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CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER Generalities: Mesodermal origin Structural and metabolic support for other tissues and organs

ns Fibers and ground substance associated with muscles, nerves, vasculature and all body organs Functions: 1. Support and packing 2. Storage 3. Transport 4. Defense 5. Repair Characteristics: Fewer cells with abundant intercellular substance containing fibers Composition: Connective tissue cell Fixed cells for production and maintenance of extracellular components and for storage of reserve fuel (fibroblasts, fat, mesenchymal cells, reticular cells Wandering or mobile cells - shortterm tissue reaction in injury (PMN, monocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages) Matrix Proteoglycans, collagen, elastic fibers, reticular fibers, fibronectin, chondronectin, laminin Medium through which all nutrients and waste products must pass between the blood and the cells Exhibits metachromasia with toluidine blue; also stains with PAS Connective Tissue Cell Fibroblasts One of the 2 most numerous cells Formation of fibers and thought to elaborate the amorphous component of the matrix Large, fat, branching, appear fusiform or spindle-shaped Nucleus is oval , 1-2 nucleoli and small amount of granular chromatin In young fibroblasts, cytoplasm appears basophilic because of high concentration of ER In old fibroblasts or fibrocytes, cytoplasm is weakly basophilic due to scanty ER Synthesize collagen, elastic fibers and glycosaminoglycan of the intercellular substance

Macrophages o Almost as numerous as fibroblasts and are most abundant in richly vascularized areas o Irregularly shaped with processes which are short and blunt, some long and slender branching o Dark cytoplasm with few vacuoles which stain red o Resident macrophages present at a given site without stimulus o Elicited macrophages mobilized at the site in response to a stimulus o Activated macrophages phagocytic and antigen-presenting property in response to a stimulus o Ability to ingest particulate matter o For defense o Fundamental role in immunity o Scavengers o Multinucleated giant cells fused macrophages which have encountered large foreign bodies Fat Cells (Adipose or Adipocytes) o Glistening droplets of oil surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm with the flattened nucleus in one area o Signet ring appearance o Serous fat cell during starvation and malnutrition o Distribution of adipose tissue in the body differs in the 2 sexes Mast Cells o Large cells with small ovoid nuclei and numerous basophilic cytoplasmic granules o Resembles basophils but bigger and nonsegmented nuclei o Soluble in water o Stain with most basic dyes and are metachromatic with toluidine blue o Well-developed Golgi complex but few mitochondria and moderate RER o Granules contain heparin, histamine and serotonin o Involved in anaphylactic sensitivity reactions resulting in intense contraction of smooth muscles and dilatation of capillaries

Plasma Cells o Ovoid, irregularly shaped, smaller than macrophages but larger than lymphocytes o Nucleus small and eccentric o Chromatin appears in deep staining coarse granules clumped in a regular manner against the nuclear membrane imparting o Cart wheel or clock-face appearance o Resemble lymphocytes but with more basophilic cytoplasm o Extensive RER o Major producer of antibodies o Rare in CT but are found frequently in serous membranes, lymphoid tissue and areas of chronic inflammation Pigment Cells a. Dermal chromatophore (melanophore) 1. Macrophages that have phagocytosed melanosomes from aging melanocytes 2. Dermis of the skin 3. Rare in CT but may be found in the skin, retina, choroid and iris of the eyeball b. Epidermal melanocytes 1. Derived from embryonal neural crest with numerous long processes that manufacture melanin (melanosomes) 2. Contain tyrosinase that oxidizes tyrosine into melanin for absorption of light rays Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Cells Rounded or stellate mesenchymal cells not differentiated along any line Possess great potentialities Difficult to differentiate from fibroblasts, but are smaller Similar to reticular cells and myeloid tissue Perivascular cells found along the capillaries Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) Lymphocytes Smallest of the free cells of CT Spherical, darkly staining nuclei which occupies most of the cell surrounded by a thin rim of basophilic cytoplasm Seen in large numbers in CT supporting the epithelial lining of the respiratory and alimentary tracts Accumulate in sites of inflammation and concerned with antibody production

