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The curriculum outline of Radiology

Editors: Prof. Bin Wang, Ph.D, M.D. & Prof. Xihe Sun, M.D.

The textbook of Radiology is mainly for the international students to get


Bachelor Degree on Clinical Medicine.

Total period 108; Theory 72, Practice 36


Units Content Total Theory Practice
period
Unit One Imaging principle of X-ray, CT & 6 4 2
MRI
Unit Two Bone and joint system 18 12 6
Unit Three Respiratory system 18 12 6
Unit Four Circulatory system 12 8 4
Unit Five Gastrointestinal tract system 12 8 4
Unit Six Hepatobiliary and pancreatic 12 8 4
radiology
Unit Seven Urogenital system 12 8 4
Unit Eight Central nervous system 12 8 4
Unit Nine Interventional radiology 6 4 2
Total 108 72 36

Introduction to Radiology
Since Roentgen found X-ray in 1895, X-ray has been used to examine human
body, called diagnostic radiology, in which include X-ray plain, X-ray
fluoroscopy, contrast agent sciagraphy, tomography, et al. With application of
computer in recent years, X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been widely exploited, by which Medical
Imaging was come into being together with ‫ץ‬-scintigraphy, ultrasonography
(USG), emission computed tomography (ECT), single photon emission
computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and
interventional radiology. The current textbook of Radiology was only related to
X-ray, CT and MRI, including their imaging principles and imaging feactures
for various diseases.

Unit 1. Imaging Principle of X-ray, CT & MRI


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master characteristics of X-ray, imaging principle, and application of
contrast agents.
⑵ Master the concept of CT numbers (HU), window width, window level.
⑶ Know well characteristics of CT and MRI, and their clinical values.
⑷ Understand imaging principles of CT and MRI, and their examinating
technology.
⑸ Understand the concept of interventional radiology and its clinical
application.
Emphasis: characteristics of X-ray, CT numbers (HU), window width, window
level.
Difficulty: imaging principles of CT and MRI, and their examinating
technology.
Contents: imaging principle, characteristics and clinical values on X-ray, CT
and MRI; concept of interventional radiology and its clinical application.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master image features of X-ray plain, CT and MRI.
⑵ Know well how to use CT numbers (HU), window width, window level.
⑶ Understand construction of X-ray equipment, CT scanner and MR
machine.
Emphasis: concept of CT numbers (HU), window width, window level; image
features of X-ray plain, CT and MRI.
Contents of practice:
⑴ Look around X-ray equipment, CT scanner and MR machine in hospital.
⑵ Review X-ray films, CT images and MRI images through multimedia
projector or PACS system.
⑶ Look around interventional technology.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Analyse the similar and different features among X-ray films, CT images
and MRI images.
⑵ How to use CT numbers (HU), window width, window level?
⑶ Try to compare the difference among imaging principles of X-ray, CT and
MRI
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Robert A. Novelline. Textbook of Radiology, Department of radiology, west
china hospital in sichuan university.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.

Unit 2. Bone and joint system


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master X-ray basic signs of bone and joint, including osteoporisis,
osteomalacia, destruction of bone, osteosclerosis, periosteal proliferation,
destruction of joint, ankylosis of joint.
⑵ Master X-ray features of fracture of bone, acute osteomyelitis, skeletal
tuberculosis, osteosarcoma, osteochondroma and giant cell tumor of bone.
⑶ Know well differentiating diagnosis between benign and malignant bone
tumors.
⑷ Understand X-ray features of dislocation of joint, chronic osteomyelitis,
metastatic bone tumor, degeneration of joint.
⑸ Understand advantage and disadvantage on the clinical application of CT
and MRI in musculoskeletal system.
Emphasis: X-ray basic signs of bone and joint, acute osteomyelitis, skeletal
tuberculosis, osteosarcoma, osteochondroma and giant cell tumor of bone.
Difficulty: clinical application of CT and MRI in musculoskeletal system and
their examinating technology, differentiating diagnosis between benign and
malignant bone tumors.
Contents: X-ray basic signs of bone and joint; fracture of bone; dislocation of
joint; osteomyelitis; skeletal tuberculosis; benign and malignant bone tumors;
clinical application of CT and MRI in musculoskeletal system.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master image features of X-ray plain in fracture of bone, acute
osteomyelitis, skeletal tuberculosis, osteosarcoma, osteochondroma and giant
cell tumor of bone.
⑵ Know well how to use CT numbers (HU), window width, window level.
⑶ Understand construction of X-ray equipment, CT scanner and MR
machine.
Emphasis: image features of X-ray plain in fracture of bone, acute
osteomyelitis, skeletal tuberculosis, osteosarcoma, osteochondroma and giant
cell tumor of bone; differentiating diagnosis between benign and malignant
bone tumors.
Contents of practice:
⑴ Review X-ray films, CT images and MRI images of various musculoskeletal
diseases through multimedia projector or PACS system;
⑵ Discuss the features on X-ray films, CT images and MRI images of various
musculoskeletal diseases.
⑶ Discuss the diagnosis and differentiating diagnosis among related
diseases.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Analyse the X-ray differentiating diagnosis between benign and malignant
bone tumors.
⑵ Analyse the differentiating diagnosis between benign and malignant bone
tumors.
⑶ Try to compare the different features among spinal, articular and bony
tuberculosis.
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Thomas H. Berquist. MRI of the musculoskeletal system. 2001 by the
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and research.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.

