6
1
& & & for: 6 ,... 1 i
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In here,
i
x with indices 3 , 2 , 1 i are the displacements of G (surge, sway and heave) and
i
x
with indices 6 , 5 , 4 i are the rotations about the axes through G (roll, pitch and yaw). The
indices ij present at motion i the coupling with motion j .
The masses in the equations of motion above consist of solid masses or solid mass moments
of inertia of the ship (
ij
M ) and added masses or added mass moments of inertia caused
by the disturbed water, the hydrodynamic masses or mass moments of inertia (
ij
a ). An
oscillating ship generates waves it self too; energy will be radiated from the ship. The
hydrodynamic dampingterms (
i ij
x b & ) account for this. For the heave, roll and pitch motions,
hydrostatic springterms (
i ij
x c ) have to be added. The right hand sides of the equations of
motion consist of exciting wave forces and moments (
i
F ).
In the socalled strip theory, the ship will be divided in 20 tot 30 cross sections, of which the
twodimensional hydromechanic coefficients and exciting wave loads will be calculated. To
obtain the threedimensional values, these values will be integrated over the ship length
numerically. Finally, the differential equations will be solved to obtain the motions. These
calculations will be performed in the frequency domain.
It was in 1949 that Ursell published his potential theory for determining the hydrodynamic
coefficients of semicircular cross sections, oscillating in deep water in the frequency domain.
Using this, for the first time a rough estimation could be made of the motions of a ship in
regular waves at zero forward speed.
Shortly after that Tasai, Grim, Gerritsma and many other scientists used various already
existing conformal mapping techniques (to transform shiplike cross sections to a semicircle)
together with Ursells theory, in such a way that the motions in regular waves of more realistic
hull forms could be calculated too. Most popular was the 2parameter Lewis conformal
mapping technique. The exciting wave loads were found from the loads in undisturbed waves
the socalled FroudeKrilov forces or moments completed with diffraction terms
accounting for the presence of the ship in these waves.
Borrowed from the broadcasting technology, Denis en Pierson published in 1953 a
superposition method to describe the irregular waves too. The sea was considered to be the
sum of many simple harmonic waves; each wave with its own frequency, amplitude, direction
and random phase lag. By calculating the responses of the ship on each of these individual
harmonic waves and adding up the responses of the ship, the energy distribution of the ships
behaviour in irregular waves could be found. These irregular motions are characterised by
significant amplitude and average period.
However, these theories provided the motions at zero forward speed only. In 1957, Korvin
Kroukovski en Jacobs published a method  which was further improved in the sixties  to
account for the effect of forward ship speed.
So at the end of the fifties, all components for an elementary ship motions computer program
for deep water were already available.
Fukuda published in 1962 a calculation technique for the internal sheer forces and bending
moments in a cross section of a ship.
Frank published in 1967 his pulsating source theory to calculate the hydrodynamic
coefficients of a cross section of a ship in deep water directly, without using conformal
mapping. The potential coefficients of a fully submerged cross section (bulbous bow) and
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sections with a very low area coefficient (often present in the aft body) could be calculated
now too.
Using Lewis conformal mapping, Keil published in 1974 his theory for obtaining the potential
coefficients in very shallow water.
Useful theories to calculate the added resistance of a ship due to waves were given by Boese
(integrated pressure method) in 1970 and Gerritsma and Beukelman (radiated energy method)
in 1972.
So far, all hydrodynamic coefficients had been determined with the potential theory. However,
roll requires a viscous correction on that. Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka published in 1978 a very
useful semiempirical method for determining the viscous roll damping components.
The introduction of personal computers in the early eighties increased the accessibility for
carrying out ship motion calculations considerably; even nonspecialists could become users
too. From then on the computer capacity and the computing speed increased very fast, so that
threedimensional theories could be developed much easier and cheaper now.
Because of the complex problem of forward speed in 3D theories however, the 2D approach
(strip theory) is still very favourable for calculating the behaviour of a ship at forward speed.
The many advantages and just a few disadvantages, when comparing 2D with 3D, had been
discussed very clearly by Faltinsen and Svensen in 1990.
Among others as a consequence of the work of the researchers mentioned above, a DOS
personal computer strip theory program  called SEAWAY  had been completed by the Delft
University of Technology at the end of the eighties. Recently, a Windows version has been
completed too, see web site www.shipmotions.nl or www.amarcon.com.
Based on the linear strip theory, this program calculates for 6 degrees of freedom in the
frequency domain the hydromechanic loads, wave loads, absolute and relative motions, added
resistance and internal loads of displacement ships, barges and yachts in regular and irregular
waves. When ignoring interaction effects between the two individual hulls, the behaviour of
catamarans and semisubmersibles can be calculated too. The program is suitable for deep
water as well as for very shallow water. Viscous roll damping, bilge keels, freesurface anti
roll tanks, external moments and (linear) mooring springs can be added.
The computer code has been verified and validated extensively by the authors, many students
and a large number of industrial users.
Error messages, advises and all type of comments on this technical report are very welcome
by email to J.M.J.Journee@wbmt.tudelft.nl or Leon.Adegeest@amarcon.com.
