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1416922]

G. Quiroga-Goode

Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, YNF, Mexico, D.F. 07754 gquirogagoode@netscape.net

Abstract: The numerical results confirm that Biot theory predicts the squirtflow attenuation mechanism for heterogeneous materials with no modifications to his original theory. It is found that the relaxation of pressure gradients among the various porous regions is attained through viscous flows generated not only by differential changes in volume (solid/fluid) but also by rotation of the porous mass. The results also indicate that the squirt-flow mechanism and slow-waves are equivalent phenomena as they represent different aspects of diffusion of viscous fluids. Therefore, the phenomenon observed depends on which field variable is being analysed.

2001 Acoustical Society of America Pacs numbers: 43.20.Gp, 43.20.Jr Date received: February 19, 2001 Date Accepted: August 23, 2001

1. Introduction It has been acknowledged that, in certain cases, Biot poroelastic theory1,2 does not predict the levels of attenuation and velocity dispersion shown experimentally by porous rocks3-4. As a result, much research has been devoted to extend/modify some aspects of the theory to include additional attenuation mechanisms. Two general research trends can be distinguished, and both consider spatial heterogeneities. The first explicitly introduces spatial inhomogeneity (fine layering5-6, inclusions7, etc.), and the second considers viscoelasticity in various ways8-9. In particular, a heuristic squirt-flow was devised to represent an attenuation mechanism additional to the Biot global-flow, the so-called BISQ model10 (BIot global-flow + SQuirt-flow). Several applications of the BISQ model can be found in the literature11. Therefore, according to many articles, it appears that squirt-flow is not represented in Biots theory because it has been regarded as a mechanism separate from slow waves. It is recognised however, that both must be related by the diffusion of viscous fluids. Squirt-flow is generally known as an attenuation mechanism resulting from pore pressure relaxation via viscous flows. According to a definition proposed in the literature, fluid and solid move orthogonal to each other10. It is regarded as microscopic at pore scale10 (micro-cracks and grain-contact areas), or macroscopic for larger scales12. On the other hand, Biot global-flow and Biot slow-wave are also generated by pressure relaxation, but according to many articles, fluid and matrix move only in the same direction5-6,10. The main purpose of this work is to provide further insight into the nature of slow wave/squirt-flow phenomena and clarify that for Biot heterogeneous media, the viscous (squirt) flows can be in any direction, depending only upon the local geometry of the heterogeneity. The usual assumption is that the fluid velocity field is of Poseuille type. The analysis is valid for heterogeneities larger that the average pore radius. The layout of this work is as follows. A test model and the method of solution are presented in sections 2 and 3. Section 4 shows a computer animation13 of the squirt-flow setup by a plane wave and the concomitant slow waves. Conclusions are presented in the last section. No quantitative analysis of a possible resulting attenuation and dispersion is made. 2. Test model To gain insight into this problem, the following model is proposed (Fig. 1). It corresponds to a partially saturated porous inclusion embedded in a homogeneous porous host fully saturated with water. The material properties are given in Table 1 below. This model, somewhat similar

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to the ellipsoidal inclusion model7, will help to show the main goal of this work: that Biot inhomogeneous theory predicts squirt-flow as it allows spatial changes in material properties. Three types of boundaries can be distinguished in the model (related to three kinds of porous regions): Gas-water contact (GWC1) along the top part of the inclusion where gas is permeating the inclusion. GWC1 separates porous regions 1 & 2 of different matrix-fluid properties. Gas-water contact (GWC2) within the inclusion, which separates different fluids (2 & 3). Water-water contact (WWC), which separates porous region 1 & 3. This boundary also separates different matrix-fluid properties, as the boundary GWC1.

1.8 1.7 1.6 Y(m) 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 3 Porous inclusion 0.33 saturated with water 1000 0.15e+02 3 2 2 Porous inclusion saturated with gas 0.33 1000 0.22e-04 1 1 Host porous rock saturated with water

0.10

K

(mD) 10

f

(Pa-s) 0.10e-02

Fig. 1. High porosity inclusion embedded in a water-saturated porous rock. Parameters , f and K stand for static porosity, fluid viscosity, and permeability, respectively. TABLE 1. Model Parameters

Material properties Solid density s Fluid density f Solid Modulus Ks Shear Modulus s Fluid Modulus Kf

Porous inclusion 2.650e03 2.650e03 1.000e03 1.040e03 0.367e11 0.367e11 0.440e10 0.400e10 0.144e07 0.250e09

