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chapter 1

the problem and its setting

introduction

institutions are both the micro and macrocosm of the entire

community. its primary focus is to expand the knowledge of the students

through the brilliant professors and its learning spaces such as the

equipments and facilities. facilities are significant in all institutions

especially in the medical institutions, for it portrays a big role in the

student’s learning.

it is through handling equipments that the students learn

more because it is where they apply the theories and principles that they

have learned. these equipments also contribute in enhancing their skills

and help them to master it. a mastered skill is a very important aspect that

nursing students should posses because it avoids malpractices and it

boosts competence and confidence. hence, school facilities should be

given of much importance.

to be able to determine the effectiveness of having adequate

facilities to the learning of the students, the researchers conducted a study

by focusing on the facilities of emilio aguinaldo college that comprised of

the fundamental laboratory learning and the equipments used by the

student during return demonstrations.

background of the study


2

nursing educators had set goals to provide the society’s growing

needs of competent nurse professionals. a more focused lecture classes,

return demonstrations of the previous lecture topic and as well as the on-

the-job training (duty schedules) came out to be the three best ways for a

more efficient knowledge provision. with these, the community of nursing

educators expects a bigger population of competent future nursing

graduates that will soon attend to the society’s health needs.

primarily, a nurse’s tasks involve both simple and complex

procedures in health promotion and maintenance. the nurse also stands

as the primary health care provider in the community setting. together,

doctors, nurses and the community health workers join the health care

team in promoting good and sustainable health for everyone.

from now, it will always be a challenge to the country’s nursing

schools to produce health care graduates of high quality. among the fore

mentioned three best ways of producing reliable nurses, the return

demonstrations and the on-the-job training program seem to have greater

influences to the students with regards to the acquisition of knowledge.

this had put the practicality and actualization of the theoretical concepts

worthy of a bigger concern for educators. student’s learning of the recent

time becomes more on the application of the theoretical learning.

as an example, the catheterization procedure will be more

meaningful to a student if he will be able to demonstrate it by himself.

facilities such as the foley catheter, syringe and most especially a dummy
3

would be needed during the actualization of the procedure. the institution

is then held responsible to facilitate the learning process of the student.

it was given emphasis that the facilities play an important role in

better acquisition of the theoretical knowledge in the course of nursing.

these equipments provide familiarization of a certain nursing procedure.

moreover, it somewhat provide the student a chance to experience the act

of doing the procedure without the need for assuming the actual manner

of an intervention. in this way the information becomes more significant to

a learner.

with these, the quality of nursing education should then be uplift

into higher levels. without nurses, the society’s health would be in a

compromised state. it is how vital nurses are in the society. health

concerns of individuals should be prioritized that is why nurses provide

health guides. these could no longer be possible if the nursing institutions

would fail to produce graduates that are competent enough in attending to

the society’s health needs. basically, the nursing schools should thus

provide adequate facilities to their students.

learning as a process needs to be well supported in order for it to

attain efficiency. every nursing institution and educator should realize the

value of having adequate facilities in sustaining the students with a more

effective learning experience as to provide the society with competent and

more reliable future nurse professionals.


4

conceptual framework

generally, learning in the nursing course involves the completeness

of a medical institution’s facilities. an insufficiency in this might lead to the

deterioration of the student’s learning abilities. hence, school facilities

should be prioritized.

medical facilities are one of the elements in producing competent

nurses. they have been designed to influence the learning process. with

this vital function, they have been the primary concern of every medical

institution. this study identifies these facilities existing in emilio aguinaldo

college in order to assess if the institution has reached the standard that

have been set to all medical institutions.

the main focus of the study was the quality and quantity of the

existing facilities to the population of ahse and nursing students. in line

with this, the following categories were analyzed: population of the

students, budget of the said medical institution in providing the standard

facilities and the institution’s main priorities.