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
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Table of Contents:
1 Introduction........................................................................................................................11
1.1 About the Authors..........................................................................................................11
1.2 About this Manual........................................................................................................ 12
2 Strip Theory Methods....................................................................................................... 15
2.1 Definitions .................................................................................................................... 17
2.2 Incident Wave Potential................................................................................................ 20
2.2.1 Continuity Condition............................................................................................ 21
2.2.2 Laplace Equation.................................................................................................. 21
2.2.3 Seabed Boundary Condition................................................................................. 22
2.2.4 Free Surface Dynamic Boundary Condition......................................................... 22
2.2.5 Free Surface Kinematic Boundary Condition....................................................... 24
2.2.6 Dispersion Relationship........................................................................................ 25
2.2.7 Relationships in Regular Waves........................................................................... 26
2.3 Floating Rigid Body in Waves...................................................................................... 28
2.3.1 Fluid Requirements............................................................................................... 28
2.3.2 Forces and Moments............................................................................................. 30
2.3.3 Hydrodynamic Loads............................................................................................ 31
2.3.4 Wave and Diffraction Loads................................................................................. 36
2.3.5 Hydrostatic Loads................................................................................................. 38
2.4 Equations of Motion..................................................................................................... 39
2.5 Strip Theory Approaches.............................................................................................. 43
2.5.1 Zero Forward Ship Speed..................................................................................... 43
2.5.2 Forward Ship Speed.............................................................................................. 44
2.5.3 EndTerms............................................................................................................. 46
2.6 Hydrodynamic Coefficients.......................................................................................... 48
3 2D Potential Coefficients ................................................................................................ 51
3.1 Conformal Mapping Methods....................................................................................... 53
3.1.1 Lewis Conformal Mapping................................................................................... 54
3.1.2 Extended Lewis Conformal Mapping................................................................... 58
3.1.3 CloseFit Conformal Mapping.............................................................................. 59
3.1.4 Mapping Comparisons .......................................................................................... 63
3.2 Potential Theory of Tasai.............................................................................................. 65
3.2.1 Heave Motions...................................................................................................... 66
3.2.2 Sway Motions ....................................................................................................... 76
3.2.3 Roll Motions ......................................................................................................... 88
3.2.4 Low and High Frequencies................................................................................. 100
3.3 Potential Theory of Keil.............................................................................................. 103
3.3.1 Notations of Keil................................................................................................. 103
3.3.2 Basic Assumptions.............................................................................................. 104
3.3.3 Vertical Motions.................................................................................................. 106
3.3.4 Horizontal Motions............................................................................................. 133
3.3.5 Appendices ......................................................................................................... 144
3.4 Potential Theory of Frank........................................................................................... 153
3.4.1 Notations of Frank .............................................................................................. 153
3.4.2 Formulation of the Problem................................................................................ 155
3.4.3 Solution of the Problem...................................................................................... 157
3.4.4 Low and High Frequencies................................................................................. 161
3.4.5 Irregular Frequencies .......................................................................................... 162
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3.4.6 Appendices ......................................................................................................... 165
3.5 Comparisons between Calculated Potential Data....................................................... 173
3.6 Estimated Potential Surge Coefficients ...................................................................... 175
4 Viscous Damping............................................................................................................ 177
4.1 Surge Damping........................................................................................................... 178
4.1.1 Total Surge Damping.......................................................................................... 178
4.1.2 Viscous Surge Damping...................................................................................... 179
4.2 Roll Damping.............................................................................................................. 180
4.2.1 Experimental Determination............................................................................... 181
4.2.2 Empirical Formula for Barges ............................................................................ 183
4.2.3 Empirical Method of Miller................................................................................ 183
4.2.4 SemiEmpirical Method of Ikeda ....................................................................... 184
5 Hydromechanical Loads ................................................................................................. 197
5.1 Hydromechanical Forces for Surge ............................................................................ 198
5.2 Hydromechanical Forces for Sway............................................................................. 201
5.3 Hydromechanical Forces for Heave ........................................................................... 204
5.4 Hydromechanical Moments for Roll .......................................................................... 207
5.5 Hydromechanical Moments for Pitch......................................................................... 210
5.6 Hydromechanical Moments for Yaw.......................................................................... 213
6 Exciting Wave Loads...................................................................................................... 217
6.1 Wave Potential............................................................................................................ 217
6.2 Classical Approach..................................................................................................... 219
6.2.1 Exciting Wave Forces for Surge ......................................................................... 219
6.2.2 Exciting Wave Forces for Sway.......................................................................... 221
6.2.3 Exciting Wave Forces for Heave........................................................................ 223
6.2.4 Exciting Wave Moments for Roll ....................................................................... 225
6.2.5 Exciting Wave Moments for Pitch...................................................................... 227
6.2.6 Exciting Wave Moments for Yaw....................................................................... 228
6.3 Approximating 2D Diffraction Approach................................................................. 229
6.3.1 Hydromechanical Loads ..................................................................................... 229
6.3.2 Energy Considerations ........................................................................................ 231
6.3.3 Wave Loads......................................................................................................... 232
6.4 Numerical Comparisons ............................................................................................. 238
7 Transfer Functions of Motions ....................................................................................... 239
7.1 Centre of Gravity Motions.......................................................................................... 240
7.2 Local Absolute Displacements ................................................................................... 243
7.3 Local Absolute Velocities........................................................................................... 244
7.4 Local Absolute Accelerations..................................................................................... 245
7.4.1 Accelerations in the EarthBound Axes System................................................. 245
7.4.2 Accelerations in the ShipBound Axes System.................................................. 245
7.5 Local Vertical Relative Displacements....................................................................... 247
7.6 Local Vertical Relative Velocities............................................................................... 248
8 AntiRolling Devices ...................................................................................................... 249
8.1 Bilge Keels.................................................................................................................. 250
8.2 Passive FreeSurface Tanks........................................................................................ 251
8.2.1 Theoretical Approach......................................................................................... 251
8.2.2 Experimental Approach...................................................................................... 255
8.2.3 Effect of FreeSurface Tanks .............................................................................. 257
8.3 Active Fin Stabilisers.................................................................................................. 258
8.4 Active Rudder Stabilisers ........................................................................................... 261
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9 External Linear Springs .................................................................................................. 263
9.1 External Loads............................................................................................................ 263
9.2 Additional Coefficients............................................................................................... 264
9.3 Linearised Mooring Coefficients................................................................................ 266
10 Added Resistance due to Waves ..................................................................................... 267
10.1 Radiated Energy Method........................................................................................ 269
10.2 Integrated Pressure Method.................................................................................... 271
10.3 Comparison of Results............................................................................................ 273
11 Bending and Torsion Moments....................................................................................... 275
11.1 Still Water Loads .................................................................................................... 281
11.2 Dynamical Lateral Loads........................................................................................ 282
11.3 Dynamical Vertical Loads....................................................................................... 284
11.4 Dynamical Torsion Loads....................................................................................... 287
12 Statistics in Irregular Waves........................................................................................... 289
12.1 Normalised Wave Energy Spectra.......................................................................... 290
12.1.1 Neumann Wave Spectrum................................................................................... 290
12.1.2 Bretschneider Wave Spectrum............................................................................ 290
12.1.3 Mean JONSWAP Wave Spectrum...................................................................... 291
12.1.4 Definition of Parameters..................................................................................... 291
12.2 Response Spectra and Statistics.............................................................................. 295
12.3 Shipping Green Water............................................................................................. 300
12.4 Bow Slamming........................................................................................................ 302
12.4.1 Criterium of Ochi................................................................................................ 302
12.4.2 Criterium of Conolly........................................................................................... 303
13 TwinHull Ships.............................................................................................................. 307
13.1 Hydromechanical Coefficients ............................................................................... 307
13.2 Equations of Motion............................................................................................... 308
13.3 Hydromechanical Forces and Moments ................................................................. 309
13.4 Exciting Wave Forces and Moments...................................................................... 310
13.5 Added Resistance due to Waves ............................................................................. 314
13.5.1 Radiated Energy Method.................................................................................... 314
13.5.2 Integrated Pressure Method................................................................................ 314
13.6 Bending and Torsion Moments............................................................................... 315
14 Numerical Recipes.......................................................................................................... 317
14.1 Polynomials ............................................................................................................ 317
14.1.1 First Degree Polynomial..................................................................................... 317
14.1.2 Second Degree Polynomial................................................................................. 318
14.2 Integrations ............................................................................................................. 319
14.2.1 First Degree Integration...................................................................................... 319
14.2.2 Second Degree Integration................................................................................. 319
14.2.3 Integration of Wave Loads.................................................................................. 320
14.3 Derivatives.............................................................................................................. 323
14.3.1 First Degree Derivative....................................................................................... 323
14.3.2 Second Degree Derivative.................................................................................. 323
14.4 Curve Lengths......................................................................................................... 326
14.4.1 First Degree Curve.............................................................................................. 326
14.4.2 Second Degree Curve ......................................................................................... 326
15 References....................................................................................................................... 329
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Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
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1 Introduction
SEAWAY is a frequencydomain ship motions PC program, based on the linear strip theory
for calculating the hydromechanic loads, waveinduced loads, motions, added resistance and
internal loads for six degrees of freedom of displacement ships and yachts, barges, semi
submersibles or catamarans, sailing in regular and irregular waves. The program is suitable for
deep water as well as for shallow water. Viscous roll damping, bilge keels, antiroll tanks, free
surface effects and (linear springs) can be added.