3. Numerical Modeling A 2D explicit time-domain heterogeneous numerical method is used in this work14. It corresponds to a Fourier pseudo-spectral method for evaluating space derivatives and 4th order Runge-Kutta for time integration. Here, however, the more general case of compressional and shear waves (P-SV) is treated, as opposed to only poro-acoustics14. The velocity-stress formulation is valid in the low frequency range1,2. The numerical scheme has been tested vs. analytical solutions for homogeneous14 and heterogeneous15 poro-acoustic media. It produced excellent agreement of the waveforms (fast and slow P-waves) for both: the ideal case of an inviscid fluid in which slow waves enter a propagatory regime and for the realistic situation of viscous fluids in which slow waves become a diffusion process in the low frequency range. Due to computer limitations (power and memory), the numerical model has been coarsely discretized by square cells of 2.5 cm by side for a total of 5122 nodes. This step-like spatial discretization does not affect the overall results and conclusions. As is well known, the internal boundary conditions within the model are solved implicitly by the numerical scheme in the case of heterogeneous formulations of partial differential equations. Therefore, in the case of Biot equations, there is no ambiguity as to which type of boundary conditions should

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apply since the numerical scheme reproduces, implicitly, the natural ones within the context of Biot porous description15. Because there are no perfect and efficient absorbing boundary conditions for the artificial perimeter of the model, it is enlarged sufficiently so that the wraparound waves generated by the periodic conditions, which are imposed by the pseudo-spectral Fourier method, do not overlap with the physical phenomena within the model. To simplify the numerical treatment, zero initial conditions are assumed. The initial disturbance, which corresponds to an acoustic plane wave, is applied to the vertical component of the solid velocity. The temporal variation is given by S (t) = sin (2 t / To) 0.5 sin (4 t / To), for 0 < t < 1/To. Here, To = 1 ms corresponds to a dominant frequency of 1 kHz. The shape of this pulse is a symmetric peak and trough. Other types of sources can be applied as well, i.e., bulk source, fluid injection8; the difference among them is the amount of energy partitioned between the fast and slow P-waves8. Thus, the type is important because it can generate strong-amplitude slow waves that can interact with nearby inhomogeneities. The dominant fast P-wavelength is 2.1 m. The discretization step of 2.5 cm ensures that viscous flows with wavelength components equal to or larger than 5 cm are accurately resolved. 4. Numerical results As stated in the introduction, the main goal of this work is to describe quantitatively the dynamics of squirt-flow within the context of Biot theory. The numerical solution in the following simulations shows the dynamic coupling between the elastic matrix and the viscous fluids due to an acoustic plane wave propagating vertically downward. The field variables displayed (see two representative snapshots of the animations Mm. 1 and two of Mm. 2 below) correspond to the horizontal (Vx) and vertical (Vy) components of the centre-of-mass velocity vector, given by V = [ f Vf + (1-)s Vs ] / m, which are the ones recorded by geophones16. The third variable, = - [ (Uf -Us)], measures the amount of fluid that has flowed in and out of a given element attached to the solid frame2. It shows the increase/decrease of fluid content. The divergence operator corresponds to , and is the static porosity (effective). Subscripts s and f correspond to the solid and fluid phases of the porous rock. The velocity and displacement vectors are V (m/s) and U (m), respectively, whereas densities correspond to s. The mass density of the porous continuum is given by m= f + (1-)s.

Mm. 1. Numerical simulation of Vy and Vx (1 Mb) Mm. 2. Numerical simulation of Vy and (1 Mb)

6 ( 1.32 ms )

1 2

11 ( 2.42 ms )

0.0

7.5 e-6

-2.2 e-7

2.0 e-7

-7.5 e-6

6.5 e-6

-3.3 e-9

3.9 e-9

Vy

Vx

Mm 2. Simulation of Vy and .

Vy

All snapshots presented in this work have their amplitudes scaled to the largest amplitude within the frame shown. The spatial scale is omitted in the snapshots to avoid cluttering, but can be seen in Fig. 1. The small circle and cross in the plots indicate the location of the minimum and maximum amplitudes in each snapshot. In Mm. 1 and Mm. 2, the purple and blue colours indicate an increase in fluid content. The corresponding decrease is represented in red and yellow. Green and light blue represent intermediate values. It should be noted that the coded-colors vary for a given snapshot depending on the amplitudes. The

