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Introduction Women in almost all the nations constitute around 50% of the population.

In many European countries they constitute slightly more than 50% too. Yet in majority of countries, the women constitute no more than 10% of their legislative bodies. They are struggling to achieve adequate representation. The demand of women to be given their due share in all spheres of life including that of the legislative and governing institutions is a universal demand. Women continue to be responsible for 80% of the food production and provide about 70% of the labor especially in subsistence farming , but most of them (55%) are not paid. Bridge 2008. Gender disparity is rampant in decision making process. Between 85-90% victims of gender based violence are women. Almost half (47%) of women have experienced physical violence since they were 15 years with the majority being between age bracket of 15-25 years.Bridge 2008. Women participation in all spheres of life is very crucial. . In this essay, gender is defined here in terms of the social relations and processes embodied in the variety of institutions (e.g. families, communities, markets, legal systems) underpinning day-to-day life. As such, gender relations are dynamic, variable, and context-specific. Gender relations are shaped by historical processes, which influence how gender interacts with other axes of inequality. In Zambia, the central force that shaped social relations is Culture. Gender relations also shape, and are shaped by, socio-economic institutions governing labour allocation and resource entitlements, by sociocultural norms which define gender identities and by the scope for representation of gender interests within political, socio economic and legal institutions. All of these factors interact to create specific patterns of gender differentiation and inequality. To ensure that women participate in a quality way we have analyse what the gender the issues that have led to women not to have quality participation. I shall there use known tools for gender analysis to evaluate the project and make recommendations thereafter in my conclusion.

Gender roles and sex roles The behaviors, attitudes, and activities expected or common for males and females. Whereas sex roles are essentially biologically determined (ensuring successful reproduction and forming the basis of sexual division of labor, in which women are associated with childrearing), gender roles (behavior that is considered masculine or feminine) are culturally determined.

Gender roles and sex roles have a significant influence on how society would want women to participate in the affairs of society. Gender role is a term used to denote a set of behavioral norms that accompany a given gendered status (also called a gendered identity) in a given social group or system Connel 1987. Every known society has a gender/sex system, although the components and workings of this system vary widely from society to society. Gender role is comprised of several elements. A person's gender role can be expressed through clothing, behaviour, choice of work, personal relationships and other factors. Gender roles were traditionally divided into strictly feminine and masculine gender roles, though these roles have diversified today into many different acceptable male or female gender roles. However, gender role norms for women and men can vary significantly from one country or culture to another, even within a country or culture. People express their gender role somewhat uniquely.

Differences between men and women are obvious in both physiological and psychological aspects. Personality differences between Men and Women are not as obvious as biological differences because psychological differences in men and women are probably caused by biological differences. The historic interpretation of these differences has often led to prejudice and discrimination against women. Tool of evaluation Model project A variety of methods used to understand the relationships between men and women, their access to resources, their activities, and the constraints they face relative to each other. Therefore in this project I would use gender analysis tools to evaluate women participation and how qualitable their participation should be. Gender analysis provides information that recognizes that gender, and its relationship with race, ethnicity, culture, class, age, disability, and/or other status, is important in understanding the different patterns of involvement, behaviour and activities that women and men have in political, economic, social and legal structures. An analysis of gender relations provides information on the different conditions that women and men face, and the

different effects that policies and programs may have on them because of their situations. Such information can inform and improve policies and programs, and is essential in ensuring that the different needs of both women and men are met. At the local level, gender analysis makes visible the varied roles women, men, girls and boys play in the family, in the community, and in economic, legal and political structures. A gender perspective focuses on the reasons for the current division of responsibilities and benefits and their effect on the distribution of rewards and incentives. In this project, I will start with examining the issue so that the broad reality of gender roles and relationships is taken into account. Gathering information to enrich the understanding of the gender roles and relations in a specific context and asking difficult questions. That means a research is necessary to ascertain why women there has been poor participation by women. When doing research, I would consider if my client is challenging the existing gender division of labour, tasks, responsibilities and opportunities. Who are the intended recipients of the benefits of the proposed project. Both women and men must be consulted on the issue at hand, and have the opportunity to contribute to the definition of the solution. At the same time, it is important to keep in mind the long term impact of the project in terms of women's participation in all aspects of life, for example how will the project enable women to have increased control over their lives? Let us take, for example, the case of maternal mortality. Every year at least 585,000 women die of pregnancy or childbirth related causes around the world (WHO, 2000). A medical approach to maternal mortality can only partly address this tragic and complex problem. Broadening the focus and giving attention to equality issues such as child marriage, limited access to reproductive health services and family planning, female genital mutilation, and women and girls eating last and least can reduce and transform the recurring nature of maternal mortality. Reconsidering an issue using gender analysis expands the understanding of the challenges women face and the range of solutions available. Areas of evaluation (tools for gender analysis) The project must address the connections of gender with factors such as race, ethnicity, culture, class, age, disability, and/or other status, among others. While it is easy to see the people

