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Th e Curr icu lum Ou tli ne of

Le mol ogy
(Temporary Edition)

Department of Lemology

Weifang Medical University

Teaching contents and time distribution (to see table 1)

Table 1 teaching contents and time distribution

(1 class hour = 40 minutes)


Chapter Content Theory Practice
(class hour) (class hour)

Chapter 1 Pandect
4 6

Chapter 2 Virus infection


26 14

Chapter 3 Rickettsiosis
4 2

Chapter 4 Bacterium Infection


16 8

Chapter 5 Leptospira Infection


2 2

Chapter 6 Protozoa Infection


4 2

Chapter 7 Worm Infection


4 2

Chapter 8 Case discussion


10

Chapter 9 Teaching film and VCD


2

Total
72 36

The Curriculum Outline of Lemology

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Instruction to lemology
As we know, lemology is an important discipline of clinical

medicine. It emphasizes particularly on the investigation of etiology,

pathogenesis, clinical manifestation and diagnosis of contagious and

epidemic diseases. Consequently demands more effective prevention and

cure measures. It also provides a platform to learn and grasp knowledges

for other clinical courses.

Requirements and contents of theory teaching


Chapter 1 Pandect
Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the manifestations of communicable course and basic agents of

epidemic course.

2.Master the basic characteristic, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of

communicable diseases.

3.Know well the definition of infection, communicable diseases and

Lemology.

4.Know well the study extent of lemology and pathogenesis of

communicable diseases.

5.Understand the status in quo and achievements in treatment and

prevention of communicable diseases.

3
Time Distribution: 4class hours

Contents:

Section 1 Infection and Immunity

1.Emphasis on the definition of infection.

2.Introduction in details the manifestations of communicable course:

pathogen eradication, covert infection, overt infection, carrier state, latent

infection.

Section 2 Pathogenesis of Communicable Diseases.

1.General introduction the occurrence and development of communicable

diseases. Common characteristics: invasion pathway, colonization in

body, output pathway.

2.Emphasis on the pathogenesis of tissue injury: direct injury, toxin,

immunoreaction.

3.Emphasis on the impotant pathophysiological changes: fever,

metabolism disorder, water-electrolyte disorder, endocrine disturbance.

Section 3 The Epidemic Course and Influence Factors of

Communicable Diseases

1.Emphasis on the basic agents of epidemic course: source of infection,

route of transmission, susceptible person.

2.General introduction the influence factors: natural factors, social

factors.

Section 4 The Characteristics of Communicable Diseases

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1.Emphasis on the basic characteristics: pathogen, infectivity,

epidemiologic feature, postinfection immunity.

2.Introduction in details the clinical characteristics:

(1)The four periods: incubation period, prodromal period, period of

apparent manifestation, convalescent period.

(2)General symptoms and signs: fever, skin eruption, toxemic symptoms,

(3)Clinical types.

Section 5 The Diagnosis of Communicable Diseases

1.Emphasis on the contents and values of clinical data.

2.Emphasis on the significant status of epidemiologic data in the

diagnosis of communicable diseases.

3.Emphasis on the special significance of laboratory examinations in the

diagnosis of communicable diseases. Including general laboratory

examination, pathogen test, molecular biology test, immune test and

other test.

Section 6 The Treatment of Communicable Diseases

1.Emphasis on the treatment principles.

2.General introduction the treatment methods: general treatment,

supportive care, pathogen treatment and symptomatic treatment.

Section 7 The Prevention of Communicable Diseases

1.Emphasis on the management of source of infection.

2.General introduction the methods to cut off the route of transmission.

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3.General introduction the methods to protect the susceptible person.

Chapter 2 Virus Infection


Section 1 Viral Hepatitis

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the clinical manifestations,types,diagnosis,differential diagnosis

and treatment of viral hepatitis.

2.Know well the etiology,pathogenesis and pathophysiology of viral

hepatitis.

3.Know well the prevention of viral hepatitis.

4.Understand the Status in quo and epidemiologic feature.

Time Distribution: 4class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the overview.

2.Etiology:emphasis on the features of all types of hepatitis virus,

especially hepatitis A\B\C virus.

3.Epidemiology:general introduction the transmission route and

epidemiologic feature.

4.General introduction the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis A and B, and the

role of immunoreaction in viral hepatitis B.

5.General introduction the pathological feature of viral hepatitis.

6.Emphasis on the pathophysiology: jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy,

hemorrhage, hepato-renal syndrome, ascites.