Unit 3. Respiratory system


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master basic disorder X-ray signs of respiratory system, including air-space
filling, pulmonary edema, consolidation, spherical shadows, cavitation, line
shadows, calcification, collapse, hydropneumothorax.
⑵ Master X-ray and CT features on lobar pneumonia, lung abscess,
pulmonary tuberculosis, carcinoma of the bronchus.
⑶ Know well the normal X-ray signs of respiratory system, including dome of
diaphragm, costophrenic angles, cardiophrenic angles, hilar shadows.
Demarcate lung fields in chest X-rays, identify vascular pattern, tracheal
location and ribs on both sides.
⑷ Understand the methods of radiographic examination in respiratory system,
including chest fluoroscopy, posteroanterior film, apical lordotic view,
tomography, bronchography.
⑸ Understand X-ray features on bronchiectasis, AIDS, SARS, pulmonary
metastases.
⑹ Understand division of mediastinum and the common diseases in it
respectively
Emphasis: lobar pneumonia, lung abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis,
carcinoma of the bronchus.
Difficulty: pulmonary tuberculosis, AIDS, SARS.
Contents: the methods of radiographic examination in respiratory system,
normal X-ray signs of respiratory system, basic disorder X-ray signs of
respiratory system, X-ray and CT features on pulmonary diseases.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master basic disorder X-ray signs of respiratory system, X-ray features on
lobar pneumonia, lung abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis, carcinoma of the
bronchus.
⑵ Know well the advantage of CT in dignosis of pulmonary diseases.
⑶ Understand the normal X-ray signs of respiratory system, X-ray features on
bronchiectasis, AIDS, SARS, pulmonary metastases.
Emphasis: X-ray features on lobar pneumonia, lung abscess, pulmonary
tuberculosis, carcinoma of the bronchus .
Contents of practice:
⑴ Review normal X-ray films, CT images of normal chest through multimedia
projector or PACS system;
⑵ Discuss the features on X-ray films, CT images of various pulmonary
diseases, including lobar pneumonia, lung abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis,
carcinoma of the bronchus, bronchiectasis, AIDS, SARS, pulmonary
metastases.
⑶ Discuss the diagnosis and differentiating diagnosis among related
diseases.
⑷ Show the division of mediastinum and the X-ray and CT signs of the
common mediastinal diseases.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Analyse the X-ray differentiating diagnosis among pulmonary solitary
shadows.
⑵ Analyse the differentiating diagnosis among various solitary shadows with
caviations.
⑶ Try to distinguish X-ray signs of lobar consolidation from collapsed lobe.
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Robert A. Novelline. Textbook of Radiology, Department of radiology, west
china hospital in sichuan university.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.

