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- 1 -

ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS


BRIEF NOTES

UNIT - I :: ELECTRON DYNAMICS: CRO

19 31
1.602 10 , 9.1 10 e C m kg

= - = - , `F force on electron in uniform electric field `E
F=eE; acceleration
eE
a
m
=
If electron with velocity ' ' ; moves in field ' ' E making an angle ' ' 7 can be
resolved to sin , cos ; ; 7 7 .
Effect of Magnetic Field `B on Electron.
When B & Q are perpendicular path is circular
2
; ' '
m; m
r Period t
Be Be
6
= =
When slant with ' ' 7 path is # Helical.
EQUATIONS OF CRT
ELECTROSTATIC DEFLECTION SENSITIVITY
2
e
a
lL
S
dJ
=
MAGNETIC DEFLECTION SENSITIVITY
2
m
a
e
S lL
mJ
=
Velocity due to voltage V,
2eJ
;
m
=
When E and B are perpendicular and initial velocity of electron is zero, the path is
Cycloidal in plane perpendicular to B & E. Diameter of Cycloid=2Q, where
:
"

= ,
E
:
B
= ,
Be
m
= .

UNIT - II :: SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

,
i e
S G have 4 electrons in covalent bands. Valency of 4. Doping with trivalent
elements makes ' ' 5 , Pentavalent elements makes ' ' 3 semiconductor.
Conductivity

3 5
e 3 5 9 3 3 = + where , 3 5 are concentrations of Dopants.

3 5
3 3 are mobilitys of electron and hole respectively.



Diode equation
1
d
T
J
3J
d s
I I e

=

' '


- 2 -

2
; ln
d T A P
d o
d i
J J N N kT
r J
I I q 3

= = =

' '

0 19
0 273; 1.602 10 T C q C

= + = -

Diode drop changes
0
2.2 / m; C , Leakage current
s
I doubles on
0
10 C


Diffusion capacitance is
d
dq
c
d;
= of forward biased diode it is I

Transition capacitance
T
C is capacitance of reverse biased diode
3
J


1 1
2 3
3 to =

RECTIFIERS



COMPARISION

HW FW CT FW BR
C
J
m
J
6

2
m
J
6

2
m
J
6

rms
J
2
m
J

2
m
J

2
m
J



;
T
kT
J
q
= = Boltzman Constant

- 3 -

Ripple factor
1.21 0.482 0.482
g
Rectification efficiency
40.6 81 81
PIJ
Peak Inverse Voltage
m
J 2
m
J
m
J



UNIT - III :: FILTERS

Harmonic Components in FW Output,
0
2 4 1 1
cos 2 cos 4 .....
3 15
m
J
; t t
6 6

= + +
, `
| )









Capacitance Input Filter,
1
4 3
L
f CR
=
Inductor Input Filter,
3 2
L
R
L

=
Critical inductance
C
L is that value at which
diode conducts continuously, in ;e + or ;e
half cycle.

LC FILTER,
2
2
12 LC

= or
1.2
, 50 , , . for H: Li3 H Ci3
LC
3

6 FILTER,
1 2
2
. .
3
C C
L L
X X
R X
=
RC FILTER,
1 2
2. .
C C
L
X X
R R
=
LC LADDER,
1 2
1 2
2
. . .....
3
3
3
c c c
L L L
X X X
X X X
=
- 4 -
ENER DIODE




ENER REGULATOR
;
i :
s i :
s
J J
I J J
R

= >>

:
:
:
J
r
I





TUNNEL DIODE



Conducts in ,
f
r
b b
, Quantum mechanical tunneling in region a-0-b-c.
-ve resistance b-c, normal diode c-d.
5
I = peak current,
;
I = valley current;
5
; =peak voltage = 65 mV,
;
; =valley voltage
0.35 V. Heavy Doping, Narrow Junction , Used for switching & HF oscillators.


VARACTOR DIODE





Used in reverse bias & as tuning variable capacitance.


