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Document Title: Revision No: 1

T004
Description: Flow Testing Procedures for All Issue Date: 06/01
Banlaw Refuelling Nozzles
This document forms part of the Assembly Repair and Test Manual for Banlaw
Pipeline Quick-Fill Refuelling Nozzles. It describes the equipment and procedures
required for the proper flow testing of the nozzles. This information is intended
for the use of Banlaw Pipeline Technicians and all Authorised Distributors and
Repair Agents.

The proper flow testing of nozzles is essential to:

1. verify the correct shut-off pressure of the nozzle


2. inspect and rectify the nozzle for leaks
3. verify the correct operation of the nozzle, including:
• ease of engaging nozzle to receiver under pump pressure
• establish correct function of operating handle, including effort
required to operate handle, and correct location of handle catch
with respect to ON and OFF detents on nozzle end-cap.

There are two options for the layout of the nozzle flow test facility. Section 1
details the first option using an in-line ball valve downstream of the nozzle – item
8. This valve is used to create varying degrees of back pressure against the nozzle
thus simulating the pressurisation of a fuel tank.

1. OPTION 1: RECIRCULATING CIRCUIT – IN-LINE VALVE

Figure 1.1: Flow Test Circuit 1 – in-line valve

T004 – Issue 1 1
1.1 General Objective

The objective of the test is to determine the pressure at entry to the nozzle –
measured by item 5 – that initiates nozzle shut-off. For a given flowrate, there is
a limiting inlet pressure that triggers the automatic shut-off mechanism of the
nozzle. The exponential relationship between flowrate and inlet pressure is shown
on the attached graphs.

IMPORTANT: the fitting used to secure gauge 5 must have a 2” (53±0.5mm)


bore and no sudden flow area or directional changes for at least 6 diameters
(320mm) upstream of the gauge. This will ensure representative readings are
taken. Banlaw can supply upon request a fitting for this purpose.

1.2 Flow Test Procedures

1.2.1 Leak testing

1. Install nozzle into test circuit and connect to receiver.


2. Start pump with valve 5 fully open.
3. Set flowrate at near maximum
4. Run fuel through nozzle for at least 5 minutes, during which time the nozzle
should be turned ON and OFF a few times to detect any leakage from the
back end of the nozzle (such leakage is visible from the end-cap bleed hole).
5. Whilst fuel is running, move nozzle around on receiver to detect any leakage
from between receiver and nozzle – such leakage is usually due to a worn
nozzle body and / or sleeve o’ring seals.
6. Identify and record source of any leaks. Leakage from the bleed hole on the
underside of the end cap indicates a faulty piston seal. Leakage from the front
region of the nozzle indicates a worn nozzle body, sleeve seals, o’rings, or a
damaged wiper seal.

NOTE: a small volume of fuel (<50mL) may be lost when disconnecting the
nozzle at the completion of flow testing. Such an amount is acceptable and does
not constitute a non-conforming nozzle.

7. With pump running, manually turn nozzle off and disconnect from receiver.
Turn nozzle on and off several times to check for leaks from front of nozzle
and thus confirm whether sleeve maintains liquid tight seal with both the
retainer and bore of nozzle body. NOTE : Do NOT point nozzle towards a
person’s face during this operation.
8. With pump still running, connect and disconnect nozzle and receiver to ensure
easy connection of nozzle whilst under head pressure of pump. Difficulty in
engaging the nozzle may indicate the sleeve is not being held back in the fully
home position. In this case refer to document M800 or M1000, clause 2.16.

Once all leaks are rectified, proceed to section 1.2.2 for shut-off pressure testing.

T004 – Issue 1 2
1.2.2 Shut-Off Pressure Testing

NOTE: The consistency of results in this section relies on the reliable and accurate
performance of the test equipment – in particular the flowmeter and pressure
gauges. Additionally, noticeable variations in diesel temperature (>15-20°C) may
cause inconsistent test results due to fluctuations in both diesel viscosity and
density. Thus to ensure consistent and accurate test results are maintained, test
equipment must be calibrated on a regular basis and factors such as diesel
temperature should be monitored during a test and between successive tests.