Unit 4. Circulatory System


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master normal X-ray signs of the heart and great vessels, including heart
size, heart shape on PA, RAO, LAO views.
⑵ Master basic disorder X-ray signs of the heart and great vessels, including
the enlargement of four cardiac chambers and aorta or pulmonary vessel
changes.
⑶ Know well X-ray signs of the commoner heart diseases, including
rheumatic heart disease, heart disease of hypertension, cor pulmonale,
pericarditis.
⑷ Understand X-ray signs of other heart diseases, including congenital heart
diseases, cardiomyopathy, Eisenmenger’s syndrome.
⑸ Understand the methods of radiographic examination in circulatory system.
Emphasis: X-ray signs of the enlargement of four cardiac chambers and
aorta or pulmonary vessels; rheumatic heart disease, pericarditis.
Difficulty: X-ray signs of the enlargement of four cardiac chambers and aorta
or pulmonary vessels.
Contents: the methods of radiographic examination in circulatory system,
normal X-ray signs and basic disorder X-ray signs of the heart and great
vessels, X-ray signs of the commoner heart diseases.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master basic disorder X-ray signs of the heart and great vessels.
⑵ Know well X-ray signs of the commoner heart diseases, including
rheumatic heart disease, heart disease of hypertension, cor pulmonale,
pericarditis.
⑶ Understand X-ray signs of other heart diseases, including congenital heart
diseases, cardiomyopathy, Eisenmenger’s syndrome.
Emphasis: Basic disorder X-ray signs of the heart, rheumatic heart disease,
heart disease of hypertension, cor pulmonale, pericarditis.
Contents of practice:
⑴ Review normal X-ray films of heart together with heart model.
⑵ Set out X-ray signs of the enlargement of four cardiac chambers and aorta
or pulmonary vessels through multimedia projector or PACS system.
⑶ Discuss X-ray signs of rheumatic heart disease, heart disease of
hypertension, cor pulmonale, pericarditis, congenital heart diseases,
cardiomyopathy, Eisenmenger’s syndrome.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Describe the X-ray signs of every chamber enlargement for heart.
⑵ Analyse the differentiating diagnosis between pulmonary arterial
hypertension and venous hypertension.
⑶ Try to compare X-ray signs of mitral stenosis (rheumatic heart disease)
with that of heart disease of hypertension.
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Thomas H. Berquist. MRI of the musculoskeletal system. 2001 by the
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and research.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.

Unit 5. Gastrointestinal tract system


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master basic diseases radiological features of gastrointestinal tract,
including the contour narrowing, ulceration, filling defects, and alterations of
the mucosa.
⑵ Master X-ray signs of commoner diseases in barium studies of the upper
gastrointestinal tract, including esophageal varices, ulcers of stomach and
duodenum, carcinoma of stomach and esophagus, achalasia.
⑶ Know well the normal radiological features of gastrointestinal tract.
⑷ Know well the methods of the examination of the gastrointestinal tract.
⑸ Understand the radiological features of the diseases in lower
gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal tuberculosis, colonic polyps,
colorectal carcinoma.
⑹ Understand normal and abnormal X-ray features on abdominal plain,
identify various obstruction of the bowel, intussusception.
Emphasis: Esophageal varices, ulcers of stomach and duodenum, carcinoma
of stomach and esophagus, achalasia.
Difficulty: The methods of the examination of the gastrointestinal tract.
Contents: The methods of the examination of the gastrointestinal tract,
normal and abnormal X-ray features on abdominal plain, in barium studies of
the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master the methods of the examination of the gastrointestinal tract.
⑵ Know well X-ray signs of esophageal varices, ulcers of stomach and
duodenum, carcinoma of stomach and esophagus, achalasia.
⑶ Understand the radiological features of intestinal tuberculosis, colonic
polyps, colorectal carcinoma.
Emphasis: Esophageal varices, ulcers of stomach and duodenum, carcinoma
of stomach and esophagus.
Contents of practice:
⑴ Look around the methods of barium examination in the gastrointestinal
tract system through clinical practise.
⑵ Review radiological features of esophageal varices, ulcers of stomach and
duodenum, carcinoma of stomach and esophagus, achalasia, intestinal
tuberculosis, colonic polyps, colorectal carcinoma through multimedia
projector or PACS system;
⑶ Discuss basic radiological features of gastrointestinal tract, including the
contour narrowing, ulceration, filling defects, and alterations of the mucosa.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Analyse the X-ray differentiating diagnosis among benign ulcer and
malignant ulcer in stomach.
⑵ Try to distinguish esophageal varices from carcinoma of esophagus in
barium studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Robert A. Novelline. Textbook of Radiology, Department of radiology, west
china hospital in sichuan university.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.