involved in more practical and tangible initiatives, such as capacity building for local authorities, any project will ultimately have an effect on people, and must work to promote the equal status of women and men. For example, the development of a country's environmental policy, should involve a holistic socio-economic analysis that addresses gender relations to fully understand the situation and ensure that the policy and its directives promote equality. This might involve understanding the perceptions of women and men of the environment, a balanced male/female account of activities performed and their affect on the environment, and the uses men and women make of natural resources, such as land and water.

Many of women's contributions to the economy continue to go unrecognized because their work is not easily counted within the conventional structures. Women do a majority of the work within the informal sector and the home and as a result, much of their work is not counted or is underrepresented in official statistics. Without a proper analysis of these issues in economic policies can result in women's perspectives and priorities being left out of strategies for development and indeed quality participation of women in developmental issues. An analysis of gender relations can tell us who has access, who has control, who is likely to benefit from a new initiative, and who is likely to lose. Therefore in my project I would ask questions that can lead us in a search for information to understand why a situation has developed the way it has. It can also lead us to explore assumptions about issues such as the distribution of resources and the impact of culture and traditions. It can provide information on the potential direct or indirect benefit of a development initiative on women and men, on some appropriate entry points for measures that promote equality within a particular context of course , and on how a particular development initiative may challenge or maintain the existing gender division of labour. With this information measures of equity can be created to address the disparities and promote better partipation of women. In undertaking this project, one needs to recognize that women's and men's lives are different and therefore experiences, needs, issues and priorities are different . women's lives are not all the same; the interests that women have in common may be determined as much by their social position or their ethnic identity as by the fact they are women . women's life experiences, needs, issues and priorities are different for different ethnic groups . The life experiences, needs, issues,

and priorities vary for different groups of women (dependent on age, ethnicity, disability, income levels, employment status, marital status, sexual orientation and whether they have dependants) . therefore different strategies should be used to encourage women in these different groupings to participate for their own good.

Throughout the lifespan of the project, throughout the entire development process, throughout research, to problem definition, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation we need to keep on analyising gender differences and inequalities so that we come up with better solution to women participation. By examining basic assumptions each step of the way, the interrelationships between social context and economic factors can be understood and initiatives that respond to those needs can be designed. Conclusion The term 'gender' refers to the social construction of female and male identity. It can be defined as 'more than biological differences between men and women. It includes the ways in which those differences, whether real or perceived, have been valued, used and relied upon to classify women and men and to assign roles and expectations to them. The significance of this is that the lives and experiences of women and men, system, occur within complex sets of differing social and cultural expectations'. After undertaking this project, I would recommend the following: that both men and women must be involved to advance quality partipation of women. This participatory process provides the context for the creation, implementation and evaluation of development initiatives to promote gender balance.Individuals, groups and communities affected by development initiatives must be involved from the beginning of the process in order to determine the gender dimensions of the issue at hand. Without local knowledge and expertise, some of the intricacies of the gender roles and social relationships may not be easily understood.

REFERENCE
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Afshar, H. (1982) Khomeninis teachings and their implications for women, Feminist Review, 12:59-62.

(ed.) (1985) Women, Work and Ideology in the Third World, London: Tavistock.

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Afshar, H. and Dennis, C. (eds) (1992) Women and Adjustment Policies in the Third World, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Agarwal, B. (1981) Water Resources Development and Rural Women, New Delhi: Ford Foundation.

