Anda di halaman 1dari 6

The Curriculum outline of Medical Cell Biology

The teacher of theory


Chapter 1: Cellular orgaization: organelle structure and function. 3
⑴ To know well the history of the discovery of the cell.
① The very first person who made the microscope.
② The first person who named cell.
⑵ To master what the major Components of the Cell theory are.
⑶ To master the definition of a “cell”
⑷ To know well the characteristics of prokaryotic cell
⑸ Master the characteristics of eukaryotic cell
① membrane Bound Organelles
② nonmembrane Bound Organelles in eukaryotic cell
⑹ Master the main differences between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell.
Emphasis: We will focus on the major components of the cell theory, characteristics of
prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell. Special emphases will be on main differences between
prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell.
Difficulty: Main differences between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell.
Contents:
The course is focused on the basic characteristics of eukaryotic cell and the main differences
between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell. The content of the option will include description
and analysis of:
⑴ The Discovery and Study of Cells
⑵ The Cell theory
⑶ Definition of a “cell”
⑷ Types of cells based on membrane complexity (structure of prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic
cell)
⑸ The differences between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell.

Chapter 2: Gene expression 3


⑴ Master components and structure of DNA and RNA.
⑵ Understand functions of DNA.
⑶ Understand the process of DNA replication.
⑷ Master the meaning of gene and gene expression.
⑸ Master the rules of the complementary bonding and the meanings of antisense strand and
sense strand
⑹ Know well eukaryotic gene structure
⑺ Understand the RNA Processing
⑻ Understand the process and main characteristics of translation
⑼ Understand the controling of gene expressions
Emphasis: This option is focused on the structure of DNA and RNA. We emphasise  main
differences between DNA and RNA. Special emphases will be on the rules of the complementary
bonding and the meaning of antisense strand and sense strand.
Difficulty: The rules of the complementary bonding and the meaning of antisense strand and sense
strand. The control of gene expressions
Contents:
Topics will probably include:
⑴ Structure of DNA
⑵ Functions of DNA
⑶ Structure of RNA
⑷ DNA Replication
⑸ Gene expression
⑹ The rules of the complementary bonding
⑺ Eukaryotic Gene Structure
⑻ RNA Processing
⑼ Translation
⑽ Control of gene expressions

Chapter 4: Membrane and membrane transport: 9 hours


⑴ Master the biomembrane component: biomembrane lipid (phospholipid, glycolipid and
cholesterol), membrane protein and membrane sugar.
(2) Master the biomembrane structure: bilayer, unit membrane, fluid mosaic model and the
knowledge of biomembrane structure we know at present.
(3) Master the dynamics and asymmetry in biomembrane.
(4) Master the transport function of biomembrane:
①Transport small molecules and ions: Selective permeability membrane, membranes
transport proteins (carrier and channel), simple diffusion, facilitated (passive transport), active
transport (Na+-K+ pump), and Co-transport (secondary active transport).
②Transport macromolecules, particles and extracellular fluid: Exocytosis, endocytosis
(pinocytosis, Phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis)
(5) Know well the coated vesicle transport, mutations affecting the LDL receptor in
hypercholesterolaemia.
(6) Understand the roles of ion transport in cellular physiology.
Emphasis: Biomembrane component, structure and transport function.
Difficulty: Secondary active transport, receptor-mediated endocytosis
Contents: Biomembrane component, biomembrane structure and transport function of
biomembrane.