1. Set the flowrate at near maximum.


2. Gradually throttle valve 8 and obtain accurate values of both the flowrate and
pressure at gauge 5 that initiates nozzle shut-off. You will need to record
both values at the instant (within reason) the nozzle begins to shut-off.
3. Repeat step 2 for flowrates at approx. 70% and 40% of maximum i.e. 3 tests
in total
4. Compare results obtained during steps 2 and 3 against the appropriate curve
on the attached graphs. Again, note the separate curves for each of the 5
available nozzle back spring settings.
5. If any test result falls outside the shaded region on a chosen curve, that test
must be conducted again. If after 4-5 retests the result is still outside the
region check the following:

a) Confirm the absence of any undue friction between the handle and end-
cap. This is best done with the nozzle disconnected from both the
receiver and test circuit. The action of the handle should be smooth
and consistent through its entire arc. The handle should also readily
spring into the ON position if the catch is released. Such action
indicates a satisfactory and consistent level of friction between seals
and their mating surfaces. Check seal integrity and lightly polish bore
surfaces with 1200 grit wet & dry grade emery paper if required.
b) Confirm both the free length (unloaded OAL) and the total number of
turns of the nozzle back spring. The free length and total number of
coils should be within the ranges specified in Table 2.2.2.1. Discard
any spring outside these limits. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO RECTIFY
EITHER PROBLEM BY SCRAGGING OR GRINDING THE SPRING.
• A spring with a free length slightly under (0.5-1mm) the
specification may be lengthened to within the correct range by
securely gripping both ends of the spring and simultaneously
extending the spring and twisting the spring anti-clockwise. This
process can be carefully repeated until the spring length is
within the recommended range.
NOTES:
1. The shut-off pressure of a newly assembled nozzle will stabilise to a
consistent value after several flow tests. Step 5 states 4-5 tests should
be a sufficient number, although the experience of a repair technician
will determine when a nozzle has reached its “steady-state”
performance
2. The shut-off pressure of a nozzle is very susceptible to variances in the
properties of the nozzle back spring. For example, up to 15kPa
variation can be caused by only 1.5mm variation in spring free length.
Discard any spring whose performance is considered unsatisfactory.
T004 – Issue 1 3
6. Repeat steps 2-5 until all flow test results are satisfactory.
7. Rectify all leaks identified during flow testing. Retest as per section 1.2.1 until
satisfactory.

Once all leaks are rectified and the nozzle has satisfactorily passed flow testing,
the nozzle may be prepared for return to service or placed into stock.

IMPORTANT: A nozzle is considered a non-conforming product unsuitable for


further service until all problems identified are rectified and the nozzle has
passed all stages of the flow test procedures detailed above.

2. OPTION 2: TEST TANK AND RECIRCULATING CIRCUIT

2.1 General Objective

The objective of this circuit is to determine the maximum pressure within the test
tank – measured by item 13 – that occurs at nozzle shut-off. The level of tank
pressurisation is a direct indication of the magnitude of pressure at nozzle entry
required to activate the automatic shut-off mechanism of the nozzle.

A recirculating circuit is also included – via receiver 14 – to allow proper leak


testing of the nozzle. Valve 15 is included as an option, in case the repairer
wishes to obtain more comprehensive shut-off pressure data for a nozzle - as
outlined in section 1.2.2. If this method is to be used, the fitting used to secure
gauge 5 must have a 2” (53±0.5mm) bore and no sudden flow area or directional
changes for at least 6 diameters (320mm) upstream of the gauge. This will ensure
representative readings are taken. Banlaw will supply upon request a fitting
suitable for this purpose.

Figure 2.1: Flow Test Circuit 2 – Test Tank

T004 – Issue 1 4
2.2 Flow Test Procedures:

2.2.1 Leak Testing

1. Install nozzle into recirculating circuit – receiver 14.


2. Ensure valve 12 is closed and valve 15 is fully open (if fitted)
3. Set flowrate at near maximum
4. Run fuel through nozzle for at least 5 minutes, during which time the nozzle
should be turned ON and OFF a few times to detect any leakage from the
back end of the nozzle (such leakage is visible from the end-cap bleed hole).
5. Whilst fuel is running, move nozzle around on receiver to detect any leakage
from between receiver and nozzle – such leakage is usually due to a worn
nozzle body and / or sleeve o’ring seals.
6. Identify and record source of any leaks. Leakage from the bleed hole on the
underside of the end cap indicates a faulty piston seal. Leakage from the front
region of the nozzle indicates a worn nozzle body, sleeve seals, o’rings, or a
damaged wiper seal.