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7.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations.

8.General introduction the complications and prognosis.

9.Emphasis on the etiological diagnosis, clinical diagnosis and

differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis.

10.Emphasis on the treatment and prevention of viral hepatitis.

11. Case discussion: 2 class hours

Section 2 Varicella

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the clinical manifestation and treatment of varicella.

2.Know well the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of varicella.

Time Distribution: 1class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology:The feature of varicella-zoster virus.

2.Emphasis on the epidemiology:source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathological feature.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation stage,

prodromal stage (sudden nonspecific flu-like illness), eruptive

stage(characteristic rash).

5.Emphasis on the complications: meningitis, pneumonia, hepatitis and

carditis, etc.

6.General introduction the laboratory examinations.

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7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: clinical features ,

blood routine and specific examinations.

8.Emphasis on the treatment: supportive care, symptomatic treatment,

antiviral treatment.

Section 3 Epidemic Encephalitis B

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the diagnosis and treatment of epidemic encephalitis B.

2.Know well the pathogenesis and pathological features of epidemic

encephalitis B.

3.Understand the etiology and epidemiologic features.

Time Distribution: 4class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: the features and resistances of

encephalitis B virus.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: including each stage

and all clinical types.

5.General introduction the complications and sequela.

6.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations:

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Tentative diagnosis(1)Antibody titer: HI, IFA, CF, ELISA.(2)JE-specific

IgM in serum or CSF.

Definitive diagnosis(virus isolation: CSF sample, brain).

7.Introduction in details the diagnosis and differential diagnosis:

epidemiologic data, clinical features and laboratory examinations.

8.General introduction the prognosis: influence factors and death causes.

9.Emphasis on the treatment: no specific treatment(supportive care).

10.General introduction the prevention measures.

11. Case discussion: 2 class hours

Section 4 Rabies

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the clinical manifestation of rabies in different course.

2.Know well the pathogenesis, diagnosis , differential diagnosis and

treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: the feature of rabies virus(wild virus

and fixed virus).

2.Emphasis on the epidemiology: source of infection(wild animals with

rabies virus infected ),route of transmission(bite),susceptible person(all

persons).

3.General introduction the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

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4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation stage,

prodromal stage, furious period and paralytic period.

5.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: general test(blood routine

and CSF), serological test and pathogen test(Negri body).

6.Introduction in details the diagnosis and differential diagnosis:history of

biting,clinical features and specific examinations.Viral meningitis,tetanus

and poliomyelitis should be distinguished.

7.Prognosis: the mortality will be 100%.

8.General introduction the treatment: no effective etiological treatment.

9.Emphasis on prophylaxis: wound care, immunization and so on.

Section 5 Influenza

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the influenza virus’ s types, variance, pandemic feature and

clinical manifestation.

2.Know well the prophylaxis and treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.Emphasis on the influenza virus’s types and variance.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection(patients),

route of transmission(saliva by sneezing and coughing), susceptible

person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathological feature.

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4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation stage,

typical clinical features or pneumonia.

5.General introduction the laboratory examination: isolation of influenza

virus.

6.General introduction the complications.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

8. Emphasis on prophylaxis and the treatment: avoiding contact with an

infected person, antiviral agent and symptomatic care.

Section 6 SARS

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the etiology and epidemiology.

2.Know well the pathogenesis, pathological feature and prophylaxis.

3.Master the clinical manifestations and treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.Definition.

2.General introduction the etiology: the structure, characteristic and

resistance of SARS virus.

3.Emphasis on the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person.

4.General introduction the pathogenesis and pathological feature.

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5.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation stage,

typical clinical feature(fever and severe acute respiratory syndrome

) or no evident positive signs.

6.General introduction the laboratory examination: general test(blood

routine),pathogen test, and radiology.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

8.Emphasis on the treatments: antiviral agent, symptomatic care, immune

therapy, adrenal steroid and so on.

9.Emphasis on prophylaxis.

10. Case discussion: 1 class hours

Section 7 Mumps

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the typical clinical manifestations and complications.

2.Know well the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment.

Time Distribution: 1class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: the characteristic of mumps virus.

2.Emphasis on the epidemiology: the epidemiologic feature .Source of

infection, route of transmission, susceptible person.

3.General introduction the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation stage,

overall infectious symptoms (prodrome of fever, headache, muscle pain

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and malaise, followed by swelling and pain in the parotid glands, can

have erythema and swelling of Stensen’s duct).