This computer code has been developed in the late eighties and early nineties under DOS by
the first author. His last SEAWAY for DOS version was released in 2002.
In 2003, the second author took over the software implementation and distribution part of the
job and developed the new SEAWAY for Windows release.
Information can be found at web site www.shipmotions.nl or www.amarcon.com.
1.1 About the Authors
Johan Journe had obtained his Polytechnical Degree in 1964 at the AvondHTS Rotterdam
and in 1975 his MSc degree at the Delft University of Technology. Both degrees in Naval
Architecture were obtained, alongside a fulltime job, by studying in the evening hours.
He started his working career in 1958 at the Rotterdam Dockyard Company, first with
construction work in the shipbuilding factory and two years later with technical ship design
work in the drawing office of this yard. In 1963, he became Technical Officer at the Ship
Hydromechanics Laboratory of the Delft University of Technology. After obtaining his MSc
degree in 1975, he became Scientific Officer there, some years later Assistant Professor and in
1992 Associate Professor.
During the years 1985 through 1990, Johan had developed  as a more or less derailed hobby 
this 2D ship motions computer code SEAWAY. This development was a very useful exercise
for him to understand in a very detailed way the theory and the practice of the behaviour of a
ship in waves, see Journe [1992]. Parts of this study were basis for comprehensive lecture
notes on Offshore Hydromechanics, see Journe and Massie [2001].
Since 1984, Johan Journe is teaching Ship and Offshore Hydromechanics to students of the
Mechanical and Civil Engineering Departments and since 1990 also to students of the
Maritime Technology Department.
Leon Adegeest was one of the founders of AMARCON in January 2001. AMARCONs major
activities are developing software for decision support onboard using seakeeping theory and
related consultancy and engineering work.
Before AMARCON, Leon has worked at Det Norske Veritas (DNV) in Norway and at
MARIN in the Netherlands. At DNV (1997 2001) he developed methods for the prediction
of extreme nonlinear ship responses in irregular seas. As Group Leader Hydrodynamics, he
was heavily involved in the development and implementation of DNV's nonlinear 3D
seakeeping software package WASIM. Practical experience in the use of seakeeping codes
was gained during commercial projects, which include nonlinear wave load analyses for large
container carriers, fatigue analyses for a RoRocarrier and water on deck evaluations for
production vessels. From 1994 to 1997, he worked at the Maritime Research Institute
Netherlands (MARIN) as project manager in the Trials and Monitoring group.
Leon Adegeest holds a MSc degree in Naval Architecture from the Delft University of
Technology. In 1994, he finished his PhD study at this university. The title of the thesis was
Nonlinear Hull Girder Loads in Ships, see Adegeest [1994].
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1.2 About this Manual
This manual aim at being a guide and aid for those who want to study the theoretical
backgrounds and the algorithms of a ship motions computer code, like SEAWAY, based on the
strip theory. The theoretical backgrounds and the algorithms of this program have been
described here in detail.
Chapter 1, this introduction, gives a short survey of the contents of all chapters in this report.
Chapter 2 gives a general description of the various strip theory approaches. A general
description of the potential flow theory is given. The derivations of the hydromechanic forces
and moments, the wave potential and the wave and diffraction forces and moments have been
described.
The equations of motion are given with solid mass and inertia terms and hydromechanic
forces and moments in the left hand side and the wave exciting forces and moments in the
right hand side. The principal assumptions are a linear relation between forces and motions
and the validity of obtaining the total forces by a simple integration over the ship length of the
twodimensional cross sectional forces.
This includes for all motions a forward speed effect caused by the potential mass, as has been
defined by KorvinKroukovsky and Jacobs [1957] for the heave and pitch motions. This
approach is called the ''Ordinary Strip Theory Method''. Also an inclusion of the forward
speed effect caused by the potential damping, as for instance given by Tasai [1969]. This
approach is called the ''Modified Strip Theory Method''.
The inclusion of socalled ''EndTerms'' has been described too.
Chapter 3 describes the determination of the twodimensional potential mass and damping
coefficients for the six modes of motions at infinite and finite water depths.
Firstly, it describes several conformal mapping methods. For the determination of the two
dimensional hydrodynamic potential coefficients for sway, heave and roll motions of shiplike
cross sections, these sections are conformal mapped to the unit circle. The advantage of
conformal mapping is that the velocity potential of the fluid around an arbitrary shape of a
cross section in a complex plane can be derived from the more convenient circular section in
another complex plane. In this manner hydrodynamic problems can be solved directly with
the coefficients of the mapping function.
The closefit multiparameter conformal mapping method is given. A very simple and straight
on iterative least squares method, used to determine the conformal mapping coefficients, has
been described. Two special cases of multiparameter conformal mapping have been
described too: the well known classic transformation of Lewis [1929] with two parameters
and an ExtendedLewis transformation with three parameters, as given by Athanassoulis and
Loukakis [1985].