(1986) Cold Earth and Barren Slopes: Woodfuel Crises in the Third World, California: Riverdale.

Aklilu, D. (1991) Gender Training: Experiences, Lessons and Future Directions. A UNIFEM Review Paper, New York: UNIFEM.

Andersen, C. and Baud, I. (eds) (1987) Women in Development Cooperation: Europes Unfinished Business, Antwerp: Centre for Development Studies.

Anderson, M. (1990) Women on the Agenda: UNIFEMs Experience in Mainstreaming with Women 1985-1990, New York: UNIFEM.

(1991) Does gender training make a difference? An approach to evaluating the effectiveness of gender training, Mimeo.

Anderson, M. and Chen, M. (1988) Integrating women or restructuring development, Association of Women in Development, Occasional Paper prepared for WID Colloquium on Gender and Development, Washington, DC: AWID.

Antrobus, P. (1989) Women and planning: the needs for an alternative analysis, Paper presented at Women, Development Policy and the Management of Change seminar, Barbados.

(1991) Development alternatives with women, in The Future for Women in Development; Voices from the South, Proceedings of the Association of Women in Development colloquium, Ottawa: The North, South Institute.

Baele, S. (1990) Gender and Development: Elements for a Staff Training Strategy, Geneva: International Labour Organization.

Balayon, T. (1991) Gender dynamics: a conceptual framework, Paper presented at the International Conference on Gender Training and Development Planning: Learning from Experience, Bergen, Norway (12-15 May 1991).

Barrett, J., Dawber, A., Klugman, B., Obery, I., Shindler, J., and Yawitch, J. (1985) South African Women on the Move, London: Zed.

Barrett, M. (1980) Womens Oppression Today, London: Verso.

Practical and strategic gender needs and the role of the state
An important underlying rationale of gender planning concerns the fact that men and women not only play different roles in society, with distinct levels of control over resources, but that they therefore often have different needs. This chapter provides a description of the concept of gender interests and its translation into planning terms as gender needs. It identifies the important distinction between practical and strategic gender needs. A brief description follows of the way the state in different political contexts effectively controls womens strategic gender needs through family policy relating to domestic violence, reproductive rights, legal status and welfare policy. The usefulness of these gender planning tools is then examined in terms of several interventions in different planning sectors. At the outset it is important to emphasize that the rationale for gender planning does not ignore other important issues such as race, ethnicity and class. It focuses specifically on gender precisely because this tends to be subsumed within class in so much of policy and planning.

THE IDENTIFICATION OF GENDER NEEDS


Planning for low-income women in the Third World must be based on their interestsin other words, their prioritized concerns. When identifying interests it is useful to differentiate between womens interests, strategic gender interests and practical gender interests, following the threefold conceptualization made by Maxine Molyneux (1985a). Having identified the different interests of women it is possible to translate them into planning needs; in other words, the means by which their concerns may be satisfied. 1 From a planning perspective this separation is essential because of its focus on the planning process whereby an interest, defined here as a prioritized concern, translates into a need. This in turn is defined as the means by which concerns are satisfied. A further distinction can then be made concerning womens needs, strategic gender needs and practical gender

Towards gender planning A new planning tradition and planning methodology BACKGROUND: A BRIEF OUTLINE OF PLANNING TRADITIONS AND METHODOLOGIES
Part One of this book identified the ways in which current assumptions about women and men in society result in the formulation and implementation of policies, programmes and projects that ignore, disadvantage or discriminate against Third World women. Planners are unable to deal with the whole economythat is, with both market and non-market relationsand with gender divisions of labour. It is these that provide the conceptual rationale for the identification of gender planning as a planning tradition in its own right. This chapter describes the emerging tradition of gender planning, and outlines its methodological procedures, tools and techniques. Its purpose is to propose a new planning framework that can effectively aid the goal of the emancipation of women, through strategies to challenge and overcome oppressive roles and relationships. In order to discuss gender planning within the broader perspective of Third World planning, it is useful to clarify several commonly confused issues. First, a distinction should be made between a planning tradition and a planning methodology. A planning tradition is a particular form of planning, with its own focus and objectives, knowledge base, agenda, process and organization. In contrast, a planning

methodology is the process of providing organized technical guidance for such action (Safier 1990). Secondly, and following from this, is the need to acknowledge that over time different planning traditions have used different planning methodologies. Thirdly, it is necessary to recognize that planning methodologies differ concerning the extent to which they identify planning as a set of technical or political procedures. Since planning was first identified as a professional activity, a range of different traditions, each with an associated methodology and relative perception relating to the neutrality of the activity, has evolved. Safier (1990)