5.Introduction in details the complications: meningoencephalomyelitis

,orchitis , oophoritits and pancreatitis,etc.

6.General introduction the laboratory examinations: viral culture of

saliva, throat, blood, urine or CSF, elevation of serum amylase, ELISA

for IgM and IgG antibodies.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. It should be

distinguished from tooth infection, cervical adenitis, CMV, enterovirus,

coxsackie virus, salivary calculus, leukemia, HIV and so on.

8.Prognosis: mostly good.

9. Emphasis on the treatment: supportive care.

Section 8 measles

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the typical clinical manifestations and complications.

2.Master the diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

3.Know well the epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathological feature.

4.Understand the etiology.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: the characteristic and resistance of

measles virus.

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2.Emphasis on the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person, the epidemiologic feature.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathological feature.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation stage, the

clinical manifestations of typical measles and nontypical measles.

5.Introduction in details the complications: pneumonia, carditis,

encephalitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

6.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: rise in IgM antibody titers,

multinucleated cells in nasal mucosal smears during prodromal stage.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: the epidemiologic

data and typical clinical manifestations. It should be distinguished from

rubella, scarlet fever, drug rash and so on.

8.General introduction the prognosis.

9.Introduction in details the treatments: supportive care, prevention and

treatment of complications.

10.Emphasis on the prevention.

Section 9 Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the pathogenesis and pathological feature.

2.Master the clinical manifestations and early diagnosis.

3.Know well the differential diagnosis with other diseases.

4.Master the treatment principles and the time to apply these treatments.

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Time Distribution: 4class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: the overview, conformation,

serological types.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person, immunity, the epidemiologic feature.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation stage, the

symptoms and signs of five stages(febrile phase, hypotensive phase,

oliguric phase, diuretic phase and convalescent phase),the clinical types.

5.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: blood routine, urine routine,

blood biochemistry tests and immune tests.

6.Emphasis on the complications.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: the epidemiologic

data , typical clinical manifestations and laboratory findings.

8.Emphasis on the treatments: the treatment principles.

9.Introduction in details the treatment: supportive care, prevention and

treatment of complications.

10.General introduction the prevention.

11. Case discussion: 2 class hours

Section 10 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Purposes and Requirements:

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1.Master the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of AIDS.

2.Know well the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

3.Understand the etiology. Know well the epidemiology.

4.Understand the treatment principles . Master the prevention.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology.

2.Emphasis on the epidemiology.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathological feature: cellular

immune dysfunction, host immunosuppression, opportunistic infections,

neoplasmas, and other life-theatening manifestations.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation stage,

acute infection, asymptomatic infection, persistent generalized

lymphadenopathy, symptomatic AIDS disease.

5.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: blood routine, immune

tests, pathogen tests, other examinations.

6.Emphasis on the diagnosis: the epidemiologic history, clinical

manifestations, evidences in laboratory, special examinations.

7.General introduction the treatments: general treatment, antiretroviral

therapy, immune therapy and gene therapy, treatment for opportunistic

infections.

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8.Emphasis on the prevention: control sources infection, protect

susceptible population, block routes of transmission.

Section 11 Poliomyelitis

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the clinical manifestations.

2.Master the diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

3.Know well the pathogenesis.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the overview: definition, achievements in

treatment and prevention.

2.General introduction the etiology: the characteristics of virus, the

relationship with other enteroviruses.

3.Emphasis on the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person, immunity, the epidemiologic feature.

4.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

5.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations.

6.General introduction the complications.

7.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: cerebrospinal fluid routine,

virus isolation, serology test.

8.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

9.Emphasis on the treatments.

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10.Introduction in details the prevention measures: oral poliovirus

vaccine, intramuscular poliovirus vaccine.

Chapter 3 Rickettsiosis
Section 1 Epidemic Typhus

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the etiology and epidemiologic feature.

2.Understand the pathogenesis and pathological changes.

3.Master the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

4.Know well the treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: the characteristic of Rickettsia

prowazeki.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person and the epidemiologic feature.

3.General introduction the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations, clinical types and

complications.

5.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: blood routine, serology test,

pathogen isolation.

6.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

7.Emphasis on the treatments: pathogen treatment and supportive care.

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8.General introduction the prevention measures: proper hygiene, to

exterminate the pediculus.

Section 2 Endemic Typhus

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the differentiation of Rickettsia prowazeki and Rickettsia

mooseri.