T 3
T R
K
C
J J
=
+
; n=0.3 for diffusion, n=0.5 for alloy junction,
1
o
T 3
R
T
C
C
J
J
=

+

' '

25
B
C
C
is figure of merit, Self resonance
1
2
o
S T
f
L C 6
=


FWD Bias Normal
i
s Diode 0.7 V Drop

Reverse Bias
: :
Ze3er dro5 J forJ J = >









- 5 -

PHOTO DIODES








Diode used in reverse bias for light detection.

Different materials have individual peak response to a range of wave lengths.











UNIT - IV

BJT, Bipolar Junction Transistor has 2 Junctions: BE, BC
Components of current are ,
3E 5E
I I at EB junction where
3E 3E
3E 5E E
I I
I I I
= =
+

= Emitter efficiency,
3c
3E
I
I
= transportation factor.

/ ; / BE f b BC r b = =















e b c
I I I = +
;
c c
e b
I I
I I
= =
Doping Emitter Highest
Base Lowest
e c b
I I I > >
- 6 -
Leakage currents : , ,
CBO CEO EBO
I I I
1
CEO CBO
I I = +

3 Configurations are used on BJT, CE, CB & CC







Common Emitter, VI characteristics










0
;
ce BE
i ie e ce
B c
J J
R h r r r
I I


= = = = =







AC Equivalent Circuit

COMMON BASE VI CHARACTERISTICS







Input Characteristics Circuit Output Characteristics



CE
C
J
B
I
I
=

- 7 -

;
1
C
E
I
I

= =
+

; ;
J
CB
C cb EB
ib e fb cb
E e c
I J J
h r h r
I I I

= = = =

















UNIT - V
h- parameters originate from equations of amplifier
2 2 0 2
,
i i i r f i
; hi h ; i h i h ; = + = +

i i
; i are input voltage and current
2 2
; i are output voltage and current

i
h input impedance , ,
ie ib ic
h h h , , 1
e e e
r r r +
|

f
h current gain , ,
fe fb fc
h h h , , 1 +
|

r
h reverse voltage transfer , ,
re rb rc
h h h

o
h output admittance , ,
oe ob oc
h h h

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR, FET is Unipolar Device

Construction n-Channel p-Channel
COMPARISON
BE BC
SATURATION f/b f/b
ACTIVE f/b r/b
CUT OFF r/b r/b

AMPLIFIER COMPARISON
CB CE CF
i
R LOW MED HIGH
I
A
I
A 1 +
J
A High High <1
o
R High High low


AC Equivalent Circuit

- 8 -

S=Source, G=Gate, D=Drain
GS Junction in Reverse Bias Always

gs
J Controls Gate Width


VI CHARACTERSTICS

Transfer Characteristics Circuit Forward Characteristics



Shockley Equation

2
1
gs
d dss
5
J
I I
J

=

' '
,
0
1
gs
m m
5
J
g g
J

=


' '



MOSFET: Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET, IGFET

Depletion Type Mosfet Symbols Enhancement Mosfet



Depletion Type MOSFET can work width 0
gs
J > and 0
gs
J

Transfer Forward
Characteristics Characteristics



MOSFET JPET
High
10
10
i
R =
8
10
0
50 R k = O
1m > O
Depletion
Enhancement Mode
Depletion
Mode
Delicate Rugged


- 9 -
Enhancement MOSFET operates with,
gs t
J J > ,
t
J Threshold Joltage =

Forward Characteristics Transfer Characteristics















UNIT - VI :: BIASING in BJT & JFET

Fixing Operating Point Q is biasing

Fixed Bias Emitter Stabilized Feedback Bias
CC B B BE
J I R J = + Fixed Bias 1
CC C B B B BE
J R I I R J = + + +
1 Re
CC B B BE
J I R J = + + +



ET I Table
gs
J

I
0
SS
I
0.3
P
J
2
SS
I

0.5
P
J
4
SS
I

P
J 0

COMPARISIONS
BJT FET
Current controlled Voltage controlled
High gain Med gain
Bipolar Unipolar
Temp sensitive Little effect of T
High GBWP Low GBWP

