also means things that one choose to do. That little shift makes all the difference. Globalisation requires us to work with people various countries/ walks of life. AQ allows us to deal effectively with people who have an agenda different from ours. The better you deal with adversity, the happier one is and the more fulfilling ones life will become.

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme 5. Todays youths are too pragmatic for their own good. Do you agree? Verification of key terms: too pragmatic for their own good: overly practical, and concerned with practical concerns, results, usefulness, advantages & disadvantages for themselves, such that instead of benefiting them, it impacts them negatively (e.g. cost of living, employment, bread & butter issues VS pursuing ones passion) Assumptions: Todays youths are pragmatic. There is a healthy level of pragmatism. Breaching this level will result in negative consequences for the youth. Possible Approaches: Todays youths are too pragmatic for their own good. Todays youths are not too pragmatic. They are pragmatic, but this does not result in negative effects. Todays youths are not pragmatic (challenge the assumption). Possible Points: Today: Lack of sense of belonging to their communities and cultures due to migration, dilution of cultures etc. Advances in communication (technology and mass media) Social definitions of success often emphasise material wealth and status Competitiveness of the global marketplace Greater affluence and material comfort more choices and access to goods and services Todays youths are too pragmatic for their own good. Neglecting their emotional / spiritual needs, youths preside in more insular worlds more self-centred and alienated from others Compromises their quality of life, as the emphasis on excellence serves as a source of stress and pressure May result in poor self-knowledge as they aim to address the demands of the economy / society first, rather than fulfil their own personal needs, interests and ambitions Todays youths are not too pragmatic.

Little need to worry about material needs and comfort, allowing them to focus on their passions and other impractical pursuits A healthy dose of pragmatism as it motivates them to be engaged in social, political, economic issues pertinent to them Enables them to make informed decisions Youths are just going with the flow; weak willed but not pragmatic.

6. There is no room for small businesses in this globalised world. Comment. Verification of key terms: globalised world: increasing free trade. outsourcing of jobs overseas, the opening of new markets and greater inter-connectedness that have been experienced as a result of a technologically-driven world economy. small businesses: independently owned and operated businesses that is not dominant in its field of operation and conforms to standards regarding the number of employees and yearly income. Equal to or less than $15 million worth of capital asset worth OR equal or less than 200 employees. no room: impossible to survive or grow

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme Assumptions: Globalisation threatens the survival or growth of small businesses. Possible Approaches: Yes. There is no room for small businesses to grow or even survive. No. Small businesses can survive and even grow. No. While it is difficult for small businesses to survive, it is not impossible. While small businesses can survive, they face immense difficulties and growth is stagnant. Possible Points: Weaknesses of Small Businesses: Small businesses cannot relocate in response to changing economic conditions. Many that had to forego outsourcing opportunities laid off employees and lost business to those who chose to go overseas. Taking work abroad can be risky, especially for smaller companies that lack the resources to bounce back if a particular venture falls through. SMEs are powerless, compared to the strength of MNCs. Wth successful branding and reach, big businesses has made the globalised world synonymous with consumerism. Strengths of Small Businesses: Not true that big businesses/ MNCs are so mobile. They still have to shift their operations at a gradual pace. Small businesses can take advantage of the outsourcing trend. Globalization provides new opportunities for growth and re-invention for companies choosing to go overseas. Employing workers overseas also creates new markets and opportunities for companies to sell their products overseas, creating a win-win scenario. Small businesses can survive and even succeed as long as they constantly review their policies and proceed carefully in their outsourcing ventures. E.g. keeping ones strengths in-house while outsourcing ones weaknesses to maximize efficiency and cost savings; finding a reliable vendor overseas; having the chosen vendor sign a carefully worded contract to ensure that operations stay on track; have a firm understanding of local laws and culture. The Internet, nose-diving communications costs and the collapse of rigid international barriers allowed companies to go beyond manufacturing and selling overseas: they outsourced everything from customer support to bookkeeping. Small companies (and startups) can also be micro-multinationals that do business globally right from the start. While traditionally, companies have to be successfully locally before they become successful nationally and then globally, the newer trend is for companies to be international from the beginning without having to grow up. Globlization affects both big and small businesses: Ever-increasing global competition presents challenges to companies big and small. Additionally, companies (whatever their size) which choose not to join the outsourcing trend have found themselves falling on hard times.