5

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050000000b0200000000050000000c029d07e90c040000002e011

8001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000000102022253

797374656d0007e90c000098c9110072edc63018fef50b0c020000

e90c0000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb029c

ff0000000000009001000000000440001254696d6573204e657720

526f6d616e0000000000000000000000000000000000040000002

d010100050000000902000000020d000000320af8070000010004

0000000000e40c9e0720802d00040000002d01000003000000000

figure 1

research paradigm

the figure above illustrates the flow on how the research will be

conducted. primarily, the researchers aim to assess emilio aguinaldo

college’s nursing facilities through the following factors: 1.) population, 2.)

budget, 3.) facilities, and 4.) priorities. along the course of the study, the

researchers also seek to assess and examine the quality and quantity of
6

the institution’s facilities. the quality of the facilities will be assessed

according to their condition and their ability to provide quality education to

the students. the quantity on the other hand will be assessed in

accordance with the availability and the ratio of these equipments per

student.

statement of the problem

this study will evaluate the effects of eac’s inadequate nursing

facilities in the student’s learning skills. specifically, this will seek answers

to the following questions.

1. what are the profiles of the students in terms of:

1.1 age

1.2 gender

1.3 year level

2. how is the completeness of the nursing facilities of emilio aguinaldo

college assessed in terms of:

2.1 population

2.2 budget

2.3 facilities

2.4 priorities

3. how is emilio aguinaldo college’s nursing facilities assessed in

terms of:
7

1.1 quality
3.1.1 condition
3.1.2 ability to provide quality education

3.2 quantity
3.2.1 availability
3.2.2 ratio of equipment per student

4. what are the effects of nursing facilities to the student’s learning skills in

terms of:

3.1 school

3.2 clinical instructor

3.3 hospital settings

3.4 academic performance

5. provision of a much more good quality education through the following:

4.1 school administration

4.2 school facilities

4.3 screening (nursing admission test)

6. the implication of nursing facilities to the following:

5.1 students

5.2 school

5.3 patients

5.4 parents

5.5 affiliated hospitals

5.6 clinical instructors


8

hypothesis:

nursing students receiving adequate facilities and proper

exposure from the school will be able to (1) acquire more knowledge from

different procedures and (2) will be more competent in providing patient

care.

scope and delimitation of the study

the researchers plan to have the study to be focused on the effects of

emilio aguinaldo college’s nursing facilities on the learning skills of the

students that are currently enrolled for this second semester school year

2006-2007.

the study would comprise of the different fundamental laboratory

tools and equipments of the said medical institution and the students’

satisfaction with these facilities. along the course of the study, the

researchers would be utilizing the pacucoa requirements as a baseline to

determine the set standards that medical institutions should possess in the

maintenance of their nursing facilities. at the same time, it would also aim

in assessing the nursing facilities of emilio aguinaldo college.

under the sampling technique that would be chosen, the students

respondents will be selected from 2nd year and 3rd year students under

ahse and bsn who are undergoing rle (related learning experience), and

falls within the age bracket from 17 to 25 years old.


9

significance of the study

the study is directed toward assessing the nursing facilities of

emilio aguinaldo college and its adequacy towards meeting the student’s

satisfaction in attaining high quality of education. this study aims to benefit

the students in maximizing their learning abilities and thereby yield to an

enhancement of their skills. this study would also be a benefit the

instructors in the aspect of their effectiveness in teaching with the use of

the institution’s facilities. lastly, the study would also make the institution’s

administration aware of certain changes or improvements with regards to

the standard of education they are giving.

definition of terms:

this section aims to diminish obscurities on certain terms that will

be encountered along the research work. below are terms that were

utilized in the presentation of the study with their respective definitions for

clarity and soundness.

facilities – according to villasanta,1 these are rooms, apparatus,

supplies, various instructional materials and other school resources that

provide experiences. the quality of being easily performed or guided;

readiness proceeding from skill or use; dexterity; freedom from difficulty;

the means by which the accomplishment of anything is rendered easier;

often pl. something built and activated to serve a particular purpose; as,

1
benjamin b. villasanta, facilities for science teaching, science in schools ii, no. 2 july 1962 p. 8
10

the schools luncheon facilities.

equipment –ricahrdson2 stated that these include not only

apparatus and supplies but also furniture, machinery and books that are

used without being consumed. they are usually fixed and movable

furnishings having a normal life of two years.

student’s- according to swannel,3 people who are studying at a

university or any place of education.

problem- pei4 described doubtful or difficult question; thing hard to

understand or deal with. a question proposed for solution, decision, or

determination; a knotty point requiring clarification; geometry: a

proposition requiring some operation to be performed. – a. not well

adjusted in behavior; as, a problem child; dealing with matters arising out

of conflicting social values and relationships; as, a problem drama period.

questionnaire- according to polit5 it is a series of questions for

obtaining information on special points. a method of gathering self- report

information from respondents through self- administration of question in a

written format.

inadequate- merriam webster6 described it as an insufficient

incompetent. not adequate.