Unit 6. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master the examinating techniques on upper abdminal organs, including
catheter arteriography, CT scanning, MR scanning, cholangiography,
cholecystography.
⑵ Master X-ray arteriographic, CT and MRI features on hepatic cysts and
abscesses, primary tumors of the liver (hepatic cell carcinoma and cavernous
hemangioma).
⑶ Know well the X-ray signs of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.
⑷ Identify carcinoma of pancreas and pancreatitis through CT and MRI
examination.
⑸ Understand X-ray and CT features on liver metastases, liver trauma, liver
cirrhosis, obstruction of the biliary tree, carcinoma of gall bladder.
Emphasis: hepatic abscesses, hepatic cell carcinoma and cavernous
hemangioma, cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, carcinoma of pancreas.
Difficulty: hepatic cell carcinoma, cholecystitis, carcinoma of pancreas,
pancreatitis.
Contents: The methods of X-ray catheter arteriography, CT scanning, MR
scanning in Hepatobiliary and pancreatic system; Normal signs on X-ray, CT
and MR images of liver, biliary duct and cholecyst, pancreas; Imaging
disgnosis of the commoner diseases.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master the methods of X-ray catheter arteriography of liver, CT and MR
scanning on upper abdminal organs, cholangiography, cholecystography.
⑵ Know well the imaging features on hepatic cysts and abscesses, hepatic
cell carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma, carcinoma of pancreas and
pancreatitis.
⑶ Understand the X-ray and CT features on liver metastases, liver trauma,
liver cirrhosis, obstruction of the biliary tree, carcinoma of gall bladder.
Emphasis: hepatic abscesses, hepatic cell carcinoma and cavernous
hemangioma, carcinoma of pancreas and pancreatitis, cholelithiasis.
Contents of practice:
⑴ Review normal X-ray catheter arteriography of liver, normal CT and MR
images on liver and pancreas, and normal cholangiogram and
cholecystogram through multimedia projector or PACS system;
⑵ Show the features on X-ray arteriogram, CT and MRI images of various
diseases, including hepatic cysts and abscesses, hepatic cell carcinoma and
cavernous hemangioma, carcinoma of pancreas and pancreatitis, liver
metastases, liver trauma, liver cirrhosis, obstruction of the biliary tree,
carcinoma of gall bladder.
⑶ Discuss the diagnosis and differentiating diagnosis among related
diseases.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Analyse the imaging differentiating diagnosis between hepatic cell
carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma.
⑵ Try to distinguish carcinoma of pancreas from pancreatitis by CT, MRI and
X-ray cholangiopancreatography.
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Robert A. Novelline. Textbook of Radiology, Department of radiology, west
china hospital in sichuan university.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.

Unit 7. Urogenital system


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master the methods of urethrography and hysterosalpingography; identify
kidneys and psoas muscle shadows on X-ray abdominal plain.
⑵ Identify the stones, tuberculosis of urinary system on urethrogram and
abdominal plain. Master X-ray urethrography, CT and MRI signs of renal
benign and malignant tumors.
⑶ Know well the CT and MRI applications in Urogenital system.
⑷ Understand the imaging signs of renal cyst, ectopic kidneys, horse shoe
kidney, hydronephrosis, enlarged kidney, stricture of urethra.
⑸ Identify fetus and its presentation or lie, and the presence of multiple
pregnancies. Understand the imaging signs of metrosalpingitis, ovarian
tumors, uterine leiomyoma, carcinoma of uterus, congenital abnormality of
uterus.
Emphasis: urethrography and hysterosalpingography.
Difficulty: tuberculosis of urinary system, renal benign and malignant tumors.
Contents: The methods of X-ray abdominal plain, urethrography and
hysterosalpingography; CT and MRI application in urogenital system; the
commoner diseases; fetus and its presentation or lie.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master the methods of urethrography and hysterosalpingography, identify
the renal stones.
⑵ Know well renal benign and malignant tumors.
⑶ Understand the imaging signs of renal cyst, ectopic kidneys, horse shoe
kidney, hydronephrosis, enlarged kidney, stricture of urethra, metrosalpingitis,
uterine leiomyoma, carcinoma of uterus, congenital abnormality of uterus.
Emphasis: urethrography and hysterosalpingography, renal stones .
Contents of practice:
⑴ Review X-ray abdominal plain, show the the stones, tuberculosis of urinary
system on urethrogram and abdominal plain through multimedia projector or
PACS system;
⑵ Introduce the methods of urethrography and hysterosalpingography.
⑶ Discuss CT and MRI signs of renal benign and malignant tumors, and CT
and MRI applications in Urogenital system.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Analyse the clinical values of urethrography and hysterosalpingography.
⑵ Analyse the imaging differentiating diagnosis among renal benign and
malignant tumors.
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Robert A. Novelline. Textbook of Radiology, Department of radiology, west
china hospital in sichuan university.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.