GENDER ANALYSIS What is gender analysis? Gender Analysis in Development Cooperation What can gender analysis tell us? Where is gender analysis used? When in the process is gender analysis applied? Who undertakes gender analysis? Elements of Gender Analysis Tools for Gender Analysis Related Sites

What is gender analysis? Gender analysis refers to the variety of methods used to understand the relationships between men and women, their access to resources, their activities, and the constraints they face relative to each other. Gender analysis provides information that recognizes that gender, and its relationship with race, ethnicity, culture, class, age, disability, and/or other status, is important in understanding the different patterns of involvement, behaviour and activities that women and men have in economic, social and legal structures.

Casimira walked for nearly 3 hours to reach a training session/meeting, Bolivia.

Gender analysis is an essential element of socio-economic analysis. A comprehensive socio-economic analysis would take into account gender relations, as gender is a factor in all social and economic relations. An analysis of gender relations provides information on the different conditions that women and men face, and the different effects that policies and programs may have on them because of their situations. Such information can inform and improve policies and programs, and is essential in ensuring that the different needs of both women and men are met.

At the local level, gender analysis makes visible the varied roles women, men, girls and boys play in the family, in the community, and in economic, legal and political structures. A gender perspective focuses on the reasons for the current division of responsibilities and benefits and their effect on the distribution of rewards and incentives. Gender Analysis in Development Cooperation An understanding of socio-economic relations, and with it gender relations, is an integral part of policy analysis, and is essential in creating and implementing effective development co-operation initiatives. Analysis of the different situations of men and women can provide an understanding of the different impacts that legislation, cultural practices, policies, and programs can have on women and men. Gender analysis offers information to understand women's and men's access to and control over resources that can be used to address disparities, challenge systemic inequalities (most often faced by women), and build efficient and equitable solutions. The information gathered during the research stage of the analysis should make the differences between women and men explicit (using sex-disaggregated data) so that policies, programs and projects can build effective actions that promote equality. Since gender relations will change in each context and over time, a gender analysis should be done within each development initiative. Gender analysis can also provide insights on how gender equality can be promoted within efforts for sustainable development to ensure maximum efficiency in pursuing development goals. To be most effective, it must be part of each step of a development initiative: from conception and design to implementation and evaluation. By being part of this process, gender analysis has already led to changes in strategies for development cooperation that previously did not meet the needs of women. CIDA's Policy on Gender Equality section entitled Gender Analysis as a Tool outlines some important considerations. What can gender analysis tell us? An analysis of gender relations can tell us who has access, who has control, who is likely to benefit from a new initiative, and who is likely to lose. Gender analysis asks questions that can lead us in a search for information to understand why a situation has developed the way it has. It can also lead us to explore assumptions about issues such as the distribution of resources and the impact of culture and traditions. It can provide information on the potential direct or indirect benefit of a development initiative on women and men, on some appropriate entry points for measures that promote equality within a particular context, and on how a particular development initiative may challenge or maintain the existing gender division of labour. With this information measures of equity can be created to address the disparities and promote equality.