Then, it describes 3 methods for the determination of the twodimensional potential mass and
damping coefficients for the six modes of motions at infinite and finite water depths. At
infinite water depths, the principle of the calculation of these potential coefficients is based on
work of Ursell [1949] for circular cylinders and Frank [1967] for any arbitrary symmetric
cross section.
Starting from the velocity potentials and the conjugate stream functions of the fluid with an
infinite depth as have been given by Tasai [1959], Tasai [1960], Tasai [1961] and de Jong
[1973] and using the multiparameter conformal mapping technique, the calculation routines
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of the twodimensional hydrodynamic potential coefficients of shiplike cross sections are
given for the sway, heave and roll motions.
For any arbitrary water depth (deep to very shallow water), the method of Keil [1974]  based
on a variation of the theory of Ursell [1949] with Lewis conformal mapping  has been given.
Finally, the pulsating source method of Frank [1967] for deep water has been described.
Because of using the strip theory approach here, the pitch and yaw coefficients follow from
the moments about the ship's centre of gravity of the heave and sway coefficients,
respectively.
Approximations are given for the surge coefficients.
Chapter 4 gives some corrections on the hydrodynamic damping due to viscous effects. The
surgedamping coefficient is corrected for viscous effects by an empirical method, based on a
simple still water resistance curve as published by Troost [1955].
The analysis of freerolling model experiments and two (semi) empirical methods published
by Miller [1974] and Ikeda [1978], to determine a viscous correction of the rolldamping
coefficients, are described in detail.
Chapter 5 describes the determination of the hydromechanic forces and moments in the left
hand side of the six equations of motion of a sailing ship, obtained with the hydromechanic
coefficients as determined in Chapter 3 and 4, for both the ordinary and the modified strip
theory method.
Chapter 6 describes the wave exciting forces and moments in the right hand side of the six
equations of motion of a sailing ship in water with an arbitrarily depth, using the relative
motion concept for both the ordinary and the modified strip theory method.
First, the classical approach has been described, using equivalent accelerations and velocities
of the water particles. Then, an alternative approach, based on diffraction of waves, has been
described.
Chapter 7 describes the solution of the equations of motion and the determination of the
frequency characteristics of the absolute displacements, rotations, velocities and accelerations
and the vertical relative displacements. The use of a wave potential valid for any arbitrary
water depth makes a calculation method with deep water coefficients, suitable for ships
sailing with keel clearances down to about 50 percent of the ship's draft. At lower water
depths, Keils method should be used.
Chapter 8 describes some antirolling devices. A description is given of an inclusion of
passive freesurface tanks as defined by the experiments of van den Bosch and Vugts [1966]
and by the theory of Verhagen and van Wijngaarden [1965]. Active fin and rudder stabilisers
have been described too.
Chapter 9 describes the inclusion of linear spring terms, to simulate the behavior of anchored
or moored ships.
Chapter 10 describes two methods to determine the transfer functions of the added resistance
due to waves. The first method is a radiated wave energy method, as published by Gerritsma
and Beukelman [1972]. The second method is an integrated pressure method, as published by
Boese [1970].
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Chapter 11 describes the determination of the frequency characteristics of the lateral and
vertical shear forces and bending moments and the torsion moments in a way as had been
presented by Fukuda [1962] for the vertical mode. Still water phenomena are described too.
Chapter 12 describes the statistics in irregular waves, by using the superposition principle.
Three examples of normalized wave spectra are given: the somewhat wide wave spectrum of
Neumann, an average wave spectrum of Bretschneider and the more narrow Mean JONSWAP
wave spectrum.
A description is given of the calculation procedure of the energy spectra and the statistics of
the ship motions for six degrees of freedom, the added resistance, the vertical relative motions
and the mechanic loads on the ship in waves coming from any direction.
For the calculation of the probability of exceeding a threshold value by the motions, the
Rayleigh probability density function has been used.
The static and dynamic swell up of the waves, of importance when calculating the probability
of shipping green water, are defined according to Tasaki [1963]. A theoretically determined
dynamic swell up had been given too.
Bow slamming phenomena are defined by both the relative bow velocity criterion of Ochi
[1964] and by the peak bottomimpactpressure criteria of Conolly [1974].
Chapter 13 describes the additions to all algorithms in case of twin hull ships, such as semi
submersibles and catamarans. However, for interaction effects between the two individual
hulls will not be accounted here.
Chapter 14 shows some typical numerical recipes, as has been used in program SEAWAY.
Finally, Chapter 15 gives a survey of all literature used during the development of this
computer code.
Error messages, advises and all type of comments on this technical report are very welcome
by email: J.M.J.Journee@wbmt.tudelft.nl.
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2 Strip Theory Methods
The ship is considered to be a rigid body, floating in the surface of an ideal fluid, which is
homogeneous, incompressible, free of surface tension, irrotational and without viscosity. It is
assumed that the problem of the motions of this floating body in waves is linear or can be
linearised. Consequently, only the external loads on the underwater part of the ship are
considered here and the effect of the above water part will be fully neglected.
Faltinsen and Svensen [1990] have discussed the incorporation of seakeeping theories in ship
design clearly. An overview of seakeeping theories for ships were presented and it was
concluded that  nevertheless some limitations  strip theories are the most successful and
practical tools for the calculation of the wave induced motions of the ship, at least in an early
design stage of a ship.
The strip theory solves the threedimensional problem of the hydromechanical and exciting
wave forces and moments on the ship by integrating the twodimensional potential solutions
over the ship's length. Interactions between the cross sections are ignored for the zerospeed
case. So, each cross section of the ship is considered to be part of an infinitely long cylinder.
The strip theory is a slender body theory, so one should expect less accurate predictions for
ships with low length to breadth ratios. However, experiments showed that the strip theory
appears to be remarkably effective for predicting the motions of ships with length to breadth
ratios down to about 3.0, or even sometimes lower.
The strip theory is based on the potential flow theory. This holds that viscous effects are
neglected, which can deliver serious problems when predicting roll motions at resonance
frequencies. In practice, for viscous roll damping effects can be accounted fairly by empirical
methods.
Because of the way that the forced motion problems are solved, generally in the strip theory,
substantial disagreements can be found between the calculated results and the experimental
data of the wave loads at low frequencies of encounter in following waves. In practice
however, these ''near zero frequency of encounter problems'' can be solved by forcing the
wave loads going to zero, artificially.
For highspeed vessels and for large ship motions, as appear in extreme sea states, the strip
theory can deliver less accurate results. Then the socalled ''endterms'' can become very
important.