Unit 8. Central nervous system


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master normal signs of X-ray plain of the skull calvarium bones, such as
contour of skull bones, sella-turcica, sutures, paranosal sinuses.
⑵ Identify fractures relating to any bones of the skull, note the changes of
sella-turcica in saddle area tumors, note spot any intracranial calcification,
identify evidence of raised intracranial pressure.
⑶ Know well the application values of CT and MRI in central nervous system.
⑷ Understand CT and MRI features in some commoner intracranial tumors,
such as meningoma, glioma, craniopharyngioma, cholesteatoma, acoustic
nerve tumor, et al.
⑸ Understand CT and MRI features on encephalorrhagia, cerebral infarction,
cerebral trauma, demyelinating diseases.
Emphasis: skull bone fractures, the changes of sella-turcica in saddle area
tumors, intracranial calcification, X-ray evidences of raised intracranial
pressure.
Difficulty: CT and MRI features in some commoner intracranial tumors,
encephalorrhagia, cerebral infarction, cerebral trauma, demyelinating
diseases.
Contents: the methods of radiographic, CT and MRI examination in central
nerve system, normal X-ray signs of plain of the skull, the commoner
diseases.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master normal signs of X-ray skull plain, such as contour of skull bones,
sella-turcica, sutures, paranosal sinuses.
⑵ Know well the skull fractures, the changes of sella-turcica in saddle area
tumors,various intracranial calcification, the evidence of raised intracranial
pressure.
⑶ Understand CT and MRI features in some commoner intracranial tumors,
encephalorrhagia, cerebral infarction, cerebral trauma, demyelinating
diseases.
Emphasis: skull fractures, the changes of sella-turcica in saddle area
tumors,various intracranial calcification, the evidence of raised intracranial
pressure.
Contents of practice:
⑴ Review normal X-ray films, CT and MRI images of normal brain and skull
through multimedia projector or PACS system;
⑵ Discuss the features on X-ray films, CT and MRI images on diseases of
various central nerve system.
⑶ Show the skull fractures, the changes of sella-turcica in saddle area
tumors,various intracranial calcification, the evidence of raised intracranial
pressure on X-ray plain film.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Analyse the evidence of raised intracranial pressure on X-ray plain film.
⑵ Analyse shape characteristics of intracranial calcification on different
tumors.
⑶ Try to analyse different characterastics between meningoma and glioma on
CT and MRI images.
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Robert A. Novelline. Textbook of Radiology, Department of radiology, west
china hospital in sichuan university.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.

Unit 9. Interventional radiology


1. Demands on the teaching of theoy:
⑴ Master the concept and content of interventional radiology.
⑵ Understand the methods of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty,
transcatheter embolization, angiographic diagnosis, control acute
gastrointestinal hemorrhage, inferior vena cava filters, image-guided venous
access, percutaneous aspiration needle biopsy of the throax and abdomen,
percutaneous abscess drainage.
⑶ Understand percutaneous gastrostomy and jejunostomy, percutaneous
biliary decompression, percutaneous cholecystotomy, radiological
management of urinary tract obstruction, interventional neuroradiology.
Emphasis: the concept and content of Interventional radiology.
Difficulty: the techniques of all kinds of interventional radiology.
Contents: the concept of interventional radiology, the content of interventional
radiology, the techniques and methods of interventional radiology.
2. Demands on the teaching of practice:
⑴ Master the concept and content of interventional radiology.
⑵ Understand the techniques of all kinds of interventional radiology.
Emphasis: the concept and content of interventional radiology .
Contents of practice:
⑴ Review part of images on different methods of radiology, interpret their
techniques the multimedia projector or PACS system;
⑵ Look around the techniques and methods of interventional radiology in
clinical practice.
3. Homeworks:
⑴ Analyse the content of interventional radiology.
4. Reference Books:
⑴ Margulis AR, Gooding CA. Diagnostic Radiology 1987. Distributed by The
C.V. Mosby Company; Saint Louis·Toronto·London.
⑵ Robert A. Novelline. Textbook of Radiology, Department of radiology, west
china hospital in sichuan university.
⑶ Ronald G. Grainger and David J. Allison. Diagnostic Radiology. Medical
Division of Longman Group limited, 1986.