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Mindanao State University- Iligan Institute of Technology College of Arts and Social Sciences Department of Psychology

Animal Training Proposal for Chicken

In partial fulfillment of the course Psych 102N: Learning and Cognitive Psychology Section A12-1 Tuesday 7:30-10:30 am S.Y. 2011-2012

Submitted to: Alma G. Maranda Ph. D Adviser

Submitted by: April Aisha M. Glimada K nacky July D. Hermodo Mark Frederick M. Magallanes Donna Gift A. Sarmiento Floralice Hope S. Servano BS- Psychology III

August 2011

Rationale Chicken is one of the most commonly domesticated animals in the world. It is primarily a source of food and seldom considered as a pet and trained to do tricks. Domestic chickens are excellent animals for teaching. Its quick movements make them good animals in terms of showing Immediate Reinforcement. And because chickens quickly eat even without chewing, the trainer can have many responses and many trials during the training session. A chicken is hardy, easy to care for and not as messy as other animals. Motivation Speed and precision are two of the most outstanding achievements of behavior analysis and applied operant conditioning. Both of these make training process possible. In Skinners study, the bird had to peck a particular board in order to achieve a reward. Operant conditioning, coupled with firm appreciation of the role that the respondents conditioning takes in animals lives, has made it possible to train animals that could not be trained with the old, conventional animal training methods. Classical conditioning by Pavlov is also used in this training process. In his study, the importance of bridging stimulus is established. That is, when a sound (stimulus) is heard, the animal tends to anticipate that the sound brings the food or reward. Objectives In this animal training, the trainers seek to observe the shaping behaviors in chicken and to emphasize the importance of immediate reinforcing in order to gain a greater number of trials and good responses. Learning Paradigms This animal training, make use of three learning paradigms, namely the Classical Conditioning of Ivan Pavlov, Operant Conditioning of B.F. Skinner and Edward Tolmans Sign Learning (Purposive Behaviorism). After selecting the learning paradigms to be used in their animal training, the trainers carefully chose concepts from the paradigms to be included in their animal training. These are: Pavlovs Classical Conditioning The animal subject should be able to discriminate among five different Conditioned Stimuli (Neutral). By acquisition, the animal subject should be able to associate a neutral stimulus (which later on would be the Conditioned Stimulus) with an Unconditioned Stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.

Skinners Operant Conditioning The animal trainers will use the concept of Reinforcement and Punishment.

So that learning will occur rapidly, continuous reinforcement will be imposed. But, in the occasion when the animal subject is no longer reinforce by Continuous Reinforcement, Variable-interval Reinforcement. In Variable-interval Reinforcement, the reward of the animal subject will be given five seconds after it successfully learned or performed a response. To be able to bring forth the desired response from the chicken, it should be deprived from food for 8-10 hours every day.

Tolmans Sign Learning In a maze constructed by the trainers, the animal subject should be able to familiarize the correct way to the different activity point, elicit the learned responses Learned behavior is always directed and oriented toward some end, some goal.

Putting the Three Paradigms Together There will be five conditioned stimuli in this animal training. Each conditioned stimulus will serve as a signal for the chicken to start its quest on the maze. The goal of the chicken is to get through the entire five stop - overs of the maze and get its reward at the end of every stop overs. However, since the animal training includes the operant conditioning of Skinner, the chicken must avoid the paths where punishment (bad valence) awaits. Hence, the chicken must develop this so called cognitive map, the mental representation of the maze, so that it can successfully choose the right way towards the positive reinforcement (positive values). Identifying the principles: Conditioned Stimuli 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ringing Tone Bell Spoon and Fork Whistle Trumpet

Unconditioned Stimulus, Positive Reinforcement and Positive value The food placed on the right stop overs.

II. Animal Subject Biological Description Chickens are considered omnivores for aside from eating the pellets and wheat given to them; they also often scratch the soil to search for insects, lizards and young mice.

Chickens life span reaches from five (5) to eleven (11) years depending on breed. Special breed-laying hens may produce as many as 300 eggs a year. After twelve (12) months, the breed-laying ability of hens starts to decline. A cross- bred Leghorn usually makes a good subject. Bantam breeds are also great but it should be tamed harder when used as subject. Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called comb or cockscomb, and hanging flaps of skin on the either side under their beaks called wattles. Both adult male and female chickens have wattles and combs, but it is more prominent in male chickens. A muff is a mutation found in several chicken breeds which causes extra feathering under the chickens face, giving the appearance of a beard. Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight. Lighter birds are generally capable of flying for short distances, such as over fences or into trees where they would naturally roost. Chickens will sometimes fly to explore their surroundings, but usually do so only to flee perceived danger.

Anatomical Description Typically, chickens sinus openings are located around the eye. The nasal cavity is connected to the sinus. The cavities filter the air through a small slit in the roof of the mouth, before it can go to the lungs. The vocal box is located at the end or bottom of the mouth which is connected to the trachea and gullet. Lungs are located close to the spine and lay near by the ribs; the lungs of a bird are smaller depending on the size of their bodies. Although, chickens have a large arrangement of air sacs that are unique to them; those air sacs circle their internal organs that function for retaining air space; also used to increase lung capability. Normally, the sacs are first at risk to be damaged by any respiratory diseases.