Chapter 5: compartmentalization of cellular functions and protein targeting:


Organelles with double membranes.
Nucleus 12
⑴ Master the compartmentation of the interphase cell nucleus (nuclear envelope, Chromatin,
Nucleolus, Nuclear matrix).
⑵ Master the ultrastructure and function of Nuclear Pore Complex.
⑶ Master the main characteristics of Nuclear Localization Signals(NLS).
⑷ Know well those related molecules among the transporting across the nuclear membrane.
⑹ Know well the relationship between Ran-GAP, Ran and Ran-GEF molecule.
⑺ Understand the transport (import and export) processes across the nuclear membrane.
⑻ Understand the structural and functional characteristics of nuclear lamina.
⑼ Master the conception of chromatin, the basic Components of chromatin, the nucleosome
structure and the organization of nuclear chromatin.
⑽ Know well the main characteristics of heterochromatin and euchromatin.
⑾ Master the structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes
⑿ Know well what the barr body is and Lyon hypothesis
⒀ Master the ultrastructure and function of Nucleolus.
Emphasis: This option is focused on the ultrastructure of cell nucleus. We emphasise the
importance and main characteristics of Nuclear Localization Signals(NLSs). Special emphases
will be on chromatin and its assembling. We also emphasise the ultrastructure and function of
Nucleolus.
Difficulty: Structure and function of nuclear pore complex. structure and function of cell nucleus.
The transporting (import and export) mechanisms and processes across the nuclear membrane.
Contents:
Topics will probably include:
⑴ Ultrastructure structure of the interphase cell nucleus
① nuclear envelope
② Chromatin
③ Nucleolus
④ Nuclear matrix
⑵ ultrastructure and function of Nuclear Pore Complex.
⑶ The main characteristics of Nuclear Localization Signals
⑷ Important molecules among the transporting across the Nuclear Pore Complex.
⑸ Import process and export process.
⑹ Structure and function of nuclear Lamina.
⑺ The nucleosome structure and the organization of Chromatin in Eukaryotes.
⑻ Types of Chromatin.
⑼ The Barr body.
⑽ Lyon hypothesis.
⑾ Morphology of the eukaryotic chromosome.
⑿ The ultrastructure and function of Nucleolus.

Mitochondria
⑴ Master the ultrastructure of mitochondria.
⑵ Know well the mitochondrial compartments
⑶ Know well the functional division of mitochondrial compartments
⑷ Master the main characteristics of human mitochondrial genome.
⑸ Know well the characteristics of maternal
m inheritance.
⑹ Understand the endosymbiotic theory.
Emphasis: This option is focused on the ultrastructure of mitochondria. We emphasise the main
characteristics of human mitochondrial genome.
Difficulty: The
he functional division of mitochondrial compartments.
Contents:
Topics will probably include:
⑴ Mitochondrial ultrastructure
⑵ Mitochondrial Compartments
⑶ Functional division of compartments
⑷ human mitochondrial genome
⑸ Maternal inheritance
⑹ The Endosymbiotic Theory

Organelles with single membranes 9


(1) Master the structure and type of Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and Lysosome.
(2) Master the function of Endoplasmic reticulum in membrane lipids biosynthesis and
transport, the proteins biosynthesizing function of rough Endoplasmic reticulum, the process of N-
linked glycosylation.
(3) Master the modifications of N-linked oligosaccharides in Golgi apparatus, the proteins
secretory pathways, the proteins sorting pathway and the process of Lysosome formation.
(4) Master the digestion functions of Lysosome.
(5) Know well the structure of ribosome and the process of protein biosynthesis.
(6) Know well the SNARE hypothesis.
(7) Know well the destinations of proteins synthesized by free ribosome.
(8) Understand the Lysosomal storage diseases (Hurler's syndrome, Inclusion cell disease,
Tay-Sachs disease and the miner's disease-silicosis).
Emphasis: the functions of rough Endoplasmic reticulum in proteins biosynthesizing and
modifying, the functions of Golgi apparatus in proteins modification and sorting, the digestion
functions of Lysosome.
Difficulty: signal hypothesis, the process of Lysosome formation, the destinations of proteins
synthesized by free ribosome.
Contents: Endoplasmic Reticulum, The Golgi apartment, Destinations of Proteins Synthesized By
Free Ribosome, The Lysosome.