2 john s. richardson, school facilities for science instruction washington dc: washington national
science teaching association, 1954 p. vii
3 julia swannel, the little oxford dictionary of current english 6th edition, 1986 p. 555
4 mario pei, the lexicon webster dictionary with a historical sketch of the english language professor
emeritus of romance philology, columbia university, delair publishing company inc. copyright 1981, p. 759
5
denise f. polit and cheryl tatano beck, nursing research principles and methods, lippincott and wilkins
copyright 2004 7th edition p. 72
6 merriam webster dictionary, merriam- webster inc. copyright 2004 p. 376
11

school- swannel7 stated that school is aninstitution for education

and giving instruction. a body of persons of like opinions or beliefs.

clinical instructor- according to swannel8 is a mentor or professor

of nursing student on clinical education.

patient- according to kozier,9 these are people under medical

treatment. a person who is waiting for or undergoing medical treatment

and care.

hospital- martin and guidos10 described it as an institution

providing medical, surgical or psychiatric care and treatment for ill and

injured person. such care maybe residential (in patient), including the care

of patients for a whole day and their return home at night ( day hospital).

studies- merriam webster11 defined it as series of past dissertation

and research works.

literature-merriam webster described it as the writings of a country

or period. the production of written works having excellence of form or

expression and dealing with ideas of permanent interest. the written works

produced in a particular language, country, or age.

7 julia,swannel, the little oxford dictionary of current english, 6th edition, 1986. p. 489
8 ibid
9 barbara kozier rn et.al, fundamentals of nursing: concepts, process and practice, pearson
education inc, prentice hall copyright 2004, 7th edition, p. 1959
10 edited by elizabeth martin and barbara guidos, the bantam medical dictionary, bantam books usa,
copyright 2000, p. 233
11
merriam webster dictionary, meriam- webster inc. copyright 2004 p. 655
12

chapter 2

review of related literature and studies

the nursing profession requires an equipped analytical thinking

and skills. these two factors could only be attained through good quality

education that involves proper dissemination of information to students

and the completeness of school facilities. school facilities play a major role

in molding the skills of the students who are pursuing the nursing course;

and a problem in this would lead to deterioration in the learning

performance of the students.

beneath shows the compilation of past researches and


13

dissertations along with the literature that the researchers have

researched in order to defend the importance of completeness of school

facilities and the possible solution that could alleviate the problem.

local literature

according to estella,12 the ched technical committee had been

making ways in alleviating the problem. ched had been monitoring the

nursing schools for almost a year for their compliance with five

requirements: adherence to the nursing curriculum, availability of the

facilities, ratio of faculty to the students, affiliation with or existence of an

active tertiary hospital to save as base for students, and qualified faculty.

tamse13 notes that many schools “are rarely having trouble with

the last three requirements.” depending on the year level of the students,

a school is supposed to observe a teacher student ratio. in the subject on

related learning experience, for example, there should be one teacher for

just eight students.

chua14 states that the prc board members “worries that the quality

of medical education in our country may have deteriorated in recent years.

according to him, this was influenced by the unchecked proliferation of

(fly-by-night) medical schools and of (their) pirating faculty members from


12 chit estella, nursing schools peddle dreams: philippine center of investigative journalism, the
manila times, www.yahoo.com march 22, 2005,

13 solidad tamse, teaching strategies: barriers in learning, rex publishing incorporated philippines,
copyright 2000. p. 286
14 . philip s. chua, md, , crisis in medical education in the philippines; an imminent one in health
care delivery , http://www.nursing.virginia.edu/development/mcleod-ex. january 21, 2005
14

established schools. the prc chief explains the decline to be partly a result

of the deterioration in the admission and screening of prospective medical

students applicants. obviously, a number of these schools are less than

discriminating in their admission in order to get the maximum enrollees in

for maximum financial profits, since they are apparently, first and foremost,

a money-making business venture, with the secondary objective of

providing medical education.

