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Practical outline of Medical Physiology for Nepalese Students

No Contents period
Practical 1 Ⅰ.Introduction of physiological practical 3 hours

Ⅱ. Preparation of sciatic nerve bundle from toad


Ⅲ. Preparation of sciatic nerve- gastrocnemius muscle
Practical 2 Ⅰ. Relationship of contraction form and stimulus 3 hours
frequency in skeleton muscle.

Ⅱ.Relationship of contraction form and stimulus strength


in skeleton muscle
Practical 3 Ⅰ. The recording of compound action potentials from the 3 hours
sciatic nerve bundle of toad.

Ⅱ. The measurement of conduction velocity of action


potential in sciatic nerve bundle of toad
Practical 4 Perfusion of Frog Heart 3 hours
Practical 5 Recording of ECG on human body surface 3 hours

Determination of human arterial blood pressure and


Auscultation of heart sounds
Practical 6 Observation on the pacemakers of toad heart and 3 hours
Premature contraction and compensatory pause
Practical 7 The neural and humoral regulation on cardiovascular 3 hours
activities
Practical 8 Effect on urine formation of different factors 3 hours
Practical 9 Practical 9 O-A-B Blood Typing and Blood Coagulation 3 hours
Tests
Practical 10 Regulation of the Respiration 3 hours
Measurement of Pulmonary Ventilation Function
Practical 11 Depressor nerve discharge and Phrenic nerve discharge 3 hours
Practical12 The functional orientation of cortical motor areas. 3 hours
Decerebrate Rigidity
Practical 13 Mensuration of the reflex time and analysis of the reflex 3 hours
arc.
Practical 14 Ⅰ. The observation of motility in gastrointestinal tract. 3 hours
Ⅱ. The regulation of bile secretion
Practical 15 Practical test 3 hours

Practical outline of physiology


Practical 1. Ⅰ .Introduction of physiological practical
Ⅱ . Preparation of sciatic nerve bundle from toad
Ⅲ . Preparation of sciatic nerve- gastrocnemius muscle

Ⅰ .Objective:
1. The students should master following skills by this experiment:
(1)To prepare a sample of sciatic nerve bundle from toad;
(2)To prepare a sample of sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle from toad;

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(3)To use general apparatus and instruments for amphibian animals;
(4)To write experimental report
2. The students can learn following knowledge by this experiment:
(1)The important significance of physiological practical lessons;
(2)The administrative rules of physiological laboratory;
(3)The anatomy of toad.

Ⅱ . content:
1. To give a brief lecture by instructing teacher about following contents:
(1)The important significance of physiological ptractical lesson;
(2)The administrative rules of physiological laboratory;
(3)The writing of experiment report by showing a example.
2. Following programms are carried out in next time:
(1)To give a operation show about the preparation of sciatic nerve bundle and sciatic nerve-
gastrocnemius muscle from toad by instructing teacher;
(2)To prepare a sample of sciatic nerve bundle from toad by students oneself;
(3)To prepare a sample of sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle from toad by students oneself.

Ⅲ . Homework:
Look around physiological laboratory.

Practical 2. Ⅰ . Relationship of contraction form and stimulus

frequency in skeleton muscle.

Ⅱ .Relationship of contraction form and stimulus

strength in skeleton muscle

Ⅰ . Objective:
1.The students should master following skills by this experiment:
(1)To make a sample of sciatic nerve bundle from toad;
(2)To make a sample of sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle from toad;
(3)To operate BL-410 biology experiment system;
(4)To obtaine a good result of experiment about the different contraction form induced by different
stimulus frequency and different stimulus strength.
2.The students can obtaine the following knowledge by this experiment:
(1)The differnet stages of single contraction in skeleton muscle;
(2)The mechanism of different contraction form induced by different stimulating frequency;
(3)The mechanism of different contraction form induced by different stimulating strength.

Ⅱ .content:

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1. To give a brief lecture about this experiment by instructing teacher;
2. By instructing teacher, showing students how to make a sample of sciatic nerve- gastrocnemius
muscle from toad, how to operate BL-410 biology experiment system, and how to connect
the experiment instruments.
3. To prepare a sample of sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle by students oneself;
4. To observe the different contraction form induced by different stimulating frequency in sciatic
nerve-gastrocnemius muscle;
5. To observe the different contraction form induced by different stimulating strength in sciatic
nerve-gastrocnemius muscle.

Ⅲ .Homework:
Writing experiment report.