Chapter 9 The Cytoskeleton and muscle contraction 9 hours


(1) Master the structures of Microfilaments, Microtubules and Intermediate filaments.
(2) Master the Microfilamentous structure of skeletal muscle, the sliding filament model of
muscle contraction, the function of Microfilamentous in cell division.
(3) Master the function of Microtubules in vesicular and organelle transport, in cell division.
(4) Know well the process of assembling of Microfilaments, Microtubules and Intermediate
filaments.
(5) Know well the Microfilamentous structure of Microvilli, the Axonemal structure of cilia
and flagella
(6) Know well the cell-type-specific of Intermediate filament proteins and its using in cell
typing and tumor diagnosis.
(5) Understand the function of Microfilaments in cell locomotion, material transport, and
other types of muscle.
Emphasis: the structures of Microfilaments, Microtubules and Intermediate filaments.
Difficulty: the process of assembling of Microfilaments, Microtubules and Intermediate filaments.
Contents: The Cytoskeleton, Skeletal Muscles, Microfilamentous structures in non-muscle cells.

Chapter 13: Cell growth, cell division and the cell cycle 12
⑴ Master conceptions of cell growth, amitosis, mitosis and meiosis.
⑵ Master the cell cycle conception and proliferation type of cells.
⑶ Master the characteristics of each stage of the Cell Cycle.
Cycle
⑷ Master the conceptions of haploid and diploid.
⑸ Know well the process of meiosis and the main differience between mitosis and meiosis.
⑹ Master the meaning and components of MPF.
⑺ Know well the related cdks and cyclins.
⑻ Understand the controling of cyclins.
⑼ Master the mechanisms of Cdk regulation.
⑽ Know well the effects when cyclin-dependent kinases have been activated.
⑾ Know well functions of cyclin dependent kinases(
Cdks) and/or cyclins at different phases of the cell cycle.
⑿ Master what the restriction point is.
⒀ Know well the meaning and importance of cell-cycle checkpoint.
⒁ Master conceptions of oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and its
relationship with cell cycle.
⒂ Understand the controling of RB during the cell cycle.
⒃ Know well the role of p53 in G1 and G2 checkpoint arrest
⒄ Master the conception of apoptosis and structural features of apoptotic cell.
⒅ Understand disease and programmed cell death

Emphasis: This option is focused on cell cycle and cell cycle regulation. We emphasise the
regulation of cdks and cyclins. We also emphasise the restriction point and cell-cycle checkpoint.
Special emphases will be on the relationship between oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and tumor
suppressor genes. We also emphasise the morphology of apoptosis.
Difficulty: Cell cycle regulation. The relationship between oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and tumor
suppressor genes. The controling of RB and p53 during the cell cycle.
Contents:
Topics will probably include:
⑴ Conceptions of cell growth, amitosis, mitosis and meiosis.
⑵ Conception cell cycle,, stages and characteristics of the Cell Cycle.
⑶ Proliferation type of cells
⑷ Conceptions of haploid and diploid.
⑸ The process of meiosis and the main differience between mitosis and meiosis.
⑹ Identification and structure of MPF. What is MPF?
⑺ Multiple cdks and cyclins
⑻ Cyclin dependent kinases(
Cdks) and/or cyclins act at different phases of the cell cycle
⑼ The mechanisms of Cdk regulation.
⑽ Activated cyclin-dependent kinase has an array of effects.
⑾ The restriction point
⑿ Cell-cycle checkpoints
⒀ Checkpoints in Cell Cycle Regulation.
⒁ Cancer, viruses and tumourigenesis

⒂ Oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and its relationship with cell cycle
⒃ RB-mediated cell cycle control


Role of p53 in G1 and G2 Checkpoint Arrest
⒅ Apoptosis
① The model organism C. elegans


i. Cell lineage – from egg to adult

③ Mapping the cell lineage


ii. Identification of “death genes”


iii. Of importance for many research disciplines


iv. Disease and programmed cell death

Recommended referencebook: Molecular Cell Biology by Lodish et al (4th edition)