The strip theory accounts for the interaction with the forward speed in a very simple way. The
effect of the steady wave system around the ship is neglected and the free surface conditions
are simplified, so that the unsteady waves generated by the ship are propagating in directions
perpendicular to the centre plane of the ship. In reality the wave systems around the ship are
far more complex. For highspeed vessels, unsteady divergent wave systems become
important. This effect is neglected in the strip theory.
The strip theory is based on linearity. This means that the ship motions are supposed to be
small, relative to the cross sectional dimensions of the ship. Only hydrodynamic effects of the
hull below the still water level are accounted for. So, when parts of the ship go out of or in to
the water or when green water is shipped, inaccuracies can be expected. Also, the strip theory
does not distinguish between alternative above water hull forms.
Because of the added resistance of a ship due to the waves is proportional to the relative
motions squared, its inaccuracy will be gained strongly by inaccuracies in the predicted
motions.
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Nevertheless these limitations, seakeeping prediction methods based upon the strip theory
provide a sufficiently good basis for optimisation studies at an early design stage of the ship.
At a more detailed design stage, it can be considered to carry out additional model
experiments to investigate for instance added resistance or extreme event phenomena, such as
shipping green water and slamming.
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2.1 Definitions
Figure 2.11 shows a harmonic wave as seen from two different perspectives. Figure 2.11a
shows what one would observe in a snapshot photo made looking at the side of a (transparent)
wave flume; the wave profile is shown as a function of distance x along the flume at a fixed
instant in time. Figure 2.11b shows a time record of the water level observed at one location
along the flume; it looks similar in many ways to the other figure, but time t has replaced x
on the horizontal axis.
Figure 2.11: Harmonic wave definitions
Notice that the origin of the coordinate system is at the still water level with the positive z 
axis directed upwards; most relevant values of z will be negative.
The still water level is the average water level or the level of the water if no waves were
present. The x axis is positive in the direction of wave propagation. The water depth, h , (a
positive value) is measured between the seabed ( h z ) and the still water level ( 0 z ).
The highest point of the wave is called its crest and the lowest point on its surface is the
trough. If the wave is described by a harmonic wave, then its amplitude
a
is the distance
from the still water level to the crest, or to the trough for that matter. The subscript a denotes
the amplitude, here.
The horizontal distance (measured in the direction of wave propagation) between any two
successive wave crests is the wavelength, . The distance along the time axis is the wave
period, T . The ratio of wave height to wavelength is often referred to as the dimensionless
wave steepness: / 2
a
.
Since the distance between any two corresponding points on successive harmonic waves is the
same, wave lengths and periods are usually actually measured between two consecutive
upward (or downward) crossings of the still water level. Such points are also called zero
crossings, and are easier to detect in a wave record.
Since sine or cosine waves are expressed in terms of angular arguments, the wavelength and
wave period are converted to angles using:
2
2
T
k
or
T
k
2
2
Equation 2.11
in which k is the wave number (rad/m) and is the circular wave frequency (rad/s).
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Obviously, the wave form moves one wave length during one period, so that its speed or
phase velocity, c , is given by:
k T
c
Equation 2.12
Suppose now a sailing ship in waves, with coordinate systems as given in Figure 2.12.
Figure 2.12: Coordinate systems
A righthanded coordinate system ( )
0 0 0
, , z y x S is fixed in space. The ( )
0 0
, y x plane lies in the
still water surface,
0
x is directed as the wave propagation and
0
z is directed upwards.
Another righthanded coordinate system ( ) z y x O , , is moving forward with a constant ship
speed V . The directions of the axes are: x in the direction of the forward ship speed V , y in
the lateral port side direction and z vertically upwards. The ship is supposed to carry out
oscillations around this moving ( ) z y x O , , coordinate system. The origin O lies vertically
above or under the timeaveraged position of the centre of gravity G. The ( ) y x, plane lies in
the still water surface.
A third righthanded coordinate system ( )
b b b
z y x G , , is connected to the ship with its origin at
G, the ship's centre of gravity. The directions of the axes are:
b
x in the longitudinal forward
direction,
b
y in the lateral port side direction and
b
z upwards. In still water, the ( )
b b
y x , plane
is parallel to the still water surface.
If the wave moves in the positive
0
x direction (defined in a direction with an angle relative
to the ship's speed vector, V ), the wave profile  the form of the water surface  can now be
expressed as a function of both
0
x and t as follows:
( ) t x k
a
0
cos or ( )
0
cos x k t
a
Equation 2.13
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19
The righthanded coordinate system ( ) z y x O , , is moving with the ship's speed V , which
yields:
sin cos cos
0
+ + y x t V x
Equation 2.14
From the relation between the frequency of encounter
e
and the wave frequency :
cos V k
e
Equation 2.15
follows:
( ) sin cos cos y k x k t
e a
Equation 2.16
The resulting six ship motions in the ( ) z y x O , , system are defined by three translations of the
ship's centre of gravity in the direction of the x , y  and z axes and three rotations about
them:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
+
+
+
+
+
+
t
t
t
t z
t y
t x x
e a
e a
e a
z e a
y e a
x e a
cos : yaw
cos : pitch
cos : roll
cos z : heave
cos y : sway
cos : surge
Equation 2.17
The phase shifts of these motions are related to the harmonic wave elevation at the origin of
the ( ) z y x O , , system, i.e. the average position of the ship's centre of gravity:
( ) t
e a
cos : wave
Equation 2.18
The harmonic velocities and accelerations in the ( ) z y x O , , system are found now by taking
the derivatives of the displacements, for instance for surge:
( )
( )
( )
x e a e
x e a e
x e a
t x x
t x x
t x x
+
+
+
cos : on accelerati surge
sin : velocity surge
cos : nt displaceme surge
2
& &
&
Equation 2.19
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20
2.2 Incident Wave Potential
In order to use the linear potential theory for waves, it will be necessary to assume that the
water surface slope is very small. This means that the wave steepness is so small that terms in
the equations of motion of the waves with a magnitude in the order of the steepnesssquared
can be ignored.
Suppose a wave moving in the ( ) z x, plane. The profile of that simple wave with a small
steepness looks like a sine or a cosine and the motion of a water particle in a wave depends on
the distance below the still water level. This is reason why the wave potential can be written
as:
( ) ( ) ( ) t x k z P t z x
w
sin , ,
Equation 2.21
in which ( ) z P is an (as yet) unknown function of z .