7. Examine the claim that people need the arts now more than the sciences. Verification of key terms: The arts: Forms of personal (and aesthetic) expressions which reflect our humanity and understanding/ interpretation of the world. Includes performing, visual, fine arts, humanities, mass media, music, literature etc. The sciences: As a method of inquiry (empirical, quantitative, rational) and body of knowledge, and application of this knowledge through the development of technology

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme Need: essential, necessary to remedy something or to flourish

Assumptions: People need both the arts and the sciences. People needed art less / science more in the past. Possible Approaches: People need the arts now more than the sciences. People (still) need the sciences now more than the arts. People need both the arts and the sciences equally now. Possible Points: People need the arts now. Emphasis on the non-material aspects of life, having fulfilled our material needs ability of the arts to enhance ones quality of life People have become too materialistic need the arts to have a better balance in life. Important in preserving and advancing our cultures, traditions, morality amidst the homogenisation of cultures, creation of mass/ popular culture As a means of communication; fosters cultural exchange and interaction in this globalised world: As a universal language through which individuals can express common aspirations, the arts are a channel to understanding and appreciating other cultures. Increasingly communicating through the arts and visual images with advances in communication technology creation of new art forms with the computer Essential in equipping people with the ability to observe and interpret what they see, especially in a society so steeped in information and diversity Increasing emphasis placed on creative abilities and thinking out of the box in the global marketplace skills which can be cultivated through the arts People need the sciences now. Competing and more dominant political, economic and environmental concerns - less importance placed on arts as sciences can address these problems more readily and effectively (e.g. poverty, health problems, sustainable development, global warming) An interconnected world that is increasingly dependent on technology in every aspect of life: economic, work, leisure, communication, travel etc. Required to advance human knowledge and welfare in this knowledge-based economy Development and progress defined in material terms i.e. access to technology perceived need for sciences more than the arts. The arts as a wasteful investment for both the individual and the country.

8. Can women ever gain equality in Singaporean society? Verification of key terms: gain equality: ability to attain the same opportunities/ recognition/ respect/ importance/ value Singaporean society semi western, semi Confucian - patriarchal Assumptions: Women in Singaporean society have not gained equality. It is difficult for Singaporean women to gain equality There is an increasing likelihood that Singaporean women may gain equality.

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme Possible Approaches: Yes. Women in Singaporean society will gain equality someday. No. Women in Singaporean society can never gain equality. It is difficult, but not impossible, for women in Singaporean society to gain equality in the future. Yes. Women in Singapore have already attained equality.

Possible Points: Women in Singaporean society can gain equality someday The Womens Charter was passed in 1961 to protect the rights of women and girls in Spore has been reviewed regularly and amended when necessary. Shows that the government gives due attention to womens rights and protection. The profile of women in Singapore has evolved over the years and it will continue to evolve as Singapore continues to liberalise due to globalisation and more western values. Women in Spore today are better educated and will continue to close the gap in terms of education. The educational profile of women for all age groups has improved year by year. The gap between male and female educational attainments has been getting narrower. Women can make more informed choices. Equal employment opportunities have enabled many women to take up professional, administrative, managerial and technical positions. In financial, real estate, renting and business activities sectors previously dominated by men women now take up almost half of the workforce. Women in Singaporean society can never gain equality The profile of women in Singapore has evolved over the years and it has reached a plateau. If they have not attained equality at this stage, they never will. Although Singaporean women have more opportunities for careers and self-fulfilment, they are still expected to fulfil their traditional roles as the main caretakers of their child. This affects their careers. While Singaporean men increasingly help their wife with domestic matters (e.g. chores, nurturing the child), their roles do not seem to have changed that significantly. This trend is unlikely to change given the fact that we are at heart, a conservative Asian society, which still expects the man to be the head of the household. Men will never relinquish control/ power