( ) ,
S GS T
J sat J J =
2
( )
ds GS T
I ON K J J =


- 10 -







VOLTAGE DIVIDER BIAS EMITTER STABILIED
FIXED BIAS

STABILITY EQUATIONS

1 0 2 3 c c BE
I S I S J S = + +

1 2 3
; ;
C C C
CO BE
I I I
S S S
I J

= = =

, STABILITY FACTOR
1
1
B
C
S
dI
dI

+
=


S must be as small as possible, Most ideal value =1
How to do determine stability factor for bias arrangement? Derive
B
C
dI
dI
and
substitute in S
Amplifier formulae:
l
J I
i
Z
A A
Z
= ,
i
Z measured with output shorted

0
Z measured with input shorted
ampliIier
I
A
fe
h or = ;
;
i
Z re = ;
T
e
J
r
I
= ;
L
;
e
R
A
r
=
ampliIier
1
A ; ;
L
; i e
e
R
A Z r
r
= = =
ampliIier
I
A 1 ; 1 ;
ie
J
i
h
A
R
= + =

1
i fe E ie
R h R h = + +
H Parameter Model CE
;
1
fe
I
oe l
h
A
h :
=
+

L
J fe
ie
Z
A h
h
=
ampliIier ; ; .
L
i ib I fb J fb
ib
R
R h A h A h
h
= = =
FET
CS amplifier
0
,, ;
J m d d d
A g R r Z R = =
2
1 2
CC
B
J R
J
R R
=
+
,
;
E
E B BE C
E
J
J J J I
R
= <

1 Re
.
Jcc Rc Ib
Ib Rb Jbe
= + +
+ +

- 11 -
Common Gate Amplifier ,
1
s
J m d i
m s
R
A g R Z
g R
= =
+

Common Drain
1
;
1
m s
J o
m s m
g R
A Z
g R g
= =
+

RC Coupled Amplifiers
If cut off frequency
1
1
2
f
RC 6
= ,
1
1
1
1
tan ;
1
f
A
f
f
f
f


= =

' '
+

' '

6 / , 20 / Slo5e dB octa;e dB decade = ,
I
Octave 2
2
or f
f

is beta cut off frequency where 0.707


fe
h falls by
f

is cut off frequency where 0.707 =

t
f is 1
fe
h = gain bandwidth product.


UNIT - VII :: FEED BACK AMPLIFIERS

Amplifier gain stands for any of Voltage amplifier, Current amplifier, Trans resistance
Trans admittance amplifier


Ve feed back amplifier depends on , 1 , 1 , 1


b b
A ;e f ;e f + > +
Feed back reduces noise distortion, gain variation due to parameters, increases BW.
1 A + is called de-sensitivity factor.

Feed back amplifiers
Voltage series, voltage shunt; Current series, current shunt

















0
0
; ;
1
f
f
i
X X A
A A
A X X

= = =
+


i s f
X X X =
Ior voltage, current series
1
f
i i
: : A = +
1
f
A
A
A
=
+
, for all
1
f
i
i
:
:
A
=
+
, Ior voltage or current shunt
1
f
o o
: : A = + , Ior current series, shunt
0
1
f
o
:
:
A
=
+
, Ior voltage series and shunt.



- 12 -
UNIT - VIII :: OSCILLATORS

Barkausen Criterion for oscillation loop gain =1, 7 =0
0
, 360
0
.

HARTLEY OSCILLATOR





CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS

Tuned ckt replaced with Crystal



Phase shift oscillator





Wein Bridge Oscillator

1
2
T
f
L C 6
= ,
1 2 T
L L L M = + , ;
2
1
L
L
= ,
COLLPITS OSILLATOR,
1 2
, L L replaced by
1 2
, C C ,
C replaced by L;
1
2
T
f
LC 6
=
1
s
LC
= ,
1
5
T
LC
=

F% MOD
1
2 6
f
RC 6
= , 29 A = ,
Minimum RC sections 3
1 2 1 2
1
2
f
R R C C 6
= ,
iI R1R2R, 12 ,
1
2
f
RC 6
= ;
1
3 A

= =

% MOD
1
4
2 6
C
f
R
RC
R
6
=

+

' '
, 29 A = ,
Minimum RC sections 3