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large bold numbers on the top of the snapshots are the stages, related to the times when the snapshots were calculated. They are used as reference in the description below for simplicity rather than the actual times (the small numbers in milliseconds follow). The computer animation of fluid content shows the magnitude, direction, and sense of the spatial evolution of fluid flow generated by differential changes in volume (dilatation/compression) and/or rotation of the fluid relative to the solid. The changes in direction/sense of relative flow are observed as regions of fluid decrease/increase move relative to each other. The oscillatory fluid flows result from the relaxation of pressure gradients caused by the incident plane wave. These pressure differences are stronger in the neighborhood of boundaries (mainly GWC1 and GWC2) owing to the spatial variation of material properties. In this example, the relaxation mechanism by itself may not be sufficient to produce sizeable seismic attenuation because it is only one of several conditions necessary for the dissipation associated with solid-fluid interaction5,6. At stage 3, the incident plane wave (in Vy) has induced relative fluid flow within the zone permeated with gas (porous region 2) and extends just below GWC2 (region 3). The magnitude is stronger in the neighborhood of GWC2 (due to the contrast in fluid compressibilities and viscosities) than far above it. Although the sense of relative flow across GWC2 is downwards during the initial stages, this vertical direction starts to slowly rotate clockwise until the sense is opposite, i.e., pointing upwards, due to the incipient arrival of the dilatational part of the incident wave. Then, this rotation continues (clockwise) until pressure is equilibrated, well after the initial disturbance has passed through. At times, the direction of relative flow across GWC2 is oblique. The fluid motion is an order of magnitude larger than that of the matrix for mid/later stages. On a qualitative basis, the rotational behavior of relative flow within the gas region could be associated with the squirt-flow interaction radius (characteristic squirt-flow length12) being larger than the width of porous region 2. The sense of rotation may be controlled by the tilt of region 2 of the porous inclusion. On the other hand, the direction of relative flow across WWC remains constant, although the sense is oscillating back and forth, i.e., into and out of the inclusion.

Mm. 3. Close-up of the internal field . (350 Kb)

8(

1 6m .7 s

)

Vf -V s

1 e6 .3-

1( 3

2 6m .8 s

)

Vf -V s

2 e6 .0-

0 .0

0 .0

Mm 3. A close-up of time evolution of the internal field vector. The magnitude (in m/s) is color-coded, and direction is indicated by the arrows.

Note that the shift in sense of relative flow across WWC is attained as a gradual decrease in the magnitude of the relative motion between the solid and the fluid until polarity is flipped. This is also observed in a close-up animation shown in Mm. 3 where the internal field = (VsVf), which is a measure of spin or rotation of the porous mass16, has been computed. It is interesting to note that the cycle of oscillatory shifts in the sense of relative flow is faster in porous region 2 (across GWC2) than in region 3 (across WWC) probably due to the smaller viscosity of gas. The outcome is that, at some stages (9 and 14-16), the outward relative flow from porous region 3 is opposed in sense by the outward relative flow from region 2 (through GWC2). At other stages, the relative flows between the various porous

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regions are synchronised: from porous region 3 into 2 and 1 and from porous region 1 and 2 into 3. Thus, within a given porous region, there can be viscous flows with opposite sense. This is particularly noticeable in porous region 2 at stages 9-10 and 14-16. In addition, in porous region 1 (surrounding region 3), the location where the relative fluid flow has opposite sense is being displaced outwards. It starts at approximately 2.5 cm in early stages and reaches 5 cm at stage 52. This may suggest that the squirt-flow length, which reaches approximately 7.5 cm at later stages (relative to WWC), is thus a dynamic quantity. That Biot theory reproduces squirt-flow can be quantified in Fig. 2b, where it can be observed that the fluid and solid phases move orthogonal to each other10. The red/purple line that extends laterally on both sides of the inclusion (as shifts in polarity) and vertically above and below the inclusion (much weaker) in Fig.2b, follows the boundary between the negative and positive lobes of the shear scattering (Fig. 2a).

(a)

1

14 ( 3.08 ms )

14 ( 3.08 ms )

(b)

2

-2.4 e-7

2.1 e-7

-90

+90

Vx ( m / s )

Vf - Vs (degrees )

Fig. 2. a) The generation of four shear waves scattered (indicated by numbers 1 to 4) by the porous inclusion. (b) Out of phase motion between the solid matrix and the viscous fluids.

The radiation patterns along GWC1 (in Vx) in stages 3 and 4 correspond to diffracted shear energy. Also, along WWC in stage 5, more shear diffractions are being generated but with opposite polarities as compared with the diffractions along the tip. Although the four shear waves (whose propagation direction is indicated in Vx Mm. 1 and Fig. 2a with arrows) have been generated separately at slightly different times, the individual wavefronts coalesce into a single front at later times. Fast P-wave scattering (in Vy) can be observed only after stage 21 (only their tails) because of the larger amplitudes of the incident plane wave. Although energy conversion to slow waves (seen as semi-circular patterns in Vx and Vy) can only be observed from stage 21 onwards after the incident wave and scattering have left the snapshot area, it was generated simultaneously to the fast P and shear-wave scattering. 5. Summary and Conclusions The squirt-flow mechanism of attenuation was observed in the simulations since Biot theory allows for non-uniform macroscopic distribution of material properties. It is found that the relaxation of pressure gradients among the various porous regions is attained via viscous flows generated not only by differential changes in volume (solid/fluid) but also by spin (rotation) of the porous mass. The results confirm that squirt-flow mechanism and slowwaves are equivalent phenomena related to the diffusion of viscous fluids. Thus, the phenomenon observed depends on which field variable is being analysed: If a sensor recorded centre-of-mass velocities Vx, Vy, the process observed would be energy transport (associated to total linear momentum flux) effected by slow waves which display a wave-like behavior. If a sensor recorded the fluid content or the internal field , the process observed would be (infinitesimal) mass transport, represented by viscous flows and associated to intrinsic angular momentum.