part of this unfortunate generic scenario is the lack of competent

fulltime and truly dedicated teachers, and lack of good hospital affiliation,

and the commercial bottom line philosophy of these inferior institutions

that results in substandard quality of teaching.

according to philip s. chua15 of far eastern university “the low

progressing nursing education in the country have been caused by: a)over

abundance of medical schools in the country, many of which provide

substandard medical education. b) unattractive salary discouraging

qualified ones from teaching. c) inadequate facilities and clinical exposure

that hinders nursing students from being confident providing care. d)

antiquated system of education and examinations. e) indifference and

ineffectiveness of medical associations and medical colleges to provide

effective leadership. f) harsh financial realities confronting medical

schools”.

15
philip s. chua. md, philippine college of physicians grand advocacy and partnership program
towardsa healthier philippines: to heal and to lead a nation: people, partnerships, an economic progress of
nursing education in the country, http://www.nursing.virginia.edu/development/mcleod-ex, january 21, 2005.
15

nursing schools nationwide are overflowing with students and

the problem could possibly affect the quality of instruction that existing

institutions, with their limited facilities, are able to provide, the trade union

congress of the philippines ( tucp ) warned.

in a report to the cabinet, ched chairman carlito puno cited four

major issues facing nursing education- the shortage and deficient

quality of most facilities for on the job training, the want for good quality

instruction, the need for improved screening of students, and the lack

of qualified faculty, clinical instructors and (nursing) school deans.

foreign literature

ong16 states that “the rapid changing world of political economic,

socio-cultural, sciences and technology affects the society very much.

education, as a subsystem, is also afferent.”

he identifies education as a process and developing resources in

terms of qualification and personality in teacher education. it is expected

that all qualified teachers should be good at introducing approximate

resources and technology to compliment their teaching. technology plays

an important role in an organization.

according to american association of college of nursing, nursing

schools across the country are struggling to find creative ways to expands

student capacity despite many obstacles like the shortage of nursing

16 willie t. ong, md, mph, the health budget: a matter of political will. the internist,
april 2006, vol ii, p4.
16

faculty, funding cuts, inadequate facilities, competition for students, and a

lack of clinical placement opportunities that are hampering efforts to attract

and retain more students.

to overcome these challenges, schools are forming partnerships

with clinical agencies to support mutual needs, lobbying for continued

state and federal monies, retooling marketing strategies and stepping up

efforts to expand diversity and recruit new population into nursing.

university of virginia school of nursing17 states that schools faced

a shortage of qualified instructors, inadequate clinical training from

overworked hospitals staff nurses, and a lack of clinical training space. a

low student-to-teacher ratio and costly equipment with nursing programs

are expensive for schools to maintain. however, other schools are

expanding their programs to meet demand. many have added tracks to

produce nurses with advanced degrees who are qualified to teach. others

have reached out to a widely population of students, scooping up

baccalaureate holders interested in nursing, or foreign health care workers

while others gave hospital nurses more time to train students.

foreign studies

abdullah al- hussein18 made an analysis of the science curriculum

in public secondary schools in saudi arabia based on the perception of

17 the university of virginia school of nursing,


http..//www.nursing.virginia.edu/development/mcleod_expansion.asp, copyright 1999- 2005
18 abdullah al hussein, the analysis of the science curriculum in public secondary schools in saudi
arabia as perceived by the students in the united states, doctor’s dissertation, university of oregon, 2000 p. 16
17

students in the united states of america. he stated the strengths and

weaknesses of public secondary school by treating some variable,

namely, goals, textbooks, methods, methods, evaluation and resources.

using the five-point scale, the writer found insignificant difference

in the student’s perception on the variables. however, even with new

textbooks, better facilities, high teacher standard, there was little

perception on the improvement of science instruction.

in harrington’s19 research, it was emphasized that nursing facilities

are an important component of a health industry that is increasingly

complex. the study discussed the quality of nursing care in nursing

including a review of how to measure quality. the quality of care in

continuous to vary widely with some facilities known to provide wide

exceptional care. on the other hand, two decades of studies have

identified poor quality problem of care provided by some nursing facilities.