Practical 3. Ⅰ . The recording of compound action potentials from

the sciatic nerve bundle of toad.

Ⅱ . The measurement of conduction velocity of action

potential in sciatic nerve bundle of toad

Ⅰ . Objective:
1. The students should master following skills by this experiment:
(1) To prepare a sample of sciatic nerve bundle from toad;
(2)To record compound action potential from sciatic nerve bundle of toad;
(3)To calculate the conduction velocity of action potential by compound action potential recorded
from sciatic nerve bundle of toad.conduction.
2. The students can learn following knowledge by this experiment:
(1) The mechanism of production for compound action potential in sciatic nerve bundle;
(2) The mechanism of conduction for action potential in nervous fiber;
(3)Principles and methods of measurement for conduction velocity of action potential.

Ⅱ . content:
1) To give a brief lecture about this experiment by insturcting teacher;
2) To give a show how to prepare sciatic nerve bundle from toad by instructing teacher;
3) To teach the students how to record and observe compound action petentials;
4) To prepare a sample of sciatic nerve bundle by students oneself;
5) To observe the compound actiion potential recorded from sciatic nerve bundle of toad;
6) To calculate the velocity of conduction of action potential in sciatic nerve bundle of toad.

Ⅲ . Homework:
Completing the experiment report.

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Practical 4. Perfusion of Frog Heart

Ⅰ . Objective:
1. The students should master following skills by this experiment:
(1)To expose and isolate heart from frog;
(2)To carry out ventricular intubation of frog heart;
(3)To carry out perfusion of heart isolated from frog;
(4)To record the contraction force and heart beat frequency in isolated heart.
2. The students can learn following knowledge by this experiment:
(1) The structure and anatomy of frog heart;
(2) The different stages of ventricular contraction of frog heart;
(3)The effects of preload on the contractility of frog heart;
(4)The effects of ion concentration on the contractility and beat frequency of the heart;
(5)The effects of nervous and hormonal factors on the contractility and beat frequency of the
heart.
Ⅱ . content:
1.To give a brief lecture about this experiment by instructing teacher;
2. To give a show how to intubate cannula of frog heart and how to isolate heart from frog body;
3. To show the students how to connect the instruments and how to record the contraction cerve of
the heart;
4.To carry out intubation and isolation of heart by students oneself;
5. To observe the contractility and beat frequency of the heart by BL-410 Biology Experiment
System and the changes induced by various factors.

Ⅲ .Homework:
writing the experiment report

Practical 5 . Recording of ECG on human body surface


I. Objective:
1.Learn the recording method of human ECG.
2.Be able to recognize the main waves and segments of normal ECG and understand
their physiological significance.
3.Become familiar with the basic method of measuring and analyzing the main waves
and segments of ECG.

II. Content:
1.The usage of ECG recorder.
2.Connection of the lead cables and the placement of electrodes on the body.
3.Recording of standard 12 lead ECG.
4.Measurement of amplitude and time of the main waves and segments of ECG.
III. Homework:
1.Review the normal ECG and its physiological significance.
2.Explain the relationship between the electrical activities and mechanical activities of
the heart.

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Practical 5 . Determination of human arterial blood pressure and

Auscultation of heart sounds


I. Objective:
1.Learn the usage of sphygmomanometer and stethoscope.
2.Master the normal value of systolic and diastolic pressure measured in humeral
artery, and know well the mechanism of heart sound occurrence.
3.Understand the mechanism of indirectly measuring human blood pressure with a
sphygmomanometer.

II. Content:
1.Study the structure and the usage of sphygmomanometer and stethoscope.
2.Measure the humeral arterial pressure with a sphygmomanometer using palpitatory
and auscultatory method.
3.Listen to and differentiate the heart sounds (esp. heart sound 1 and 2) on human
chest with a stethoscope.

III. Homework:
1.Explain the relationship between true arterial pressure and blood pressure as
measured with a sphygmomanometer
2.Explain the relationship between the heart sounds and the cardiac cycle.
2.Elucidate the determinants of arterial blood pressure.

Practical 6 . Observation on the pacemakers of toad heart and

Premature contraction and compensatory pause


I. Objective:
1.Master the concepts of normal pacemaker, latent and ectopic pacemaker, and
premature beat and compensatory pause.
2.Know well the different pacemaker rate in different parts of the heart.
3.Learn the recording method of heart beat curve of toad in vivo.
4.Observe the changes of myocardium excitability during the excitation of the heart.