T lymphocytes for cell-mediated immune responses B lymphocytes differentiate into plasma cells which synthesize antibodies Eosinophils Abundant in lactating breasts, respiratory and digestive tracts Nucleus is bilobed with spherical, acidophilic granules Accumulate in parasitic and allergic infections Contain histamine, eosinophil cationic proteins (ECP), major basic protein (MBP) and peroxidase Neutrophils Found in inflammation Round cells with segmented nucleus ranging from 3-4 lobes Basophilic granules Monocytes Phagocytes because of amoeboid movement and show inclusions that stain with neutral red Basophils Contain granules similar in composition and function to those of mast cells Connective Tissue Fibers A. Collagen or white B. Elastic or yellow C. Reticular or argyrophyl Collagen Type I Dense and loose CT, bone, tendon, skin, cornea Striated fibrils between 20 to 100 nm Most abundant collagen Aggregate to form collagen fibers and fiber bundles of a wide range of sizes Type 2 Hyaline and elastic cartilage, nucleus pulposus, vitreous body Range in size between 20 to 30 nm No larger fibers are formed Visible only with polarizing microscope or with picro-sirius Type 3 Dermis, blood vessel walls, spleen, kidney, uterus Forms reticular fibers Type 4

Basement membrane Type 5 Subject of controversy Types A. Connective tissue proper 1. Loose CT 2. Dense CT a. Dense regular tendons, ligaments, fasciae, cornea b. Dense irregular dermis, capsules of organs, tendon sheaths B. Blood and lymph C. Cartilage D. Bone Loose CT Most widespread of the CT Found in sites where little resistance to stress is required Supports major organs, underlies mesothelium lining the pleural and peritoneal cavities and occupies spaces around and between muscles Functions: Loosely binds structures together and holds them in position Acts as padding and serves as pathway for nerves and blood vessels Limits the spread of infection Plays an important role in the healing process Dense Regular CT Appears as cylindrical cords or flat sheets of closely approximated coarse collagen fibers that give the tissue a glistening white appearance Fibers are oriented in a direction best suited to resist mechanical stresses Tendons, fascia, aponeuroses, ligaments, cornea Fiber bundles are coarse and interwoven with little space occupied by cells and ground substance Dermis of the skin, capsules of the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes; tunica albuginea of the testis, dura mater of the brain and the sheaths of large nerves Connective Tissue with Special Properties Mucous Elastic Reticular Adipose Lymphoid Embryonal Pigment

Mucous CT Form of loose Ct found in many parts of the embryo, especially under the skin Whartons jelly of the umbilical cord Fibroblasts, few macrophages and lymphoid cells Collagen fibers Abundant, soft, jelly-like ground substance Acid hyaluronidase Avascular Elastic CT Yellowish in color Ligamentum flava, true vocal cords, suspensory ligament of the penis, ligamentum nuchae Few fibroblasts Dense, coarse elastic fibers arranged in branching, parallel strands Scanty ground substance Few blood vessels Reticular CT Black with silver stain Lymphoid organs, BM, endocrine glands Together with the phagocytes forms the RES or macrophage system Reticular fibers arranged in slender bundles forming a network called lattice fibers Abundant ground substance Plenty of lymphatic and blood vessels Adipose Tissue 2 Types: White adipose tissue Bulk of body fat Unilocular Brown adipose tissue Most abundant in hibernating animals Multilocular CT is very sparse but richly vascularized and has numerous nerves Functions: Storage in the form of fat of reserve food material Shock absorbers Insulators Protecting organs on the form of soft, elastic pads Aesthetic Lymphoid CT Found in all lymphoid organs, mucosa of respiratory and alimentary tracts, including the appendix Reticular type of CT closely infiltrated by lymphoid cells