quality problems are closely associated with historic low registered nurses

(rn) staffing levels in nursing facilities. the study gave a solution wherein

the federal and state regulatory efforts initiated to improve quality but still

quality continues to be problematic.

the merging of sciences and technology in almost all aspects of

education has become increasingly evident. extensive use of modern

facilities like educational media as a common practice in the classroom

nowadays.
19 charlene a harrington., ph.d., nursing facility quality, staffing, and economic issues, copyright
2006
18

in today’s education in japan according to gatmaitan,20 variety of

teaching resources for use in the classroom are available and are rapidly

expanding with the developments in electronics, research and training.

these abundance of teaching resources have great impact on

teaching/learning process if such utilization will be fully explored among

teachers and universities.

local studies

the bureau of public schools conducted a study a philippine

secondary schools and revealed the inadequacy of school facilities. two

hundred seventy two schools took part in the study. the showed that out of

the 272 high schools, 175 or 64.33 per cent were rated satisfactory; 13 or

4.7 per cent fair; 39 or 14.7 per cent inadequate and 45 or 16.7 per cent

no equipment at all. this evaluation of equipment was based on a p

2,000.00 worth standard checklist of science equipment.

several studies and surveys were conducted in different areas in

the country regarding the situation of science teaching and the adequacy

of instructional materials. problems on facilities, equipment and other

related matters were delved into and the conclusions were more or less

unanimous; facilities were inadequate stated by hernandez, dolores.21

according to the study made by sarmiento,22 she stated that


20 wilhelmina d. gatmaitan, audiovisual education in the elementary and secondary schools in
japan,university of tsukuba, march 2001, p. 26
21 dolores f. hernandez, proposed high school science courses for general education,
unpublishedmaster’s of education special problem, university of the philippines, 1954, p. 21 citing survey of
general secondary schools, bureau of public schools, april 10, 1954).
22 rolenda sarmiento, the guidance program of marikina district ii: a revitalization. unpublished
19

everything done in school has guidance implications that the teacher is in

a better position to know the children’s needs, problems and attitudes; that

he has much opportunity to render appropriate assistance to his students

that a guidance program cannot function effectively and smoothly without

the necessary facilities.

in 1961, a study on the problems of science teaching in the public

secondary school was conducted in 13 high schools in manila. emphasis

was focused on the problems encountered by science teachers in

connection with books, facilities and equipment used in teaching of

science.

rivera 23 stated that this study made use of normative survey.

data in relation to the problem were gathered from reports of science

teachers, interviews with supervisors and heads of department and the

experience of the researcher a science teacher.

in the study conducted by macacoite,24 he assessed the

adequacy of facilities of students taking industrial arts and found out that

a) instructional resources were mostly inadequate, poor in condition which

teachers acquired for themselves b) furniture, tools and equipments were

inadequate, fair in condition and mostly donated and given by the local

school board c) supplies and materials were inadequate which meant that

the decs requirement was not met. yet available items were in good
masteral thesis, national teacher’s college 1961 p. 22
23 maximiano rivera, a study of the problems of science teaching in the public secondary schools in
manila,thesis, up manila 2001. p 23
24 sofronic p, macacoite, assessment of physical plant, facilities and resource of industrial arts: an
input to program development in san jose del monte city west district , school year 2000- 2001, unpublished
masteral thesis, 2001.
20

condition. items were acquired through the teacher’s donations from

organizations and by the local school board. d) the greater problem met by

the teachers was the lack of funds for industrial arts program, while

greater problems were on the adequacy of tools and equipments supplies

and materials and utilization of time and teachers as utility workers.

relevance of the studies and literatures

the studies and literatures that were shown earlier supported the

researchers’ study and gave emphasis on the role of the school facilities to

the learning of the students. these studies and literatures serve as a

motivator and a voice to those silent students who let these problems just

pass by. here, one would be able to see how this problem could greatly

affect a student’s future, much more especially the career of that particular

student.
21

chapter 3

method and procedures

methods of research

this chapter presents the method of research instrument and

techniques, the data gathering procedure, the sampling technique and the

statistical treatment of data that will be employed in this study.