II. Content:
1.Open the chest of toad, make the heart uncovered, and observe the heart beat rate of
different parts in a normal toad heart
2.Observe the heart beat rate of different parts under the conditions of having a
ligature between venous sinus and atria (semilunar thread) or around
atrioventricular boundary of the toad heart.
3.Record the heart beat curve in normal state.
4.Observe the changes of heart beat curve, and the premature contraction and
compensatory pause after giving effective stimulus (above the threshold) at different
time points (systole, early, middle and late diastole).
III. Homework:
1.Elucidate how to testify that the myocardium has a prolonged refractory period and

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explain its physiological significance.
2.Explain how to generate the compensatory pause.
2.Explain the relationship between the action potential and myocardial contraction curve.

Practical 7. The regulation of neural and humoral factors on

cardiovascular activities
I. Objective:
1.Learn the direct recording of blood pressure in mammal animal.
2.Observe how the neural and humoral factors and adrenergic receptor blockades affect the
cardiovascular activities.
2. Master the technical manipulation animal anesthesia, fixing, carotid common artery
cannula and trachea cannula operation.
3.Master the methods of recognizing and separating the carotid common artery, vagus,
sympathetic nerve, depressor nerve and visceral nerve.
4.Know well the usage of BioLab System.

II. Content:
1.Anethesia and fixing of animal (rabbit).
2.Preparation of animal.
(1) Separate the carotid common artery and nerve in the neck.
(2) Separate visceral nerve.
(3) Put the heparinized cannula (connected to blood pressure transducer at one end)
into carotid common artery, then connect the transducer to BioLab System.
3.Preparation of BioLab System.
4.Observe the effects of neural and humoral factors and adrenergic receptor blockades on
blood pressure and other cardiovascular activities.
III. Homework:
1. Write the experiment report.
2.Explain the neural and humoral control of the circulation.

Practical 8 Effect on urine formation of different factors


I. Objective:
1. to learn and master the catheterization to the urine bladder;
2. to observe the effects of different factors on urine formation.

II. Content:
1. to anaesthetize the rabbit, prepare the operation and dissect the vagus;
2. to connect the apparatus fot the experiment ;
3. to administrate the below different factors and observe the change of urine formation:
(1)to observe the normal blood pressure;
(2)to inject 25% glucose 5ml intravenously into a marginal ear vein;
(3)to stimulate the vagus with an electric stimulation;

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(4)to inject norepinephrine(1:10000) 1ml intravenously into a marginal ear vein at the
dose of 0.25mg/kg;
(5)to inject furosemide intravenously into a marginal ear vein at the dose of 5mg/kg;
(6)to inject vasopressin intravenously into a marginal ear vein at the dose of 2u/kg;
III. Homework:
1. to please write down the procedure of the manipulation in the experiment.
2.to explain the cause of urine volume change.

Practical 9. Determination of Blood Groups and Blood Coagulation


I. Objective:
⒈The students will learn the following methods:
⑴Blood groups
⑵Determining of Bleeding Time
⑶Determining of Clotting Time
⒉The students will be acquaint with the influencing factors of blood coagulation.
II.Content:
⒈ Blood groupsg
⑴Preparation of the red blood cells dilution
⑵One portion Mixed with anti-A agglutinin, another portion with anti-B agglutinin
⑶Observation of the mixtures under a microscope
⒉Determining of Bleeding Time
Piercing the tip of the finger or lobe of the ear, then record the bleeding time
⒊Determining of Clotting Time
Collecting blood in a glass test tube, then tip the tube back and forth about every 30 seconds
until the blood has clotted.
⒋ the influence factors of blood coagulation.
Observation the change of clotting time caused by heparin, oxalate compounds, sodium
citrate
III. Homework:
⒈Please write the experiment report
⒉Analyzing why oxalate compounds and sodium citrate can change the clotting time

Practical 10 Regulation of the Respiration


I. Objective
1. Learn how to use BL-410 Biology Experiment System,
2. Observe the effects of some factors on respiration.
II. Content:
1.weigh, anesthetize, fix
2.operation :poodle cervical part, slit the skin, insert tracheal intubation(lifesaver), separate vagus

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nerve in both side, and exposure appendix ensiformis
3. observation item
(1) tracing eupnea curve.
(2) augment anatomical dead space
(3) increase PCO2
(4) increase Hydrogen Ions