This velocity potential ( ) t z x
w
, , of the harmonic waves has to fulfil four requirements:
Continuity condition or Laplace equation
Seabed boundary condition
Free surface dynamic boundary condition
Free surface kinematic boundary condition
These requirements lead to a more complete expression for the velocity potential as will be
explained in the following subsections.
The relationships presented in these subsections are valid for all water depths, but the fact that
they contain so many hyperbolic functions makes them cumbersome to use. Engineers  as
opposed to (some) scientists  often look for ways to simplify the theory. The simplifications
stem from the following approximations for large and very small arguments, s , as shown in
Figure 2.21:
For large arguments s :
[ ] [ ]
[ ] 1 tan
cosh sinh
>>
s h
s s s
For small arguments s :
[ ] [ ]
[ ] 1 cos
tanh sinh
s h
s s s
Equation 2.22
Figure 2.21: Hyperbolic function limits
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2.2.1 Continuity Condition
The velocity of the water particles ( ) w v u , , in the three translation directions, or alternatively
( )
z y x
v v v , , , follow from the definition of the velocity potential,
w
:
x
v u
w
x
y
v v
w
y
z
v w
w
z
Equation 2.23
Since the fluid is homogeneous and incompressible, the continuity condition becomes:
0
z
w
y
v
x
u
Equation 2.24
2.2.2 Laplace Equation
The continuity condition in Equation 2.24 results in the Laplace equation for potential flows:
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z y x
w w w
w
Equation 2.25
Water particles move here in the ( ) z x, plane only, so in the equations above:
0
y
v
w
and 0
2
2
y y
v
w
Equation 2.26
Taking this into account, a substitution of Equation 2.21 in Equation 2.25 yields a
homogeneous solution of this equation:
( )
( ) 0
2
2
2
z P k
dz
z P d
Equation 2.27
with as a homogeneous solution for ( ) z P :
( )
z k z k
e C e C z P
+
+
2 1
Equation 2.28
Using this result from the continuity condition and the Laplace equation, the wave potential
can be written now with two unknown coefficients as:
( ) ( ) ( ) t x k e C e C t z x
z k z k
w
+
+
sin , ,
2 1
Equation 2.29
in which:
( ) t z x
w
, , wave potential (m
2
/s)
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e base of natural logarithms ()
2 1
,C C as yet undetermined constants (m
2
/s)
k wave number (1/m)
t time (s)
x horizontal distance (m)
z vertical distance, positive upwards (m)
wave frequency (1/s)
2.2.3 Seabed Boundary Condition
The vertical velocity of water particles at the seabed is zero (noleak condition):
0
z
w
for: h z
Equation 2.210
Substituting this boundary condition in Equation 2.29 provides:
0
2 1
+ h k h k
e C k e C k
Equation 2.211
By defining:
h k h k
e C e C C
+
2 1
2 2
or:
h k
e
C
C
+
2
1
and
h k
e
C
C
2
2
it follows that ( ) z P in Equation 2.28 can be worked out to:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) [ ] z h k C
e e
C
z P
z h k z h k
+
+
+ + +
cosh
2
Equation 2.212
and the wave potential Equation 2.21 becomes:
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) t x k z h k C t z x
w
+ sin cosh , ,
Equation 2.213
in which C is an (as yet) unknown constant.
2.2.4 Free Surface Dynamic Boundary Condition
The pressure, p , at the free surface of the fluid, z , is equal to the atmospheric pressure,
0
p . This requirement for the pressure is called the dynamic boundary condition at the free
surface.
The Bernoulli equation for an instationary irrotational flow (with the velocity given in terms
of its three components) is in its general form:
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( ) 0
2
1
2 2 2
+ + + + +
z g
p
w v u
t
w
Equation 2.214
In two dimensions, 0 v , and since the waves have a small steepness (u and w are small),
this equation becomes in a linearised format:
0 + +
z g
p
t
w
Equation 2.215
At the free surface this condition becomes:
0 + +
g
p
t
w
for: z
Equation 2.216
The constant value
0
p can be included in t
w
; this will not influence the velocities
being obtained from the potential
w
.
With this the equation becomes:
0 +
g
t
w
for: z
Equation 2.217
The potential at the free surface can be expanded in a Taylor series, keeping in mind that the
vertical displacement of the wave surface is relatively small:
( ) { } ( ) { }
( )
.........
, ,
, , , ,
0
0
+
'
z
w
z w z w
z
t z x
t z x t z x
or:
( ) ( )
( )
2
0
, , , ,
O
t
t z x
t
t z x
z
w
z
w
+
'
'
Equation 2.218
which yields for the linearised form of the free surface dynamic boundary condition in
Equation 2.217:
0 +
g
t
w
for: 0 z
Equation 2.219
With this, the wave surface profile becomes:
t g
w
1
for: 0 z
Equation 2.220
A substitution of Equation 2.213 in Equation 2.220 yields the wave surface profile:
[ ] ( ) t x k h k
g
C
cos cosh
or:
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( ) t x k
a
cos with: [ ] h k
g
C
a
cosh
Equation 2.221
With this, depending on the water depth h , the wave potential in Equation 2.213 will
become:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( ) t x k
h k
z h k g
a
w
sin
cosh
cosh
Equation 2.222
or when is the first of the sine function arguments, as generally will be used in ship motion
equations:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( ) x k t
h k
z h k g
a
w
sin
cosh
cosh
Equation 2.223
In deep water, the expression for the wave potential reduces to:
( ) x k t e
g
z k a
w
for the wave surface: z
The second term in this expression is a product of two values, which are both small because of
the assumed small wave steepness. This product becomes even smaller (second order) and can
be ignored, see Figure 2.22.
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Figure 2.22: Kinematic boundary condition
This linearisation provides the vertical velocity of the wave surface:
t dt
dz
for the wave surface: z
Equation 2.225
The vertical velocity of a water particle in the free surface is then:
t z
w
for: z
The vertical velocity of a water particle in the free surface is then:
Analogous to Equation 2.219 this condition is valid for 0 z too, instead of for z only:
t z
w
for: 0 z
Equation 2.226
A differentiation of the free surface dynamic boundary condition (Equation 2.219) with
respect to t provides:
0
2
2
t
g
t
w
for: 0 z
or after rearranging terms:
0
1
2
2
t g t
w
for: 0 z
Equation 2.227
Together with Equation 2.225 this delivers the free surface kinematic boundary condition or
the socalled CauchyPoisson condition:
0
1
2
2
+
t g dt
dz
w
for: 0 z
Equation 2.228
2.2.6 Dispersion Relationship
The information is now available to establish the relationship between and k (or
equivalently T and ), referred to above. A substitution of the expression for the wave
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26
potential (Equation 2.222) in Equation 2.228 gives the dispersion relation for any arbitrary
water depth h :
[ ] h k g k tanh
2
Equation 2.229
In many situations, or T will be known; one must determine k or . This equation will
generally has to be solved iteratively, since k appears in a nonlinear way in Equation 2.229.