9. Discuss the value and appeal of learning Mathematics in this day and age. Verification of key terms: value: relative worth, merit, or importance appeal: ability to attract, interest, amuse, or stimulate the mind this day and age: of modern developments and changes Maths: not just calculations but a way of understanding the world Assumptions: Learning Mathematics can be valuable and appealing

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme Possible Approaches: Learning Mathematics Learning Mathematics Learning Mathematics Learning Mathematics Possible Points: There is value in learning Math in this day and age. As the basis of physics and computerisation which are both practical and essential knowledge in the world of globlisation, the value of Math cannot be emphasised enough. Problem solving skills - which also encourage logical thinking - still play a key role in todays world. These thinking skills separate us from animals. Contrary to most peoples belief, Math can encourage creative thinking as well also a key aspect of a Knowledge Economy. Mathematics is more reliable than the arts (which is subjective) or the sciences (which is based on observation). This attitude of leaving no room for mistakes is relevant as the world strives towards perfection. Mathematics and its philosophy can help the faithful understand issues with which that particular religion and its believers are struggling: just as philosophers over the centuries have used mathematics as an archetypical example for assorted epistemological and ontological discussions, various religious traditions may also want to make use of mathematics for their purposes. There is no value in learning Math in this day and age. Millions of people use the Internet, computers and other forms of new media and technology for communication, trade, logistics etc, without ever having to learn how Math became the backbone for globalisation. Mathematics as a theory/ abstraction; of no practical application It is appealing to learn Math in this day and age. Math continues to intrigue the human mind regardless of various interesting modern developments which have taken place. It is not appealing to learn Math in this day and age. In a world that values the creative use of information, learning Math is passe and boring. Modern developments and changes have decreased the value and appeal of learning Mathematics. Todays young have shorter attention span (due to Internet surfing and over stimulation by various media) and that makes learning Math a rather tiring activity as too much concentration is required. 10. To what extent should we limit the influence of religion on politics? Verification of key terms: limit: to regulate, restrict something deemed negative influence of religion: religious leaders participating and having a say in politics, leaders and nations aligning their decisions / laws / ways of governing with religious teachings and beliefs politics: issues related to governing and managing a state or any political entity; activities or affairs engaged in by a government, politician, or political party; domestic & international affairs Assumptions: The influence of religion on politics should be limited. Too much religious influence on politics is dangerous.

is is is is

valuable and appealing valuable but not appealing appealing but not valuable neither valuable nor appealing

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme Possible Approaches: We should limit the influence of religion on politics to a large / small extent. Possible Points: The influence of religion on politics should be limited. Society as religiously pluralistic Religion as a personal, private matter, not reflective of the needs, preferences of the majority; also not the only basis for morality Often leaning towards absolute views, leaving little room for inter-faith dialogue and exchange, therefore threatening to divide believers and non-believers / minority faiths Opposes the ideals of freedom and equality promoted by democracy founded on basic freedoms, including freedom of religion if religious beliefs are imposed on others (e.g. Malaysia and establishment of Islamic law) Morality not solely defined by religious precepts and beliefs can be based on intuitive and sensible opinions about right and wrong The influence of religion on politics should not be limited. Citizens with religious beliefs cannot be expected to lay aside their religious convictions not possible to compartmentalise completely the minds of voters into secular and religious halves, and to ensure that only the secular mind influences voting behaviour Both religion and politics concern public affairs and the welfare of people i.e. how they behave and govern their lives Serving as an important moral guide and basis for decisions on public matters which impact the citizens welfare