(5)vagus nerve
III. Homework:
1. Write the experiment report.
2. Explain the cause of respiration change.
Measurement of Pulmonary Ventilation Function
I. Objective:
1.measure the pulmonary ventilation by the spirometer
2.calculate the normal ventilatory capacity.
II. Content:
⒈ The usage of spirometer
⒉ Practise using spirometer and evaluate the tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory
reserve volume and vital capacity
3.Time vital capacity.
4. Maximal ventilatory volume
III. Homework:
⒈ Write the experiment report.
⒉ calculate the normal ventilatory capacity.
⒊ discuss the theory

Practical 11 Observation of discharges by depressor and Phrenic

nerve
I. Objective
1.Learn how to record the discharges by depressor and phrenic nerve in vivo.
2.Observe the frequency of afferent impulse by depressor nerve and efferent impulse by phrenic
nerve,.
3.Learn how to separate the depressor nerve and phrenicus nerve .
II. Content:
1.weigh, anesthetize, fix
2.operation: separate vagus ,depressor and,phrenic nerve .
3. place the recording electrodes.
4. Observation:
(1)discharge of depressor nerve
observe the character of discharges by depressor nerve

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inject 1:10000 noradrenaline 0.2-0.3mL by the vein in the edge of ear.
(2)discharges of phrenic nerve
observe the character of phrenic nerve discharges.
increase PCO2
inject nikethamide 1mL by the vein in the edge of ear.
break the vagus , then observe the changes.
III. Homework:
1.Write the experiment report.
2.discuss character of discharges by phrenic and depressor nerve..

Practical 12. The functional orientation of cortical motor areas.

Decerebrate Rigidity
I. Objective:
1. Master the concept, causes, and effect of the body’s movement on cortical motor areas by
electriostimulation.
2. Master the mechanism of the decerebrate rigidity.
3. Know well the regulation roles of the body’s movement to stimulate the cortical motor areas.
4. Acquaint with the structure of midbrain.
5. Understand the use of stimulator
II. Content:
1. Study how to weigh, anesthesia, and fix the animals.
2. Make trachea cannula operation, skull operation and transversed brainstem operation.
3. Study to use electrode and stimulator.
4. Study to observe and how to determine the cortical motor areas.
Ⅲ . Homework:
1. Write the experiment report.
2. Explain the cause, effect of the decerebrate animal.
3. Describe the change of the body’s movement on stimulating the different cortical motor areas.

Practical 13. Measurement of the reflex time and analysis of the

reflex arc
I. Objective:
Master the measurement method of the reflex time.
Know well the relation between stimulating intensity and reflex time.
Know well the concept of the reflex time and the reflex arc.
II. Content:
1. Study how to make spinal frog.
2. Study to observe the changes of spinal shock.
3. Study to observe the time of the recovery of the spinal animal.
4. Study to analysis method of the reflex arc.

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Ⅲ . Homework:
1. Write the experiment report.
2. Explain the cause, mechanism and effect of the spinal animal.
3. Describe the composition of the reflex arc.

Practical 14. Ⅰ . The observation of motility in gastrointestinal tract.

Ⅱ . The regulation of bile secretion

Ⅰ . Objective:
1. The students should master following skills by this experiment:
(1) To carry out a experimental laparotomy in a rabbit;
(2)To carry out a intubation in bilary duct in a rabbit.
2. The students can learn following knowledge by this experiment:
(1)To discriminate the different parts and organs of gastrointestinal tract in rabbit;
(2)To explore the mechanism of bile secretion;
(3)To know the effects of nervous and hormonal factors on secretion of bile.

Ⅱ . content:
1. To give a brief lecture about this experiment by instructing teacher;
2. To give a show how to prepare animal model for this experiment in a rabbit;
3. To prepare the animal model by students using rabbit;
4. To observe and record the change of bile secretion induced by different factors.
Ⅲ . Home work:
Writing the experiment report

Practical 15. Practical test

Ⅰ. Objective:
1. To examine the operation ability of students for physiological practical study;
2. To evaluate the level of students in learning and completing practical class.

Ⅱ . Test content:
All the practical contents carried out in physiological curriculum.

Ⅲ . Test method:
Determine the test subject for every student randomly.

Ⅳ .Test place:
Physiological laboratory.

Ⅴ .Test time:

10
4 hours.

Ⅵ . Scoring method:
To give marks according to pratical operation and the experimental results. Total marks 100.

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