In the case of primary education, gender analysis can tell us that a gender gap exists in most countries; that is, there is a gap between girls' and boys' enrolment and retention in school. In the majority of countries where there is a gender gap, the gap works against girls, but in others, it works against boys. In India, an average six year-old girl can expect to spend six years in school, three years less than a boy of the same age. Girls in rural areas are at even greater disadvantage: their risk of dropping out of school is three times that of a boy. In Jamaica, however, it is boys who are at higher risk of missing out on education. Boys are often pulled out of school and sent to work to boost family income, and thus, their drop-out rate is higher than that of girls'. In their efforts to balance the need to meet the needs of both girls and boys, governments are increasingly using gender analysis to investigate the source of the gap and what measures can be adopted to reduce the distortions in the educational system. Where is gender analysis used? Development cooperation always involves people. Within CIDA, a gender analysis that addresses the connections of gender with factors such as race, ethnicity, culture, class, age, disability, and/or other status, among others, is required for all policies, programs and projects. While it is easy to see the people involved in more practical and tangible initiatives, such as capacity building for local authorities, any policy or project will ultimately have an effect on people, and must work to promote the equal status of women and men. For example, the development of a country's environmental policy, should involve a holistic socio-economic analysis that addresses gender relations to fully understand the situation and ensure that the policy and its directives promote equality. This might involve understanding the perceptions of women and men of the environment, a sexdisaggregated account of activities performed and their affect on the environment, and the uses men and women make of natural resources, such as land and water. Many of women's contributions to the economy continue to go unrecognized because their work is not easily counted within the conventional structures. Women do a majority of the work within the informal sector and the home and as a result, much of their work is not counted or is underrepresented in official statistics. The lack of a gender analysis in economic policies can result in women's perspectives and priorities being left out of strategies for development. When in the process is gender analysis applied? Gender analysis takes place throughout the entire development process, throughout research, to problem definition, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. By examining basic assumptions each step of the way, the interrelationships between social context and economic factors can be understood and initiatives that respond to those needs can be designed. CIDA-led initiatives must undertake gender analysis at

the planning stage and integrate the findings and recommendations at each step of the way, from planning through to evaluation. For example, the Servio Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI) or National Industrial Apprenticeship Program in Brazil, a technical training program, built in gender analysis from the beginning and responded to the under-representation of female students. Consequently, a portion of the program focused on a sensitization campaign geared towards students and industry. In it, promotional materials showcased female role-models in non-traditional jobs, such as posters with women involved in construction. As a result of undertaking and following through on the gender analysis, the number of women in technical courses jumped from 13.5% to 31.3% in seven years. Who undertakes gender analysis? It is the task of analysts, policy-makers and program managers located in both donor and partner countries, in both government and civil society, to work in partnership with women and men involved to advance gender equality. This participatory process provides the context for the creation, implementation and evaluation of development initiatives to promote gender equality. Additionally, a gender analysis should identify local and national initiatives undertaken by both governments and civil society in order to strengthen and complement these efforts. Individuals, groups and communities affected by development initiatives must be involved from the beginning of the process in order to determine the gender dimensions of the issue at hand. Without local knowledge and expertise, some of the intricacies of the gender roles and social relationships may not be easily understood. In the case of the organizations delivering food aid to vulnerable members of the Dinka people of South Sudan there was a puzzling issue. When Dinka mothers began voluntarily to remove malnourished children from therapeutic feeding programs, the organizations involved were surprised. They questioned their own assumptions of the vulnerability of people and the way that food aid was A traditional birth assistant being distributed. They then set-up discussions counsels 13 to 15-year-olds, Bangladesh. between members of aid organisations and women and men involved in decision-making about food in the local communities. During the discussions it became clear that each group had different definitions of need and different ideas of how aid should be distributed. For example, both Dinka people and organisations identified widows and people with disabilities as vulnerable. Dinka people, however, also identified male and female farmers and fishers with no livestock or fish, and men and women without daughters. The donor strategy often called for the provision of food aid to one child within a family, but the Dinka explained that gifts are to be distributed within the clan and the family. This exchange has led to devising methods

to better account for local definitions of social assets, and to establishing a more appropriate manner of distributing aid that takes into account local practices. Elements of Gender Analysis For a good gender analysis, resources and commitment to implement the results of the analysis are necessary. Consider three important points:

it requires skilled professionals with adequate resources it benefits from the use of local expertise the findings must be used to actually shape the design of policies, programs and projects