In deep water ( [ ] 1 tanh h k ), Equation 2.229 degenerates to a quite simple form which can
be used without difficulty:
g k
2
(deep water)
Equation 2.230
When calculating the hydromechanical forces and the wave exciting forces on a ship, it is
assumed that
b
x x ,
b
y y and
b
z z . In case of forward ship speed, the wave frequency
has to be replaced by the frequency of encounter of the waves
e
. This leads to the
following expressions for the wave surface in the ( )
b b b
z y x G , , system:
( ) sin cos cos
b b e a
y k x k t
Equation 2.231
and the expression for the velocity potential of the regular waves,
w
, becomes:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
b b e
b a
w
y k x k t
h k
z h k g
Equation 2.232
2.2.7 Relationships in Regular Waves
Figure 2.23 shows the relation between , T , c and h for a wide variety of conditions.
Notice the boundaries 2 h and 20 h in this figure between short (deep water) and
long (shallow water) waves.
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Figure 2.23: Relationships between , T , c and h
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2.3 Floating Rigid Body in Waves
Consider a rigid body, floating in an ideal fluid with harmonic waves. The water depth is
assumed to be finite. The timeaveraged speed of the body is zero in all directions. For the
sake of simple notation, it is assumed here that the ( ) z y x O , , system is identical to the
( )
0 0 0
, , z y x S system. The x axis is coincident with the undisturbed still water free surface
and the z axis and
0
z axis are positive upwards.
The linear fluid velocity potential can be split into three parts:
( )
d w r
t z y x + + , , ,
Equation 2.31
in which:
r
radiation potential for the oscillatory motion of the body in still water
w
incident undisturbed wave potential
d
diffraction potential of the waves about the restrained body
2.3.1 Fluid Requirements
From the definition of a velocity potential follows the velocity of the water particles in the
three translation directions:
x
v
x
y
v
y
z
v
z
Equation 2.32
The velocity potentials,
d w r
+ + , have to fulfil a number of requirements and
boundary conditions in the fluid. Of these, the first three are identical to those in the incident
undisturbed waves. Additional boundary conditions are associated with the oscillating floating
body.
1. Continuity Condition or Laplace Equation
As the fluid is homogeneous and incompressible, the continuity condition:
0
z
v
y
v
x
v
z
y
x
Equation 2.33
results into the equation of Laplace:
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z y x
Equation 2.34
2. Seabed Boundary Condition
The boundary condition on the seabed (noleak condition), following from the definition of
the velocity potential, is given by:
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29
0
z
for: h z
Equation 2.35
3. Dynamic Boundary Condition at the Free Surface
The pressure in a point ( ) z y x P , , is given by the linearised Bernoulli equation:
z g
t
p
or
p
z g
t
+
Equation 2.36
At the free surface of the fluid, so for ( ) t z y x z , , , , the pressure p is constant.
Because of the linearisation, the vertical velocity of a water particle in the free surface
becomes:
t z dt
dz
Equation 2.37
Combining these two conditions provides the boundary condition at the free surface:
0
2
2
z
g
t
for: 0 z
Equation 2.38
4. Kinematic Boundary Condition on the Oscillating Body Surface
It is obvious that the boundary condition at the surface of the rigid body plays a very
important role. The velocity of a water particle at a point at the surface of the body is equal to
the velocity of this (watertight) body point itself. The outward normal velocity,
n
v , at a point
( ) z y x P , , at the surface of the body (positive in the direction of the fluid) is given by:
( ) t z y x v
n
n
, , ,
Equation 2.39
Because the solution is linearised, this can be written as:
( )
6
1
, , ,
j
j j n
f v t z y x v
n
Equation 2.310
in terms of oscillatory velocities,
j
v , and generalised directioncosines,
j
f , on the surface of
the body, S , given by:
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( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2 6
3 1 5
2 3 4
3
2
1
, cos , cos
, cos , cos
, cos , cos
, cos
, cos
, cos
f y f x x n y y n x f
f x f z z n x x n z f
f z f y y n z z n y f
z n f
y n f
x n f
Equation 2.311
The direction cosines are called generalised, because
1
f ,
2
f and
3
f have been normalised
(the sum of their squares is equal to 1) and used to obtain
4
f ,
5
f and
6
f .
Note: The subscripts 1,2,...6 are used here to indicate the mode of the motion. Also
displacements are often indicated in literature in the same way:
1
x ,
2
x ,...
6
x , as used here in
the summary.
5. Radiation Condition
The radiation condition states that when the distance R of a water particle to the oscillating
body tends to infinity, the potential value tends to zero:
0 lim
R
Equation 2.312
6. Symmetric or Antisymmetric Condition
Since ships and many floating bodies are symmetric with respect to its middle line plane, one
can make use of this to simplify the potential equations:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) y x y x
y x y x
y x y x
, , : roll for
, , : heave for
, , : sway for
4 4
3 3
2 2
+
+ +
+
Equation 2.313
in which
( ) i
is the velocity potential for the given direction i .
This indicates that for sway and roll oscillations, the horizontal velocities of the water
particles, thus the derivative x , at any time on both sides of the body must have the same
direction; these motions are antisymmetric. For heave oscillations these velocities must be of
opposite sign; this is a symmetric motion. However, for all three modes of oscillations the
vertical velocities, thus the derivative y , on both sides must have the same directions at
any time.
2.3.2 Forces and Moments
The forces F and moments M follow from an integration of the pressure, p , over the
submerged surface, S , of the body:
( )
S
dS n p F and ( )
S
dS n r p M
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Equation 2.314
in which n is the outward normal vector on surface dS and r is the position vector of
surface dS in the ( ) z y x O , , coordinate system.