22

the researchers made use of the descriptive method in presenting

the study. descriptive research provides data about the population being

studied. but it can only describe the "who, what, when, where and how" of

a situation, not what caused it. it seeks to accurately describe current or

past phenomena.25

according to polit and beck,26 descriptive research is the second

brand class of non-experimental studies. it’s purpose is to observe,

describe, and document aspects of situations as it naturally occurs and

sometime to serve as a starting point for hypothesis generation or theory

development.

the researcher will use a common type of descriptive research

design—the survey. survey involves the collection of data in a sample of

the population under the study through the use of close-ended

questionnaire with a combination of open-ended questions. comparing

and contrasting answers of the respondent would be much easier with the

use of close-ended questions because it allows uniformity. open-ended

type of questions will also be utilized to have a complete detail about the

topic being studied. in addition, the researchers will also conduct library

works in order to attain a compilation of literatures and studies to support

the study.

25 www.ryerson.ca/~mjoppe/researchprocess/descriptiveresearch.htm - 2k -
26 denise f. polit and cheryl tatano beck, nursing research: principles and method, lippincott williams
& wilkins saratoga new york 7th ed (2004) p. 192
23

subject of the study

“the effects of emilio aguinaldo college’s nursing facilities in the

student’s learning skills—an assessment”, presents the problem that most

of the students are encountering, the researchers’ subjects will be

selected from the 2nd year ahse and 3rd year bsn students of the said

institution for the school year 2006-2007. they have been selected based

on the criteria set by the researchers. this includes their engagement in

subjects like health care 1 and 2, and nursing 100 (fundamentals of

nursing) during their sophomore and junior years that required the utmost

utilization of the institution’s facilities.

sample and sampling techniques

the sample that would be surveyed in this study would compose of

the 2nd year ahse and 3rd year nursing students of emilio aguinaldo college

who are engaged to subjects with related learning experience (rle). these

students constituted to a total population of 2,505 for the second semester

of the school year 2006 -2007. from the above stated total population of

the students, the researchers will be selecting number of 80 respondents.

among the 80 students that will be chosen, only 40 will fall under the

criteria set by the researchers. since the total number of 40 is controllable,

the researchers will be able to accomplish the study at a definite period of

time. with the above selection of respondents described, the researchers

only manifests that they will make use of purposive sampling.


24

the following criteria will be utilized in getting the samples:

1must be a 2nd year or 3rd year student of emilio aguinaldo college

2must be a resident of the college for at least 3 semesters

2must have been/be enrolled in the following subjects: health care i,

health care ii or nursing 100.

3must be 17-25 years of age

research instrument and technique

questionnaire

the questionnaire will be the major tool that will be used by the

researchers in gathering data. the questionnaire will be constructed by the

researchers to obtain information required by the research study. the

questions will include the profile of the respondents, assessment of the

institution’s nursing facilities in terms of quality and quantity, effects of

nursing facilities to the student’s learning skills, and the implications of

these nursing facilities to the school, the students, patients, parents, and

clinical instructors. the researchers will be using close-ended types of

questions with a combination of open-ended questions that will be

validated first by the pre-test that will be conducted among the

respondents.

validation of questionnaire

a pre- test will be conducted among the respondents to validate the


25

questionnaires constructed by the researchers in order to gain assurance

that the research instrument to be used will obtain accurate data.

through validation, the researchers will be able to determine certain

errors that could serve as potential barriers towards gathering complete

and detailed information.

data gathering procedure

the second group of the third year students of section 1 will be

conducting a survey having 2nd year ahse and 3rd year bsn students as

their accessible population. the researchers’ target sample size is 40

students. the strata will be in accordance to the year level of the

respondents. the first half would compose of the 2nd year students under

associate in health science education and the other half from the 3rd year

students under the college of nursing and midwifery. the inclusion criteria

will be set according to the researchers’ designed consideration. the

researchers will be making use of the non-probability sampling as the

sample design or judgmental sampling that will require the use of

knowledge in hand picking sample members.27

to be able to get an easy access to the students, a letter of

permission will be approved from the dean of the cnm and the officer in-

charge of ahse. after the approval of the letters, questionnaires will be

distributed to the respondents who would be willing to be the study’s

27 denise f. polit, nursing research: principles and method, lippincott williams & wilkins saratoga new
york 7th ed (2004) p. 310
26

participants.

moreover, a pilot study will be done so as to validate the

instrument to be used. the incidence of responses and non-responses will

be noted to calculate the response rate. after so, the finalized

questionnaires will be distributed.28

statistical treatment of data

all pertinent data and information obtained through the

dissemination of the survey questionnaires will be summarized and

presented. with the purpose of providing a clearer viewpoint of the

gathered information, the following statistical tools for data quantification

and analysis will be used:

1. frequency distribution

according to nieswiadomy,29 this is the one of the simplest

ways to present data. they are obtained by simply counting the occurrence

of values or scores represented in data. all values or scores are listed, and

the number of times each one appears is recorded. values may be listed

from highest to lowest or from lowest to highest.