Undertaking gender analysis begins with examining the issue so that the broad reality of gender roles and relationships is taken into account. Gathering information to enrich the understanding of the gender roles and relations in a specific context means asking difficult questions. When doing research, consider if you are challenging the existing gender division of labour, tasks, responsibilities and opportunities. Who are the intended recipients of the benefits of the proposed policy, program or project, and who could potentially lose? Both women and men must be consulted on the issue at hand, and have the opportunity to contribute to the definition of the solution. At the same time, it is important to keep in mind the long term impact of a policy, program or project in terms of women's equality with men. How will these enable women to have increased control over their lives? Take, for example, the case of maternal mortality. Every year at least 585,000 women die of pregnancy or childbirth related causes around the world (WHO, 2000). A medical approach to maternal mortality can only partly address this tragic and complex problem. Broadening the focus and giving attention to equality issues such as child marriage, limited access to reproductive health services and family planning, female genital mutilation, and women and girls eating last and least can reduce and transform the recurring nature of maternal mortality. Reconsidering an issue using gender analysis expands the understanding of the challenges women face and the range of solutions available. Tools for Gender Analysis There are a variety of tools that have been developed to assist people in asking these questions. Each tool is different, with some advantages and disadvantages, some account for other social characteristics and factors better, while others are more participatory. Following are some examples.

The Women's Equality and Empowerment Framework builds on an analytical framework based on the interconnected principles of welfare, access, conscientization, participation, control and empowerment. The Harvard Analytical Framework is a tool to collect data at the community and household level. It has three main components: an activity profile ('who does what?'), an access and control profile ('who has access and who controls what?'), and an analysis of influencing factors ('how does gender influence the profiles?'). Module 1 of the ILO/SEAPAT's Online Gender Learning & Information, entitled Some Gender Planning Approaches and Strategies offers descriptions of the Harvard Analytical Framework, Mosers Gender Planning Framework, the Womens Empowerment Framework and the Social Relations Framework. Regardless of the tool or method used, information should account for differences between men and women, boys and girls, and should ask questions for the reasons behind these differences. Without this, development initiatives will come short in their efforts to support sustainable development. CIDA's Policy on Gender Equality Gender Analysis Guidelines provides some thoughts on what to ask and what to do when carrying out gender analysis. Related Sites Navigating Gender: a Framework and a Tool for Participatory Development is a manual to help apply the often theoretical understanding of gender issues in practical work through concepts, definitions, case studies and examples. The manual was published by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Department for International Development Cooperation, Finland. Gender Based Analysis, A Guide for Policy-Making, published by Status of Women Canada, describes the methodology involved in undertaking gender analysis. The Gender Based Analysis Backgrounder of the Bureau of Women's Health and Gender Analysis of Health Canada describes the importance of Gender Based Analysis in the development of health policy programs and legislation. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada's Gender Equality Analysis Policy provides a useful guide of questions to ask.

When it comes to Gender Mainstreaming, it is necessary to substantiate the process with empirical data. Knowledge about gender relation and gendered patterns in society should not be based on every day assumptions on the women and the men. Rather the quality of the implementation of GM strongly depends on the use of research results like statistical material and other empirical studies and information.

Statistics/Studies

Since Gender Mainstreaming should be based on a profound knowledge basis it may be necessary to find out about gender relation within a specific field with the use of empirical data or qualitative studies on gender relations.

Useful links for gender statistics available on the Internet are listed below [internal link], for example the Gender Related Development Index by the UNDP or gender-statistics on country level.

The results of Womens, Mens and Gender Studies provide a good knowledge basis to figure out gender disparities. The library of the Eesti Naisuurimus- ja Teabekeskus (The Estonian Womens Studies and Resource Centre) ENUT offers a good service: http://www.enut.ee/enut.php?keel=ENG&id=6

Gender analysis tools

The following examples of analytical tools are useful to generate data and information. It is another source of information that should complement other source like statistics and studies. The challenge when using analytical gender tools is to know which instrument applies to which context. Often it will be necessary to deal with instruments in a flexible way, to adjust given tools and further develop them.

Gender analysis tools can also be used to demonstrate which questions are relevant when implementing Gender Mainstreaming. Often tools are applied in a Gender Training Workshop as an example. Then these analytical tools become part of an educational tool because participants will be sensitised for gender issues.

