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Direct Speech this = ini these = ini come = datang here = di sini, ke sini hence = dari sini hither

= ke tempat ini ago = yang lalu now = sekarang today = hari ini tomorrow = besok yesterday = kemarin last night = tadi malam next week = minggu depan thus = begini contoh : He said, I will come here.

Indirect Speech that = itu those = itu go = pergi there = di sana, ke sana thence = dari sana thither = ke tempat itu before = lebih dahulu then = pada waktu itu that day = hari itu next day = hari berikutnya the previous day = sehari sebelumnya the previous night = semalam sebelumnya the following week = minggu berikutnya so = begitu He said that he would go there

Expressions of time if reported on a different day this (evening) that (evening) today yesterday ... these (days) those (days) now then (a week) ago (a week) before last weekend the weekend before last / the previous weekend here there next (week) the following (week) tomorrow the next/following day Expressions of time if reported on a different day Ekspresi waktu jika melaporkan pada hari yang berbeda this (evening) ini malam () > that (evening) bahwa (malam) today hari ini > yesterday ... kemarin ... these (days) ini (hari) > those (days) orang (hari) now sekarang > then kemudian (a week) ago (Seminggu) lalu > (a week) before (Minggu) sebelum the weekend before last / the previous weekend akhir pekan sebelum last weekend terakhir akhir pekan > terakhir / akhir pekan sebelumnya here di sini > there sana next (week) berikutnya (minggu) > the following (week) minggu (berikut) tomorrow besok > the next/following day hari berikut berikutnya /

Peraturan I Kalau reporting verb itu past tense, bentuk waktu kata kerja dalam reported speech itu harus diubah ke dalam salah satu dari empat bentuk past tense 1) Bila reported speech kalimat berita Dengan peraturan ini reporting verb dianggap dalam present atau future tense tertentu dan kapan saja ini terjadi, bentuk waktu dari kata kerja dalam reported speech tidak diubah sama sekali dalam mengubah direct menjadi indirect speech. Reporting verb - Reported speech Present tense - Any tense (bentuk waktu apapun) Direct : She says to her friend, I have been writing .

Indirect : She says to her friend that he has been writing. (tidak berubah) Direct : She has told you, I am reading . Indirect : She has told you that he is reading. (tidak berubah) 2) Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat tanya a) Reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi ask atau inquire. Dengan mengulangi kata tanya dan mengubah tenses jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata tanya diberitakan. Direct Indirect He said to me, Where are you going? He asked me where I was going He said to me, What are you doing? He inquired of me what I was doing b) Dengan menggunakan if atau whether sebagai penghubung antara reporting verb dan reported speech dan mengubah tenses, jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata kerja diberitakan : Direct Indirect He said to me, Are you going He asked me whether I was away today? going away that day. He asked me , can you come along? He asked me if I could come along. 3) Kalimat perintah (imperative sentences) Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat perintah, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang menandakan : command (perintah), misalnya ordered, commanded, dsb yang berarti menyuruh, memerintahkan. precept (petunjuk, bimbingan, didikan), misalnya advised yang berarti menasehati. request (permohonan), misalnya asked yang berarti meminta, memohon. entreaty (permohonan yang sangat mendesak), misalnya begged yang berarti meminta, memohon (dengan sangat). prohibition (larangan), misalnya forbade yang berarti melarang. Dalam perubahannya dari kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, modus imperatif harus diganti dengan infinitif. Tegasnya, reported verb (kata kerja yang diberitakan atau kata kerja dalam reported speech) harus diubah menjadi infinitive with to. a) Command : Direct: He said to his servant, Go away at once! Indirect:He ordered his servant to go away at once b) Precept : Direct: She said to her son, Study hard! Indirect: He advised her son to study hard c) Request : Direct: He said to his friend, Please lend me your pen! Indirect: He asked his friend to be kind enough to lend him his pencil d) Entreaty : Direct: He said to his master, Pardon me, sir Indirect: He begged his master to pardon him. e) Prohibition : Direct: She said to her daughter, Dont go there Indirect: She forbade her daughter to go there Kalau reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi reported verb ask, order, command dsb (tapi jika bukan forbid), predikatnya diubah ke dalam infinitive with to yang didahului oleh not atau no + infinitive with to. Direct: She said to her daughter, Dont go there Indirect: She asked herdaughter not to go there. 4) Kalimat seru (exclamatory sentences) Bilamana reported speech terdiri dari kalimat seru atau kalimat optatif, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang semacam itu seperti exclaim, cry out, pray dsb. a) Exclamatory sentences Direct: He said, Hurrah! My old friend has come Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that his old friend had come. b) Optative sentences (kalimat yang menyatakan harapan, pujian, dsb) Direct: He said, God bless you, my dear son Indirect: He prayed that God would bless his dear son