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DNS & mail 1997/12/17

Mail System Design
l Domain master
l NULL client
l PPP client
l Back-up mail server
l Firewall and mail server
l Virtual host

Domain Master Domain Master Configuration

l Accepts in addition to
– address part which should be accepted (Important!)
l When sending mail, is set as
the sender address
– domain part of send default
– host name assigned to administrator address
u For mail that should specify computer itself l root, daemon, postmaster, etc.
(i.e. mail from root), is l Accept for multiple domains
preferred – ACCEPT_ADDRS=''
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NULL Client MS PPP Client

l No spooling l Dial-up environment, so not always
l All mail goes to mail server NULL NULL

l IP address is assigned upon connection

– only definition of mail server address is needed
l DNS host name not fixed either

CF_TYPE=R8V7 -null l Not good for internal host name to be public

– mail reply will not be returned
l List addresses that reach mail server only l Sending address of provider mail server is
– enclose with [] (refer to A RR when there ’s lower MX) used
– list [IP address]
5 l Mail receipt is POP (i.e. popclient) 6

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DNS & mail 1997/12/17

PPP Client Configuration Advanced PPP Client

When provider mail server can be used for sending
DIRECT_DELIVER_DOMAINS=none l Rewriting of sender address – conversion of local and contract user name – use of userdb and usertable
CON_EXP=True l Curb sending from non-contracted addresses
tips to not send
SMTP_MAILER_FLAG_ADD=e immediately – use of check_compat rule set
l Accumulate initially at mqueue
l Time out for automatic dial-up
l When connected send altogether with sendmail-q
O DialDelay=15s
l Daemon sendmail launches only with -bd (when
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Back-- up Mail Server (cont.)

Back Back-- up Mail Server (cont’
Back (cont’ d)
l Receives on behalf of 1st-MX during failures
l Share aliases
– operates as 2nd-MX
– use sharing system such as NIS
l If possible, send direct independently of 1st-MX
– also possible to do rdist and newaliases
– share alias files with 1st-MX
– local aliases and shared aliases separated
– accept same addresses
l R8 sendmail can handle multiple-file aliases
l all users l OA/etc/aliases, nis: mail.aliases
l designated users l Problem of ML delivery back-up
SECONDARY_*= – what to do with archive
– those non-designated wait for recovery of 1st-MX
9 – what to do with sequence number 10

Firewall and Name Server Firewall and Name Server

(cont.) (cont’’ d)
l Name server for outside organization l Name server for inside an organization
– When defining Wildcard MX – Methods to hide outside organization addresses
* IN MX 10 l all services are via proxy
l root server is provided within organization
l doesn’t show existence of internal host
to avoid DNS timeout
– Define all existing mail addresses
– Methods to get outside organizations addresses
l method that doesn’t use Wildcard MX with forwarders
l mail that should be an error doesn’t reach gateway
l when direct connection can be established from
inside to outside
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DNS & mail 1997/12/17

Firewall and Mail Server (1) With 1 Mail Server

(To prevent leaking of internal info to outside)
External NS split-brain DNS
Structure of name servers and mail servers external search
(has internal-target zone)
internal delivery
l To cover with 1 mail server external delivery
Mail server
a. Method of referring outside search name server b
with internal-target zone External NS
l split-brain DNS
static delivery rule for internal
b. Method of delivering internal mails according Internet
to set rules internal delivery
external delivery
Mail server
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With 2 Mail Servers

Firewall and Mail Server (2) NS for externalStatic sending rule
NS for internal
l With 2 mail servers
– mail server for referring to external DNS Internet
Mail server
– mail server for referring to internal DNS Mail server
for external
l Formula a for internal
– static route configuration in between b NS for external
NS for internal
l Formula b
– dedicated receiving mail server Send to internal
Mail server for receiving
– dedicated sending mail server Internet

Send to external
Mail server for sending
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Configuration of Mail Server Configuration of Mail Server

for Internal for External
lStatic rule for external delivery l Static rule for internal delivery STATIC_ROUTE_FILE=x.static x.static content:
– mail server for external GW []
# (

– able to accept mail addressed to mail server

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DNS & mail 1997/12/17

With 1 Name Server (1) With 1 Name Server (2)

l To make do with 1 NS and MS each... c. Map internal to separate branch
a. Place first MX facing internal by setting NS l →
– convert address with
inner-host IN MX 10 inner-host
IN MX 20 gw
l direct communication is not possible from outside
d. Multiple daemon launched on 1 server
with 1st-MX; time-out occurs
– stressful for sender, so not recommended l bind external and internal IP address
– External named and internal named
• listen-on, query -source, transfer-source (bind8.1.2)
b. At GW, A RR referred to deliver mails to internal – External sendmail and internal sendmail
inner-host IN A • O DaemonPortOptions=Address=
IN MX 10 gw l configuration of so-called virtual host
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With 1 Name Server (3) With 1 Name Server (4)

l Problems with a, b method l Method b specific configuration
– although direct communication between – sending from gateway to internal
internal and external is impossible,
l static route definition
– internal host information can be seen from l look at A RR
outside – if 1st-MX is itself, adjust behavior
l bind8 allow-query alone is insufficient TRY_NULL_MX_LIST=True (CF)
O TryNullMXList=True (
– if configuration is incorrect
local configuration error will be returned