2.Know well the similarities and differences of endemic typhus and

epidemic typhus.

Time Distribution: 1class hours

Contents:

Emphasis on the similarities and differences of endemic typhus and

epidemic typhus in etiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics,

treatment and prevention(reference to epidemic typhus).

Section 3 Tsutsugamushi Disease

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the diagnosis.

2.Know well the pathogen treatment.

Time Distribution: 1class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: orientia tsutsugamushi.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person and the epidemiologic feature.

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3.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations.

4.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: blood routine, serology test ,

pathogen isolation.

5.Emphasis on the diagnosis: the epidemiologic data, clinical features,

and evidences in laboratory.

6.Introduction in details the treatments: pathogen treatment and

supportive care.

7.General introduction the prevention measures.

Chapter 4 Bacterium Infection


Section 1 Scarlet Fever

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the etiology, epidemiology and prevention.

2.Master the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment.

Time Distribution: 1class hours

Contents:

1.Overview.

2.General introduction the etiology: group A-βhemolytic streptococcus.

3.Emphasis on the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person , immunity and the epidemiologic

feature.

4.General introduction the pathogenesis and pathological changes.

20
5.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations: incubation period,

prodromal period, eruption period, convalescent period. Clinical types.

6.Emphasis on the complications.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

8.Introduction in details the treatments: general treatment, pathogen

treatment and complication treatment.

9.General introduction the prevention measures: control sources

infection, protect susceptible population, block routes of transmission.

Section 2 Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the etiology , epidemiologic feature.

2.Know well the pathogenesis and pathological changes.

3.Master the diagnosis , differential diagnosis and treatments.

Time Distribution: 4class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: the characteristics and types of

neisseria meningitidis.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person , immunity and the epidemiologic

feature.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

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4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations and clinical

characteristics.

5.General introduction the complications and sequelas.

6.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: blood routine, cerebrospinal

fluid test, bacterium test and immune test.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: the epidemiologic

data, clinical features, and evidences in laboratory.

8.Introduction in details the treatments: general treatment, pathogen

treatment and complication treatment.

9.General introduction the prevention measures: control sources

infection, protect susceptible population, block routes of transmission.

10. Case discussion: 1 class hours

Section 3 Typhoid Fever and Paratyphoid Fever

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Know well the etiology, pathogenesis and pathological changes.

2.Master the diagnosis,the significance of widal reaction and

complications.

3.Master the pathogen treatment and complication treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.Emphasis on the etiology.

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2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person, immunity and the epidemiologic

feature.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations and clinical

characteristics: incubation period, prodromal period, period of apparent

manifestation, remission period, convalescent period, relapse and

recrudescence.

5.Introduction in details the laboratory examinations: blood routine,

culture of S.typhi(blood, bone marrow, stool, urine, bile, rose spot), the

significance of widal reaction.

6.Emphasis on the complications: intestinal bleeding, intestinal

perforation, hemolysis uremia syndrome, toxic hepatitis, toxic

myocarditis, brochitis and bronchopneumonia.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: the epidemiologic

data, clinical features, and evidences in laboratory.

8.Emphasis on the treatments: general treatment and nursing, anti-

bacterial therapy and the treatment of major complications.

9.General introduction the prevention.

Section 4 Bacillary Dysentery

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the types and characteristics of genus shigellae.

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2.Know well the etiology.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: pathogenesis.

3.Master the diagnosis and treatment .

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person, immunity and the epidemiologic

feature.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations and clinical

characteristics: acute bacillary dysentery and chronic bacillary dysentery.

5.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: blood routine, stool test,

pathogen test, immune test.

6.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

7.Emphasis on the treatments and prevention.

8.General introduction the difference between bacillary dysentery and

typhoid fever.

Section 5 Cholera

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Know well the etiology, epidemiology and pathogenesis.

2.Master the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment.

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Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.Emphasis on the etiology: Vibrio cholerae’s biotypes and biologic

features.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person, immunity and the epidemiologic

features.

3.Emphasis on the nosogenesis of vibrio cholerae and pathoanatomy

characteristic.

4.Introduction in details the clinical manifestations and different clinical

course features.

5.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: blood routine, urine and stool

test, pathogen test and vibrio cholerae cultured.

6.General introduction the complications.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: understand the

importance of epidemiology, clinical manifestations and the significance

of various laboratory tests in the diagnosis of this disease. The disease

should be distinguished from bacillary dysentery, bacterial food

poisoning and so on.