The 3R-Method The 3R method today is widely known as a simple but effective tool for gender analysis. It can be applied to many contexts: Originally it was developed in a communal setting in Sweden for a gender analysis of communal projects. Today the 3R method is also being used for analysing organisations and programmes.

The table gives you an impression of how the tool works. However, if you would like to use the 3R method you should at least read the publication mentioned below.

Representation: WHO? Key questions for example: How many women/men are at which level? How many men/women profit, how many women/men use service? How many men/women take part in decision making processes? (quantitative) Resources: WHAT? Key questions for example: How are funds, time, knowledge, space distributed between women and men? (quantitative) Realities WHICH CONDITIONS? Key questions: What are the causes of gender disparities analysed? Which norms, values and stereotypes are underlying?

(qualitative)

Source: http://www.lygus.lt/gm/admin/files/VERKSTAN(eng).pdf

Gender proofing

With the help of Gender proofing methods one can ensure that policies, programmes or laws do contribute to more gender equality.

Gender Impact Assessment (GIA) A typical and widely known gender proofing tool is the Gender Impact Assessment (GIA) developed within the EU context. It is a tool for an ex-ante evaluation, meaning the assessment of possible future impacts of a policy. This kind of checking programmes, measures and laws for their possible future impacts conbtributes to their sustainability also aiming at reducing costs: It will not be necessary to review a certain policy when possible negativ impacts are excluded in advance.

There are three steps in GIA: Checking gender relevance, asses the expected impact on gender relations and finally to make gender sensitive policy proposals.

1. Checking Gender Relevance The first step in a gender mainstreaming process is to establish whether gender is relevant to the policy on which you are working. In order to check gender relevance, you need to obtain and study sexdisaggregated data and to ask the right questions: Does the proposal concern one or more target groups? Will it affect the daily life of part(s) of the population?

Are there differences between women and men in this policy field (with regard to rights, resources, participation, values and norms related to gender)?

2. Assessing the Gender Impact Assessing differences between women and men in the policy field, such as:

participation (sex-composition of the target/population group(s), representation of women and men in decision-making positions resources (distribution of crucial resources such as time, space, information and money, political and economic power, education and training, job and professional career, new technologies, health care services, housing, means of transport, leisure) norms and values which influence gender roles, division of labour by gender, the attitudes and behaviour of women and men respectively, and inequalities in the value attached to men and women or to masculine and feminine characteristics rights pertaining to direct or indirect sex-discrimination, human rights (including freedom from sexual violence and degradation), and access to justice, in the legal, political or socio-economic environment

3. Propose Gender-Aware Policy The third step is to make a proposal on how policies can contribute to the elimination of existing inequalities and promote equality between women and men; in participation rates, in the distribution of resources, benefits, tasks and responsibilities in private and public life, in the value and attention accorded to male and female, to masculine and feminine characteristics, behaviour and priorities? Adapted from: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/evaluation/gender03_en.html

An example of how the GIA can be transferred into a notional policy is Norway: A Guide to GIA of the Norwegian Government Policy is available at: http://odin.dep.no/bfd/engelsk/regelverk/rikspolitiske/004041-990029/index-dok000-b-n-a.html

Checklists Checklists are tools to assess to which extend a gender perspective been included in a programme, a project or other policy tools. It can either be standardized offering only certain possibilities to answered (yes/no/not sure). If a whole sample of entities is available this kind of checklist can be applied to, it will be possible to prove statistical whether Gender-aspects are included. Other checklist are less standardized, asking questions which invite to reflect and give further details. It will be more difficult to evaluate and compare information generated by non-standardised checklist, however in this way a checklist can become an educational tool for the person who answers the respective questions.

An example for a standardised checklist also giving instructions on how to include a gender perspective is provided by the International Labour Organisation, ILO. This checklist can be used to assess to what extent gender mainstreaming strategies have been included in policies, programmes, projects, and budgets on action against child labour exploitation: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/library/download/pub03-11/part2-5.pdf

An example for a not-standardised checklist which is also an educational tool is the Suggestive Checklist of Actions for Gender Mainstreaming provided by the Gender in Development Programme: http://www.undp.org.in/REPORT/Gstrat/strat-11.htm