Anatomical Illustration of a Chickens Body

Social Description Chickens are gregarious birds and live together as a flock. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing a pecking order with dominant individuals having priority for access to food and nesting locations. Removing chickens from a flock causes a temporary disruption to this social order until a new pecking order is established. Crowing- loud and shrill call; a territorial signal to other roosters. Crowing may also result from sudden disturbances within their surroundings. Clucking- Hens cluck loudly after laying an egg, and also to call their chicks. Specific Characteristics Animal Subject Name Chicken Type Scientific Classification Kingdom Animalia Chicken Coraline Parawakan a.k.a Basilan

Phylum Subphylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animal Classification Other Common Names Age Wing Span Weight Eating Schedule

Chordata Vertebrata Aves Galliformes Phasianide Gallus G. Gallus

Paduan Chicken, Poland Chicken 3 months old 30 cms About half a kilo 7 am and 5 pm

Actual Description A) Physical The subject was a 45- day old female bantam chicken. She is white- feathered and weighs about a kilo. She is 8 inch tall, 10 inch wide. The chicken is fat and big. The chicken has a small comb and its peach in color. Having long yellow legs and toes in each foot and it has long yellow beaks and medium sized eyes. B) Social The chicken stays in a coop and easily adopted her new home. Currently she stays together with the two new bantam chicks- Yelly and Pinky. She easily can socialize with the two chicks and mostly do no harm towards the two even eating time. C) Her name is Coraline. She was named that way because by the time we got the chicken, we were kiddingly thinking to chook (fry) her if she wont make a good presentation. She eats pasta, fruits, crumbs particularly BSC chicken food. Chooky loves to drink a lot of water. She can easily grasp into new tricks. She doesnt startle a lot even a number of persons are around. Chooky has a good appetite and poops every after eating. Chooky is now mingling with her two new friends at home namely Yelly and Pinky- bantam chicks. III. Experimental Apparatus A. Peck! Whos there?

The first checkpoint of the maze is the door. The chicken has to peck to the latch of the door th

B. Pass by a Hula Hoop Apparatus: Hula Hoop

A hula hoop is placed within the maze. This hula hoop serves as the third checkpoint of the maze. To be able to proceed to the next checkpoint, the chicken has to pass through it. Do it repeatedly until the chicken got the idea and begin to go through the hoop and ask for the treat.

Apparatus: Stick

D. Shape Discrimination

Apparatus: Different Shaped Boards

E. Color Discrimination Apparatus: Different Colored Boards

F. The Maze The maze is designed and made by the animal trainers. From it, the animal subject must develop a cognitive map that would lead it to the right way to the different rewards.

IV. Procedure Pre Training The chicken will be put in a coop to establish adaptation of its new environment. Food will be given twice a day by 7am and 5 pm. Schedule of training sessions happens twice a day every 6 am and 11 pm. Each schedule will allot 45- minute duration and food will be given to the chicken every after correct response to a particular pecking trick. Deprivation will be done the day before presentation maximum of 12 hours.

Training Proper

B. If You Meet Me Halfway Holding the stick horizontally, the chicken should learn to step on the elevated stick to get the goodie on the left side. The chicken will do the same thing until she will reach the right side. C. Target Pecking Using the eraser portion of a pencil, the researcher must color it black in order to see the blacken eraser as a dot target. The chicken will learn to peck in the target and will be rewarded every after target pecking. D. Color Discrimination The trainer will pick one color among orange, blue, and yellow. In the pre-training, the trainer will let the chicken peck on the chosen color, which is yellow. Do not let the chicken peck on other colors except on the chosen one. In every successful peck, the chicken will get its treat from the trainer. Do it repeatedly until the chicken is already adept on the things that the chicken wants to do. On the training proper, trainer will put all 3 colors on the table, orange, blue, and yellow at one end and put the chicken in the middle. In gradual training, the trainer will strengthen the behavior of the chicken by pecking the right color and eventually, the trainer will move the target so the chicken wouldnt generalize it to a specific area. E. Shape Discrimination Shape discrimination is somewhat the same with color discrimination except for the materials needed. This time, shapes are used for this trick. Square is the shape that the chicken will peck. The rest will follow just like the color discrimination.

The Aseel is not bred in U.S. and is of interest only in a historical way. The Aseel was the forbear of the Cornish. The Cornish is not only extensively bred by fanciers , but has

exerted a big influence on a number of newer breeds, such as Chanticleers, Buckeyes, Partridge Rocks, etc. It is the old dash of Oriental Game blood, which has been so often injected in the past, either derived from the Malay or the Cornish, and both of these breeds trace directly to the older Aseel, one of the purest pure-breds in the world. Anyone familiar with the modern exhibition Cornish, short in leg, very broad in chest and shoulders, hard feathered, with narrow stern, has seen a replica of the Aseel. For a long time, Cornish were classified as "Orientals," but because of their English origin, have of recent years, been listed as members of the English class. However, the Aseel type of Cornish has become so common and so popular among fanciers, that the breed is virtually an "Oriental." the breed is probably the oldest in existence today. The Aseel is bred in various colors of plumage, including Black, White, Duckwing, Red Spangled, Pyle, etc. It has yellow or white skin, small head appendages with pea shaped comb; The females lay eggs with tinted shells, and are sitters. The birds have small intestinal tubes, are plump and firm int the head, and short, hard feathered. In fact, an Aseel with long, soft feather, or one that isn't hard muscled and "as heavy as lead," is not typical and of no special value. The Aseel has broad, prominent shoulders, wide hips; narrow stern, but "thick and strong in hand at root of tail," this latter being a great indication of strength; full, broad, heavily fleshed breast; thick and muscular thighs. The breed should have moderately low carriage, not too "gamey" in general appearance, and powerful limbs. The small pea comb and practically no wattles are desirable points, as they give practically no opportunity for tearing to the enemy and preclude the necessity for dubbing. Desired weights are about 6 lbs. for cock and 5 lbs for hen. Aseels are being bred principally by British fanciers.