8.Emphasis on the treatments: general treatment, anti-bacterial therapy

and the treatment of major complications.

9.General introduction the prevention.

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10. Case discussion: 1 class hours

Section 6 Bacterial Food Poisoning

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Master the different clinical types’ features.

2.Know well the treatments.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the definition and classifications.

2.General introduction several nosogenetic germs (salmonella, E coli and

so on).

3.General introduction the epidemiology. Emphasis on the epidemiologic

features. pathoanatomy characteristic.

4.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy..

5.Introduction in details different clinical manifestations and laboratory

examinations. General introduction the differential diagnosis.

6.Emphasis on the treatment and prevention.

Section 7 Pertussis

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the etiology, epidemiology,pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

2.Master the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.

3.Know well the prevention.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

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Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: bordetella pertussis’s biologic

features.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person and immunity.

3.General introduction the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

4.Introduction in details clinical manifestations: catarrhal stage(cough,

coryza and conjunctivitis), paroxysmal stage(coughing spasms with an

inspiratory whoop, post-tussive emesis, cyanosis, sweating, facial

petechiae) and convalescent recovery(decreasing frequency of

symptoms).

5.Emphasis on the complications: pneumonia,atelectasis,otitis media,

apnea, seizures, pneumothorax, encephalopathy, death.

6.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: diagnosis was

always made by history (especially incomplete vaccinations),

leukocytosis, respiratory culture or direct fluorescent antibody test. The

disease should be distinguished from bacterial, chlamydial, tuberculous

or viral pneumonia and so on.

7.Introduction in details the treatments: supportive care, hospitalization

for patients at risk for severe disease and erythromycin shortens period of

communicability were all required.

8.General introduction the prevention.

27
Section 8 Brucellosis

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Know well the pathogenesis.

2.Master the diagnosis and treatment.

Time Distribution: 1class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: Brucella’s biologic features.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy: cyclical fever’s

origin and so on.

4.Introduction in details clinical manifestations: incubation stage, acute

stage and chronic stage.

5.Introduction in details the diagnosis and differential diagnosis:

diagnosis was always made by history, isolation of organism(blood, bone

marrow, other tissues), serum agglutination test and immunofluorescence

of organism in clinical specimen. The disease should be distinguished

from rheumatic fever, tuberculosis and so on.

6.Emphasis on the treatment and prevention: combination therapy has the

best efficacy. CNS cases should be treated for 6-9 months, the same for

endocarditis cases plus surgical replacement of valve.

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Chapter 5 Leptospira Infection
Section 1 Leptospirosis

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the etiology and epidemiology.

2.Know well the pathogenesis.

3.Master the diagnosis and treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: leptospires’ morphology and

classfication.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection (apodemus,

agarius, pigs, dogs and humans), route of transmission(exposure to the

contaminated water and soil, ingest the contaminated water and food or

direct contact with infected animal tissues and organs), susceptible

person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy: infectious-toxic

lesion of the systemic capillary was typical.

4.Introduction in details the different clinical manifestations: type of mild

hemorrhage, type of severe hemorrhage, type of ieterohemorrhage, type

of meningitis and encephalitis and type of renal failure.

5.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: diagnosis was

always made by informations of epidemiology, clinical feature and data

29
of laboratory(examination of peripheral blood, blood culture and

microscopic agglutination test). The disease should be distinguished from

typhoid fever, tuberculosis and so on.

6.Emphasis on the treatment: etiologic treatment, symptomatic treatment,

treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage or treatment of type of

icterohemorrhage.

7.General introduction prevention.

Chapter 6 Protozoa Infection


Section 1 Amebiasis

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand the morphology and virulence of entamoeba histolytica.

2.Know well the pathogenesis.

3.Master the diagnosis, complications and treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

(一 )Intesfinal Amebiasis

1.General introduction the etiology: cyst or trophozoite’ morphology and

resistant power.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy: blood in stool,

recruitment of inflammatory cells to lesion, invasion of colonic

30
mucosa/lysis of mucosal epithelium, thickening of mucosa and so on.

4.Introduction in details different clinical course manifestation.

5.Emphasis on the complications: intestinal haemorrhage or perforation ,

appendicitis and so on.

6.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: diagnosis was

always made by information of multiple stool specimens(characteristic

cyst in stool, trophozoites containing blood cells, anti-amebic antibodies

(Immuno-assays) and antigen detection in feces).The disease should be

distinguished from typhoid fever, tuberculosis and so on.