NOTE: a small volume of fuel (<50mL) may be lost when disconnecting the
nozzle at the completion of flow testing. Such an amount is acceptable and does
not constitute a non-conforming nozzle.

7. With pump running, manually turn nozzle off and disconnect from receiver.
Turn nozzle on and off several times to check for leaks from front of nozzle
and thus confirm whether sleeve maintains liquid tight seal with both the
retainer and bore of nozzle body. NOTE: Do NOT point nozzle toward a
person’s face during this operation.
8. With pump still running, connect and disconnect nozzle and receiver to ensure
easy connection of nozzle whilst under head pressure of pump. Difficulty in
engaging the nozzle may indicate the sleeve is not being held back in the fully
home position. In this case refer to document M800 (or M1000), clause 2.16.

Once all leaks are rectified, proceed to section 2.2.2 for shut-off pressure testing.

2.2.2 Shut-Off Pressure Testing

NOTE: The consistency of results in this section relies on the reliable and accurate
performance of the test equipment – in particular the flowmeter and pressure
gauges. To ensure consistent and accurate test results are maintained, test
equipment must be calibrated on a regular basis.

1. Connect nozzle to receiver 7. Close valve 12.


2. Turn nozzle ON. Set flowrate to 360-380LPM .
3. Allow test tank to fill. Tank will pressurise once the tank vent (11) has closed.
4. Record the maximum tank pressure using gauge 13. NOTE: This process is
made significantly easier if the gauge is fitted with a peak indicator pointer
(drag pointer)
5. Compare this result to the specifications listed in Table 2.2.2.1 below.

T004 – Issue 1 5
Spring Part No. C’Clip Position Tank Pressure
Spring Setting (Peak value)
AUS21A 029 - Silver 3 - Light 25-35kPa
- Free Length = 87mm 2 - Light / Medium 45-55kPa
Recommended Range: 87-88.5mm
- Total Coils = 8.5 1 - Medium 65-75kPa

AUS21A 027 - Gold 3 – Medium / Heavy 75-85kPa


- Free Length = 127mm 2 - Heavy 95-105kPa
Recommended Range: 126-128.5mm
- Total Coils = 12.2 1 – Not Applicable N/A

Table 2.2.2.1: Spring Specifications and Test Tank Pressure @ Shut-Off

NOTE: The tank pressure readings shown in Table 2.2.2.1 are valid only when:
a) filling directly into the lower side of the test tank or via a 2” pipe less
than 1m in length
b) the tank is designed in accordance with section 3.4
c) flow testing is conducted at 360-380LPM

6. If any test result falls outside the specified range, that test must be conducted
again. If after retest, the result is still outside the range check the following:

a) Confirm the absence of any undue friction between the handle and end-
cap. This is best done with the nozzle disconnected from both the
receiver and test circuit. The action of the handle should be smooth
and consistent through its entire arc. The handle should also readily
spring into the ON position if the catch is released. Such action
indicates a satisfactory and consistent level of friction between seals
and their mating surfaces. Check seal integrity and lightly polish bore
surfaces with 1200 grit wet & dry grade emery paper if required.
b) Confirm both the free length (unloaded OAL) and the total number of
turns of the nozzle back spring. The free length and total number of
coils should be within the ranges specified in Table 2.2.2.1. Discard
any spring outside these limits. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO RECTIFY
EITHER PROBLEM BY SCRAGGING OR GRINDING THE SPRING.

NOTE: The shut-off pressure of a newly assembled nozzle will decrease marginally
to a consistent value after several flow tests. Step 5 states 4-5 tests should be a
sufficient number, although the experience of a repair technician will determine
when a nozzle has reached its “steady-state” performance.

7. Repeat steps 10-14 until all flow test results are satisfactory.
8. Rectify all leaks identified during the flow testing. Retest as per section 2.2.1
until satisfactory.

Once all leaks are rectified and the nozzle has satisfactorily passed flow testing,
the remaining assembly or repair procedures for the nozzle must be completed
prior to placing the nozzle into stock.

T004 – Issue 1 6
IMPORTANT: A nozzle is considered a non-conforming product unsuitable for
further service until all problems identified are rectified and the nozzle has
passed all stages of the flow test procedures detailed above.