Examples of religion intervening in politics: teaching of the evolution theory in schools, stem-cell research, euthanasia, abortion, homosexuality, the tudung / casino issues in Singapore, social institutions such as the family, marriage, divorce etc. 11. Can we rely on science and technology to solve our environmental problems? Verification of key terms: science and technology Science: The investigation of natural phenomena through observation, theoretical explanation, and experimentation, or the knowledge produced by such investigation. Technology: The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives Rely : Depend/ trust Solve: Find the solution to/ reduce/ entirely get rid of our problems Assumptions: Science and technology can be used to solve environmental problems It is difficult to solve environmental problems Possible Approaches: We can rely on science and technology to solve our environmental problems We can rely on science and technology to solve our environmental problems so long as there are other supporting factors We cannot rely on science and technology to solve our environmental problems Possible Points: Can rely on science and technology Science and technology have led to the creation of new inventions which are cleaner and more efficient. E.g. hydrogen powered Cannot rely on science and technology Science and technology is the main culprit of environmental problems; Man should be thankful if science and technology stops adding

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme cars, alternative energy sources, coal that burns more efficiently such that less residue/emissions are produced. We can rely on science and technology as long as we get other kinds of support. E.g. support from concerned individuals, groups, communities. NGOs worldwide work for the cause of saving the Earth. We can rely on efficient technology as long as there is increasing awareness about conservation towards achieving sustainable development. Many countries now recognize the need to treat the environment as shared heritage and hence are willing to work towards conservation on a global scale. Science and technology is more reliable than other possible solutions to environmental problems. Although environmental treaties which were signed and ratified, they have not been abided. E.g. America has not kept to its part of bargain with regard to the terms of the Kyoto Protocol. on to the problem, never mind solving it. The pace of environmental problems has always moved faster than the solutions that scientific and technological advances can offer. And this situation is unlikely to change. Scientific & technological advances are too expensive. It has not been cost efficient or it is too expensive for companies and (developing) countries which do not have the financial ability to dedicate to the environmental cause. Bread and butter issues are still very real for people in various parts of the world. Solving the problem requires long term effort from all parties and at all levels. E.g. governments/ grassroots participation/ consumers/ schools. It is hard to arrive at an agenda for conservation as different nations face different environmental problems and have different approaches. The developments in science and technology have not resolved these differences.

12. History has taught us that blind obedience does not pay. Discuss. Verification of key terms: history: knowledge of events that occurred in the past (of global, national, personal significance) taught: has provided illustrations to support the view blind obedience: adhering to rules, conventions, traditions; following orders without thought or question; from the governments perspective, citizens are obliged to obey the policy, imposed as a law does not pay: results in negative consequences for the individual, the nation, society and the world Assumptions: History offers instances of blind obedience being enforced or exercised. Possible Approaches: History has taught us that blind obedience does / does not pay. Essay can be either philosophical or example-driven Possible Points: History has taught us that blind obedience does not pay. Ignores the individuals ability to reason, right to choose and think independently Hinders progress and change unquestioning adherence to tradition / authority impedes creativity and the desire for excellence, which involve challenging the norm (e.g. revolutions) History has taught us that blind obedience does pay. Vital in preserving public order and stability in times of crisis, war, threats to national security etc. (e.g. WW2: thousands of JapaneseAmericans were interned in camps so as to prevent any security threats) Vital in situations where knowledge would

2007 SAJC GP Preliminary Examination Paper 1 Answer Scheme

No opportunity for dialogue / debate no consideration of the impact of the decision / policy, from the perspectives of various stakeholders: resulting in drastic consequences Moral responsibility and accountability rests on those in authority no qualms about committing travesties Serves the needs and ambitions of those in authority individual needs not met Results in the loss of basic freedoms which determine ones quality of life Unrestrained, often fast-paced perpetuation of destructive ideologies, lies

result in more dire consequences Curbs the self-serving tendencies within individuals self-control, responsibility and respect for authority & others inculcated through adherence to a strict code

Some examples from history: the holocaust, Tiananmen incident, Rwandan genocide, autocratic / totalitarian regimes (e.g. Stalin, Hitler)