7.Emphasis on the treatment: etiologic treatment and complications

treatment.

(二 )Hepatic Amebiasis

1.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy: amebic liver abscess

can occur in asymptomatic individuals.

2.Introduction in details clinical course manifestation: fever, liver pain,

liver abscess and so on.

3.Emphasis on the complications.

4.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: diagnosis was

always made by information of history, ultrasonic exam, liver biopsy. The

disease should be distinguished from bacterial liver abscess, liver cancer

and so on.

5.Emphasis on the treatment: etiologic treatment and complications

31
treatment.

Section 2 Malaria

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Know well plasmodium’s life cycle and the pathogenesis.

2.Master the diagnosis and treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.Introduction in details plasmodium’s life cycle and the etiology.

2.General introduction the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy: the species and

amounts are determining factors. Basic pathogenesis was the

microvascular congestion.

4.Introduction in details the different clinical manifestations: cerebral

malaria, black water fever, gastroenteritis, pulmonary edema, transfusion

malaria and so on.

5.Emphasis on complications: black water fever and nephritis.

6.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: diagnosis was

always made by finding plasmodium. The disease should be distinguished

from typhoid & paratyphoid fever, septicemia and so on.

7.Emphasis on the treatments: extermination the plasmodium in

erythrocytic phase to control episode, extermination the plasmodium in

32
exoerythrocytic stage to prevent relapse, extermination the gametophyte

to prevent transmission.

8.General introduction prevention.

Chapter 7 Worm Infection


Section 1 Schistosomiasis Japonica

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Know well S. japonica’s life cycle, the epidemiology, pathogenesis and

pathoanatomy.

2.Master the clinical manifestations.

3.Know well the treatment.

Time Distribution: 2class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction S. japonica’s life cycle.

2.Emphasis on the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy: cercarial dermatitis,

serum sickness-like syndrome, egg granulomas, splenomegaly, ascites

and so on.

4.Introduction in details the different clinical manifestations according to

the acute schistosomiasis and chronic schistosomiasis.

5.Introduction in details the complications: hepatic encephalopathy,

infection and so on.

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6.Emphasis on the laboratory examinations: general test(blood routine

and hepatic function), radialization exam and pathogen test.

7.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: diagnosis was

always made by information of history, pathogen test, radialization exam

.The disease should be distinguished from typhoid & paratyphoid fever,

amebic liver abscess and so on.

8.Introduction in details the treatment: etiologic treatment, general

treatment and complications treatment.

9.General introduction prevention.

Section 2 Cysticercosis

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Understand cysticercus’s life cycle and the morphology.

2. Know well the epidemiology.

3. Master the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment.

Time Distribution: 1class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the cysticercus’s life cycle and the morphology.

2.Emphasis on the epidemiology: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person.

3.Emphasis on the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy: brain, eye and other

infectious position.

4.Introduction in details different clinical manifestations.

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5.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: diagnosis was

always made by information of history, pathogen test, tissue biopsy and

radialization exam. The disease should be distinguished from falling

sickness, other encephalitis and so on.

6.Introduction in details the treatment: etiologic treatment, general

treatment and surgical treatment.

7.General introduction prevention.

Section 3 Lung Fluke Infection

Purposes and Requirements:

1.Know well the epidemiology.

2.Master the clinical manifestations and diagnosis.

3.Understand the treatment.

Time Distribution:1class hours

Contents:

1.General introduction the etiology: paragonimus’s life cycle and the

morphology.

2.Emphasis on the epidemic features: source of infection, route of

transmission, susceptible person, distributing positions and so on.

3.General introduction the pathogenesis and pathoanatomy.

4.Introduction in details different clinical manifestations: latent period,

systemic symptoms and pulmonary symptoms.

5.General introduction the laboratory examinations: general test(blood

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routine), biopsy, radialization exam, and immune test.

6.Emphasis on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis: diagnosis was

always made by information of history, pathogen test, tissue biopsy and

radialization exam. The disease should be distinguished from tuberculosis

tubercular peritonitis and so on.

7.General introduction the treatment: etiologic treatment, general

treatment and surgical treatment.

8.General introduction prevention.

9. Case discussion: 1 class hours

(Written by Liqun & Qili)

Reference Books

Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious

Diseases. Fifth Edition. Science Press, Harcourt Asia Churchill

Livingstone,2001.

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