3. Flow Test Circuit Requirements

All flow testing must be done using diesoline fuel or ISO4113 Calibration Fluid (non-
hazardous diesel equivalent). The use of other fluids will yield foreign test results and
thus create test non-conformances.

3.1 Pump Specifications

The pump specifications for both option 1 (Figure 1.1) and option 2 test circuits
(Figure 2.1) are detailed below:

a1) Minimum Flowrate: approx. 400LPM


a2) Minimum Flowrate: approx. 600LPM
b) Pump Head: minimum 300kPa (@ 3 cSt)
c) Test Fluid: Diesoline (or ISO4113 Calibration Fluid)

Footnotes: a2): Required if testing AUS22 / B1000 series nozzles


b): Final value depends on chosen design of circuit

To ensure reliable performance and satisfy the requirements listed above, Banlaw
recommend the use of a positive displacement vane pump e.g. an EBS-RAY V25.
For more information contact EBS-RAY on (02) 9905 0234.

The use of a diaphragm pump is conditional, as care must be taken to ensure the
characteristic pulsing effect of the fluid does not adversely affect the shut-off of
the nozzle. Subtle variations i.e. pulses, in the head pressure developed by the
pump may be sufficient to trigger the shut-off of the nozzle – particularly with low
pressure margins – prior to the required line pressure (P1) being reached. Thus, a
false shut-off pressure is recorded. If a diaphragm pump is used, operating a
smaller pump at higher speed will be more beneficial than running a large pump
at low speed.

3.2 Hose Specification: * 2” (bore diameter)


* Use Ryco T1 series wire braided petrochemical
resistant pressure hose (or equivalent)
* Use swaged (crimped) hose ends – not clamped

T004 – Issue 1 7
3.3 Pipework: * 2” (bore diameter)
* ensure adequate earthing is provided for static
electricity dissipation (AS/NZS 1020)
* Std grade black steel pipe (e.g. AS1074/1163)
* Apply rust inhibitive paint to external surfaces
once pipework is fully fabricated and assembled
* the gauge at 5 must be installed into a 2” bore
fitting – contact Banlaw for specific details

3.4 Test Tank – Flow Test Facility Option 2

3.4.1 Test Tank Specifications

The use of a tank to perform both tests described in Section 2 relies on the
satisfactory design and setup of the test tank. Listed below are the required
specifications:

a) tank volume: minimum 300L (i.e. >30 second test period)


b) tank shape: see section 3.4.2
c) vent type: see section 3.4.2
d) receiver type: AUS23 (mines), AUS23R (rail), AUS23B
(hydraulic), AUS43 (if repairing BAM1000 series nozzles)

3.4.2 Test Tank Design / Manufacture

The principle concern with the design and manufacture of the test tank, is to
ensure the tank is certified to the required pressure. To assist in the design or
selection of a suitable tank, the post-manufacture test pressure – according to
the Standards Association of Australia (SAA) – should be:

a) at least 1.5 times the designer’s stated maximum allowable


working pressure
b) at least 2 times the expected maximum allowable working
pressure

The expected maximum allowable working pressure of the test tank is a


minimum of 110kPa – being the minimum emergency relief pressure of the
standard Banlaw vent.

NOTE: The Banlaw quick-fill tank vent is NOT a primary pressure relief device.
The emergency relief facility of the vent is designed only as a means of exhausting
excess vapour pressure from within the ullage region of the tank. If the vent is
required to discharge liquid fuel, the pressure within the tank will increase
substantially .

AS1692 is the generic standard covering the design and manufacture of tanks
storing flammable and combustible liquids. The scope of this standard is limited
to a test pressure of 35kPa – being less than that required for the test tank –
however there are details regarding filling point location that remain valid. For
test pressures greater than 35kPa but less than 50kPa the SAA recommend
“good engineering practice” be used for tank design. Pressures in excess of
T004 – Issue 1 8
50kPa are included in the scope of AS1210 – Pressure Vessels. Although this
standard is quite detailed and prescriptive, an experienced engineer should be
able to select content that is applicable to the test tank.