Embryonal CT Occurs in fetal and infantile life In adults, dental pulp and certain tumors Uterine lining Fibroblasts, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells Young collagen fibers Abundant ground substance Plenty of newly formed and developing blood vessels Pigment CT Choroid, iris Melanin Mononuclear-Phagocyte System (RES) Diffuse system of macrophages and phagocytes lining blood sinuses in different organs Active in body defense Involved in antigen-antibody complexes Histiocytes Stellate cells of Kupffer Alveolar macrophages Spleen Bone marrow Serous cavity Osteoclasts Microglia Langerhans cells of the skin CT Pathology Scurvy Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Cartilage Characteristics Composition: Cells Fibers Ground substance - Special type CT which provides resilience and rigidity when there is extreme pressure and abrasive forces - Dense, firm but pliable, consisting of chondrocytes and fibers in a gel-like matrix - Avascular, no nerves - In early fetal life, temporarily forms most of the skeleton and persists over the surfaces of bones - Sole skeletal support in the respiratory passages and parts of the ear Types 1. Hyaline 2. Elastic 3. Fibrocartilage Hyaline Cartilage - Elastic, bluish gray, translucent - Most common Subtypes: a. Adult hyaline b. Articular hyaline c. Fetal hyaline Adult Hyaline Cartilage - Ventral ends of the ribs, cartilages of the nose, larynx, trachea and bronchi - Major component of the epiphyseal cartilage of growing long bones Perichondrium Tough layer of dense fibrous CT Inner layer contains several potential cartilage forming cells called chondroblasts Inner layer is termed chondrogenetic layer of the perichondrium Outer layer is vascular Cartilage Cells Chondrocytes occupy small cavities or lacunae within the matrix Irregularly shaped, ovoid, has short processes that extend into the matrix Large, spherical, central nucleus with 1 or more nucleoli In the center of the cartilage plate, cells may be arranged in groups called cell nest or isogenous group Cytoplasm is finely granular and moderately basophilic Abundant ribosomes, RER, mitochondria, vacuoles, Golgi and glycogen

Matrix Contains fine collagenous fibrils Deeply colored with PAS Marked affinity for basic dyes and stains metachromatically with toluidine blue Contains chondroitin sulfate, some hyaluronic acid and some keratan sulfate Matrix surrounding isogenous cells stain more deeply called capsular or territorial matrix Less basophilic matrix between cell groups is called inter-territorial matrix Blood Supply Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves absent Fluid content of the matrix permits nutrients, dissolved gases and waste products to diffuse readily between small blood vessels, perichondrium and chondrocytes Degenerative Changes With old age, cartilage loses its transparency and becomes less cellular Matrix shows less basophilia Calcification Asbestos formation Regeneration and Transplantation Perichondrium Articular Hyaline Cartilage - Found between the articulating surfaces - Perichondrium is absent on those surfaces in contact with articulating bones - Chondrocytes are bigger, cell families are also present - Similar matrix - Avascular, partly nourished by the synovial fluid and blood vessels in the surrounding areolar tissue Fetal Hyaline Cartilage - Found in the entire skeletal system of the developing embryo except the flat bones of the skull and the face - Outer layer has plenty f blood vessels - Inner layer has plenty of flattened cells - Cartilage cells are not arranged in groups but scattered singly - Irregularly arranged - Most cellular Elastic Cartilage - Yellow in color - Elastic fibers in the matrix branch in all directions to form a dense network of anastomosing and interlacing fibers

Component cells show less accumulation of fat and glycogen - Call families are fewer - Matrix also has collagenous fibers - Tendency to undergo fatty degeneration or metamorphosis Fibrocartilage - Occurs in intervertebral discs - Lacks a perichondrium - Cartilage cells lie singly or in pairs, sometimes aligned in rows between bundles of collagen fibers - Chondrocytes lodged in lacunae smaller and fewer in number - Matrix is scanty - Blood supply from the blood vessels of the surrounding tissues Histogenesis 1. Interstitial Growth (Endogenous) Occurs only in young cartilage when the cartilage matrix is soft and yielding, continuing until the cartilage has reached its definite size and shape Chondrocytes divide by mitosis within their lacunae forming cell nests 2. Appositional Growth (Exogenous) Process in which new layers of cartilage are added to 1 surface Growth takes place at the periphery resulting from activity within the chondrogenetic layer of the perichondrium Fibroblasts in the perichondrium multiply and transform into cartilage cells