2. percentage

28 flosesficles b. fernadez, the palawan state university credit cooperative: proposed improvement
scheme,university of san jose- recoletos cebu city, october 2000.
29 rose marie nieswiadomy, phd, rn, foundation of nursing research 4th edition pearson education
inc. copyright 2002 p. 245
27

according to polit and beck,30 it is a descriptive statistical tool

used in data analysis to determine the relationship of a part to its whole.

the formula used in determining the percentage is:

percentage (%)= (f/n)100


where:
f= population frequency
n= total number of respondents of a particular
item

bibliography

A. textbooks

swannel, julia, the little oxford dictionary of current english 6th edition,
1986

pei, mario, the lexicon webster dictionary with a historical sketch of the
english language delair publishing inc. 1981

polit, denise and beck, cheryl, nursing research: principles and method
7thedition lippincott, williams and wilkins, 2004

merriam webster dictionary, merriam- webster inc. 2004

kozier, barbara et. al fundamentals of nursing: concepts, process and


practice7th edition pearson education inc. 2004

martin, elizabeth and guidos, barbara the bantham medical dictionary


banthambooks usa, 2000

tamse, soledad teaching strategies: barriers in learning rex publishing


30
denise f. polit and cheryl tatano beck, nursing research: principles and methods, lippincott william and wilkins
7th edition, copyright 2004, p. 455-460
28

inc.2000

nieswiadomy, rose marie foundation of nursing research 4th edition


pearson education inc. 2002

B. periodicals/ magazines

puno, carlito huge enrolment in nursing schools seen to impact on


training quality the manila times, tuesday, nov. 14 2006

ong, willie the health budget: a matter of political will the internist, april
2006, vol ii p.4

fitzpatrick, robert j. aptitude testing and the provincial students fape


review, vol 5, no. 4

C. theses and dissertations

richardson, john s. school facilities for science instruction washington


nat'l science technology association, masteral thesis, 1998

al hussein, abdullah the analysis of the science curriculum in public


secondary schoolsin saudi arabia as perceived by the students in
the united states doctor’s dissertation, university of oregon, 2000

gatmaitan, wilhelmia audiovisual education in the elementary and


secondary schools in japan, unpublished masteral thesis
university of tsukuba, march 2001

hernandez, dolores f. proposed high school science courses for general


education unpublished master’s of education special problem,
university of the philippines, 1954

sarmiento, rolenda the guidance program of marikina district ii: a


revitilization unpublished masteral thesis, national teacher’s
college 1961

rivera, maximiano a study of the problems of science teaching in the


public secondary schools in manila, thesis, up manila 2001.

macacoite, sofronic p assessment of physical plant, facilities and


resource of industrial arts: an input to program development in
san jose del monte city west district , school year 2000- 2001,
unpublished masteral thesis, 2001.
29

fernadez, flosesficles b. the palawan state university credit


cooperative:proposed improvement scheme, university of san
jose- recoletos cebu city, october 2000.

D. internet/ websites

estella, chit nursing schools peddle dreams: philippine center of


investigative journalism, the manila times, www.yahoo.com
march 22, 2005

chua, philip s. md, crisis in medical education in the philippines; an


imminent one in health care delivery
www.nursing.virginia.edu/development/mcleod-ex. january 21,
2005

chua, philip s. md, philippine college of physicians grand advocacy and


partnership program towards a healthier philippines: to heal and
to lead a nation: people, partnerships, an economic progress of
nursing education in the country,
www.nursing.virginia.edu/development/mcleod-ex, january 21,
2005.

the university of virginia school of nursing,


www.nursing.virginia.edu/development/mcleod_expansion.asp,
copyright 1999- 2005

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