A solution to the selection or design of a suitable test tank would be the use of an
existing pressure vessel – such as an air receiver. Once properly set up and fitted
out, the vessel should be satisfactory for the purpose of testing the shut-off
pressure of a Banlaw refuelling nozzle - see Figure 3.4.1 below.

Figure 3.4.1: Air Receiver as Test Tank

Although the cylindrical air receiver is suitable, the preferred shape for a test tank
is either square or rectangular – see Figure 3.4.2. The principle reason for this is
the linear rate of fuel level increase and hence linear increase of tank
pressurisation these shapes offer. The non-linear rate of both factors in a
cylindrical tank forced Banlaw to design the AUS25C vent, to compensate for the
rapid increase in fuel level as the liquid reaches the upper region of the tank. The
extended length of the AUS25C vent valve allows the vent to close at an
otherwise premature fuel level, thus compensating for the impending increased
rate of fuel level rise and thus maintaining a suitable ullage within the tank once
the nozzle has shut-off.

Figure 3.4.2: Rectangular Test Tank

T004 – Issue 1 9
4) General Requirements:

The installation of any facility containing or handling flammable or combustible


fluids, must be done in accordance with standards such as AS1940. This standard
describes the requirement for bunding, signage, ventilation, and emergency and
fire protection facilities. These measures are meant to complement existing
workplace OHS&E policy in providing a safe work environment.

Banlaw Pipeline Pty Ltd is a QA accredited company with Lloyd’s Register of


Quality Assurance (LRQA) Australia. It has accredited QA procedures for the
manufacture, assembly, inspection and testing, repair, and supply of its product
and services to the domestic, national, and international mining, rail, earthmoving
and ports industries.

The aim of QA is to ensure only a consistent and conforming product or service is


supplied to the end-user. The criteria on which a conforming and non-conforming
(i.e. pass or fail) nozzle will be judged is described in all Banlaw Pipeline QA
Assembly Inspection and Test Procedures. For the purposes of flow testing, any
fuel leaks detected whilst under flow conditions or a shut-off pressure outside the
specified limits, will constitute a non-conforming product. The cause of the non-
conformance must be corrected and the nozzle retested. Only when the nozzle
has past ALL inspection and test procedures will it be cleared for resale or be
returned into service.

Each authorised Banlaw Pipeline repair agent will be required to observe all
such established QA requirements, to ensure only a consistent and high
standard of product is returned into service.

Attached is data and graphs detailing the line pressure at entry to the nozzle (P1)
initiating nozzle shut-off versus flowrate for the BAM800 series Light,
Light/Medium, Medium, Medium/Heavy and Heavy configured nozzles. The
middle line for each model represents the actual results obtained by Banlaw,
whilst the lines on each side of this line defines the boundaries within which the
nozzle is classified as conforming i.e. test passed. Conversely, any result falling
outside this region constitutes a non-conforming product i.e. test failed.

To ensure accurate and consistent testing is achieved, the test equipment must
be regularly inspected for damage and all measuring equipment calibrated at
least twice yearly (or as specified by the equipment manufacturer). If used the
pressure gauge at point 5 (at entry to nozzle) must be installed into a 2” bore
fitting, with the sampling orifice at the base of the gauge stem level with the
inside surface of the fitting. No fittings are to be placed at least 6 pipe diameters
upstream of the gauge fitting, and at least 2 pipe diameters downstream of the
fitting. Please contact Banlaw Pipeline for further details if required.

As a valued authorised distributor or service agent, Banlaw Pipeline will


endeavour to provide prompt, accurate and comprehensive technical support to
all its agents. Any technical matters that cannot be readily dealt with by the agent
must be referred to Banlaw. This includes assistance with any queries that may
appear as a result of nozzle flow testing. Such practice will ensure all
information supplied to the industry is accurate, factual and current.

T004 – Issue 1 10
Banlaw Pipeline Pty Ltd, as the manufacturer, retains the intellectual property
and manufacturing rights for all its products. Any improper modification to the
operation and design of such product is strictly prohibited, unless prior
authorisation has been received from the manufacturer.

Kind Regards

Adam Peattie
Product & Design Engineer
BANLAW PIPELINE PTY LTD
“Leaders in Global Refuelling Technology”
adam@banlaw.com.au

ATTACHMENTS:

1. Flow test reference curves for B800 series nozzles


2. Flow test reference curves for B1000 series nozzles

T004 – Issue 1 11