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The acoustic incidence in this heterogeneous model resulted in energy conversion into scattered waves. Some of these waves are of the Biot slow-wave type given that hydraulic connectivity among the various porous regions is non zero (GWC2 and WWC) since they allowed fluids to flow through18. The amount of relative flow, thus the amplitude of the slow waves, also depended upon the hydraulic and the mechanic properties of both media surrounding the interfaces. The evolution of fluid content shows that squirt-flow length is a dynamic quantity since the longer wavelength components of viscous flows, which are the ones that propagate with less attenuation, travel with slower speed. The results also confirm that squirt-flow length can be of several cms for the frequency range under consideration14. Therefore, it has been confirmed that there is no need to modify Biot original theory to include a macroscopic squirt-flow. Simply by introducing heterogeneities of any geometry, Biot equations naturally reproduce viscous flows in any direction relative to the solid matrix and thus squirt-flows. Acknowledgments Thanks to R. del Valle and R. vila Carrera for fruitful discussions and to the reviewers for their suggestions. This work was funded by Project Cantarel (PEMEX) D.01341. References

M. A. Biot, Theory of propagation of elastic waves in a saturated porous solid, I, Low-Frequency range, J. Acous. Soc. Am., 29, 168-178 (1956). 2 M. A. Biot, Mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media, J. Appl. Mech., 33, 14821498 (1962). 3 S. Mochizuki, Attenuation in partially saturated rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 8598-8604 (1982). 4 R. J. OConnel and B. Budiansky, Viscoelastic properties of fluid-saturated cracked solids, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 5719-5735 (1977). 5 A. Norris, Low-frequency dispersion and attenuation in partially saturated rocks, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 94, 359-370 (1993). 6 B. Gurevich, V. B. Zyrianov and S. L. Lopatnikov, Seismic attenuation in finely layered porous rocks: Effects of fluid flow and scattering, Geophys., 62, 319-324 (1997). 7 B. Gurevich, A. P. Zadovnichaja, S. L. Lopatnikov and S. A. Shapiro, Scattering of a compressional wave in a poroelastic medium by an ellipsoidal inclusion, Geophys. J. Int., 133, 91 (1998). 8 J. M Carcione and G. Quiroga-Goode, Full frequency-range transient solution for compressional waves in a fluid-saturated viscoelastic porous medium, Geophys. Prosp., 44, 99-129 (1996). 9 M. A. Biot, Theory of deformation of a porous viscoelastic anisotropic solid, J. Appl. Phys., 27, 459-467 (1956). 10 J. Dvorkin and A. Nur, Dynamic poroelasticity: a unified model with the squirt and the Biot mechanisms, Geophys., 58, 524-533 (1993). 11 C. L. Hackert and J. O. Parra, Analysis of multiscale scattering and poroelastic attenuation in a real sedimentary rock sequence, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 107, 3028-3034 (2000). 12 J. Dvorkin, R. Nolen-Hoeksema and A. Nur, The squirt-flow mechanism: Macroscopic description, Geophys., 59, 428-438 (1994). 13 G. Quiroga-Goode, Seismic wave propagation through a fractured poroelastic reservoir. Proceedings of the EAGE-SAID Conference, Paris, Nov. 6-8, B-5 (2000). 14 J. M. Carcione and G. Quiroga-Goode, Some aspects of the physics and numerical modeling of Biot compressional waves, J. Comp. Acous., 3, 261-280 (1995). 15 G. Quiroga-Goode and J. M. Carcione, Heterogeneous modeling behaviour at an interface in porous media, J. Comp. Geosci., 1, 109-125 (1997). 16 Pratap N. Sahay, Elastodynamics of deformable porous media, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 452, 1517-1529 (1996). 17 G. Quiroga-Goode and J. M. Carcione, Wave dynamics at an interface between porous media, Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl., 38, n. 3-4, 165-178 (1997). 18 P. B. Nagy and G. Blaho, Experimental measurements of surface stiffness on water-saturated solids, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 95, 828-835 (1993).

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