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Hosts within Gateway Virtual Host (cont.)

l Multiple addresses used on one host
l Everything goes to gateway
DIRECT_DELIVER_DOMAINS=none a) Sharing of user space USERTABLE_MAPS='domain1=hash:/etc/map1 ¥
l Direct delivery internally domain2=hash:/etc/map2' b) Separation of user space (1) – Multiple IP addresses for one host
u For qmail, defined at control/smtproutes – Bind sendmail for each address
O DaemonPortOptions=Address=
– Good to separate environment also with chroot24

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DNS & mail 1997/12/17

Virtual Host (cont’

(cont’ d) System Design Wrap-
Wrap- up
c) Separation of user space (2) l What addresses would be accepted
– Work with
l Switch local mailer with each address
l Choosing sending method by address
– Use separate database from /etc/passwd
– Delivery destination statically defined
– Dedicated service such as POP
– Refer to name server (MX)
l Authenticate user with identifier including domain
Clarify these conditions
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Supplement:useful sendmail
Supplement: To gather mail waiting to send
techniques at one host
l Gather mail waiting to send at one host l Use FallBackMX option
l Reject huge messages – when DNS can’t be checked
l Change process depending on sender – when mail can’t be sent to all MX, transfer mail
to designated host
l Administration etc. of mqueue is easier
l If failed with SMTP, send with UUCP
– adjustment of longest storage life
l Designation of mailer processing sequence
l Route trouble is easier to catch
l Configure ML on personal level

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Change process depending

Reject Huge Messages
on sender address
l When using MaxMessageSize option l Carry out categorization of error mail and
– reject message if surpassing size upon receipt spam at level
– when using ESMTP, size is notified at point of CT root news postmaster MAILER-DAEMON uucp cron
MAIL FROM, so reject there S0
: Envelope sender
l When designating M= in mailer definition
R $* $: $1 $| $>3 $&f
– receive message initially R motonori $| <@> $: trash when <>
– check size immediately before sending R motonori $| $=T<@$*> $: trash review at class T
l due to possibility of different acceptable size range R $* $| $* $: $1
depending on mailer :
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DNS & mail 1997/12/17

If SMTP doesn’
doesn’t work, send with Designation of Mailer Processing
UUCP (3.1W patch) Sequence (3.1W patch)
l Use function to launch multiple mailers l With large-scale ML etc., when local
sequentially delivery processing before SMTP(to oneself,
archive)is preferred
S0 – Designate priority (cost) in mailer definition
: with %=
R $*<>$* $# smtp $@ $: $1<>$2
(space) $# uucp $@ uucp-x $: $1<>$2
Mlocal …, %=0
Msmtp …, %=10 (will be processed after local
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Configure ML on personal
Important sendmail options (1)
l Use CF local deliver function l EightBitMode=pass8
– Not only user@host, user+opt@host also may be – 8bit data that is not MIME may pass through
used l SendMimeErrors
– is also supported – Whether or not to return error notification as
– User can use .forward as well as .forward+opt according to RFC1894 - DSN (Delivery Status
and .forward+default Notification)
– By configuring .forward+ML, can l ConnectionCacheSize
be employed
– Number of SMTP to stay connected
– Reference:Samples/virt-domain+.def
33 – Helpful for run queue 34

Important sendmail options (2) Important sendmail options (3)

l PostMasterCopy l MeToo
– Send header only of error mail to postmaster – Whether or not to send back if sender is included
also in alias deployment
– to prevent fatal troubles before they happen l PrivacyOption
l DoubleBounceAddress – Forbidding of SMTP EXPN, VRFY, etc.
– Destination address in case error mail can’t be l QueueSortOrder
returned to sender – sort sequence of mail accumulated in mqueue
– Take note that body of mail will also be sent – by order of time might be good (order of arrival)
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DNS & mail 1997/12/17

Important sendmail options (4) Important sendmail options (5)

l MinQueueAge l DontBlameSendmail
– Minimum resend interval for mail accumulated – From later half of 8.7, for better host internal
in mqueue security, became stricter towards file modes etc.
– To override when resending manually, use -qI – Designate when you want to ease checks
l ConnectionRateThrottle – Details at -0001/
– Number of receiving connections allowed per l DontProbeInterface
second – prohibits reverse look-up of interface address
– Default is 0 (unlimited) upon launching
– Might be effective against DoS attacks 37 38

Important sendmail options (6)

l Timeout.queuereturn .*
– Maximum time limit for resending mails due to
not reaching destination
– Once exceeded, error is returned to sender
– Consider long holidays when deciding limit
l Timeout.queuewarn .*
– Time until notifying that mail is in resend mode
– Set at 0 when unneeded


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