The pressure p  via the linearised Bernoulli equation  is determined from the velocity
potentials by:
z g
t t t
z g
t
p
d w r
,
_
Equation 2.315
which can obviously be split into four separate parts, so that the hydromechanical forces F
and moments M can be split into four parts too:
( )
,
_
,
_
S
d w r
S
d w r
dS n r z g
t t t
M
dS n z g
t t t
F
Equation 2.316
or:
s d w r F F F F F + + + and s d w r M M M M M + + +
Equation 2.317
2.3.3 Hydrodynamic Loads
The hydrodynamic loads are the dynamic forces and moments caused by the fluid on an
oscillating body in still water; waves are radiated from the body. The radiation potential,
r
, which is associated with this oscillation in still water, can be written in terms,
j
, for 6
degrees of freedom as:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
6
1
6
1
, ,
, , , , , ,
j
j j
j
j r
t v z y x
t z y x t z y x
Equation 2.318
in which the space and time dependent potential term, ( ) t z y x
j
, , . in direction j , is now
written in terms of a separate space dependent potential, ( ) z y x
j
, , in direction j , multiplied
by an oscillatory velocity, ( ) t v
j
in direction j .
This allows the normal velocity on the surface of the body to be written as:
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32
'
6
1
6
1
j
j
j
j
j
r
v
n
n n
Equation 2.319
and the generalised direction cosines are given by:
n
f
j
j
Equation 2.320
With this the radiation terms in the hydrodynamic force and moment becomes:
( )
( )
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
S
j
j j
S
r
S
j
j j
S
r
dS n r v
t
dS n r
t
M
dS n v
t
dS n
t
F
6
1
6
1
Equation 2.321
The components of these radiation forces and moments are defined by:
( )
3 2 1
, ,
r r r
r X X X F and ( )
6 5 4
, ,
r r r
r X X X M
with:
,
_
,
_
S
k
j
j j
S
k
j
j j
rk
dS
dn
v
t
dS f v
t
X
6
1
6
1
for: 6 ,... 1 k
Equation 2.322
Since
j
and
k
are not timedependent in this expression, it reduces to:
6
1 j
rkj rk
X X for: 6 ,... 1 k
with:
S
k
j
j
rkj
dS
n dt
dv
X
Equation 2.323
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33
This radiation force or moment
rkj
X in the direction k is caused by a forced harmonic
oscillation of the body in the direction j . This is generally true for all j and k in the range
from 1 to 6. When k j , the force or moment is caused by a motion in that same direction.
When k j , the force in one direction results from the motion in another direction. This
introduces what is called coupling between the forces and moments (or motions).
Equation 2.323 expresses the force and moment components,
rkj
X , in terms of still unknown
potentials,
j
. But not everything is solved yet, a solution for this will be found later in this
Chapter.
2.3.3.1 Oscillatory Motion
Now an oscillatory motion is defined; suppose a motion (in a complex notation) given by:
t i
aj j
e s s
Equation 2.324
Then the velocity and acceleration of this oscillation are:
t i
aj
j
j
t i
aj j j
e s
dt
dv
s
e s i v s
2
& &
&
Equation 2.325
The hydrodynamic forces and moments can be split into a load inphase with the acceleration
and a load inphase with the velocity:
( )
t i
S
k
j aj
t i
kj aj kj aj
j kj j kj rkj
e dS
n
s
e N s i M s
s N s M X
,
_
2
2
& & &
Equation 2.326
So in case of an oscillation of the body in the direction j with a velocity potential
j
, the
hydrodynamic mass and damping (coupling) coefficients are defined by:
'
S
k
j kj
dS
n
M
Re and
'
S
k
j kj
dS
n
N
Im
Equation 2.327
In case of an oscillation of the body in the direction k with a velocity potential
k
, the
hydrodynamic mass and damping (coupling) coefficients are defined by:
'
S
j
k jk
dS
n
M
Re and
'
S
j
k jk
dS
n
N
Im
Equation 2.328
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34
2.3.3.2 Green's Second Theorem
Green's second theorem transforms a large volumeintegral into a much easier to handle
surfaceintegral. Its mathematical background is beyond the scope of this text. It is valid for
any potential function, regardless the fact if it fulfils the Laplace condition or not.
Consider two separate velocity potentials
j
and
k
. Green's second theorem, applied to
these potentials, is then:
( )
,
_
* *
* * 2 2
S
j
k
k
j
V
j k k j
dS
n n
dV
Equation 2.329
As said before, this theorem is generally valid for all kinds of potentials; it is not necessary
that they fulfil the Laplace equation. In Green's theorem,
*
S is a closed surface with a volume
*
V . This volume is bounded by the wall of an imaginary vertical circular cylinder with a very
large radius R , the seabed at h z , the water surface at z and the wetted surface of the
floating body, S ; see Figure 2.31.
Figure 2.31: Boundary conditions
Both of the above radiation potentials
j
and
k
must fulfil 0
2 2
k j
, the Laplace
equation. So the lefthand side of Equation 2.329 becomes zero which yields for the right
hand side of this equation:
* *
* *
dS
n
dS
n
S
j
k
S
k
j
Equation 2.330
The boundary condition at the free surface becomes for
t i
e
:
0
2
+
z
g
for: 0 z
Equation 2.331
or with the dispersion relation, [ ] h k g k tanh
2
:
[ ]
z
h k k
tanh for: 0 z
Equation 2.332
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35
This implies that at the free surface of the fluid one can write:
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
n h k k n z
h k k
n h k k n z
h k k
j
j
j j
j
k
k
k k
k
tanh
1
tanh
tanh
1
tanh
at the free surface
Equation 2.333
When taking also the boundary condition at the seabed and the radiation condition on the wall
of the cylinder in Figure 2.31:
0
R
Equation 2.334
into account, the integral equation over the surface
*
S reduces to:
S
j
k
S
k
j
dS
n
dS
n
Equation 2.335
in which S is the wetted surface of the oscillating body only.
Notice that
j
and
k
still have to be evaluated.
2.3.3.3 Potential Coefficients
The previous subsection provides  for the zero forward ship speed case  symmetry in the
coefficients matrices with respect to their diagonals so that:
kj jk
M M and
kj jk
N N
Equation 2.336
Because of the symmetry of a ship, some coefficients are zero and the two matrices with
hydrodynamic coefficients for a ship become:
,
_
,
_
66 64 62
55 53 51
46 44 42
35 33 31
26 24 22
15 13 11
66 64 62
55 53 51
46 44 42
35 33 31
26 24 22
15 13 11
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
: matrix damping ic Hydrodynam
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
: matrix mass ic Hydrodynam
N N N
N N N
N N N
N N N
N N N
N N N
M M M
M M M
M M M
M M M
M M M
M M M
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36
Equation 2.337
For clarity, the symmetry of terms about the diagonal in these matrices (for example that
31 13
M M for zero forward speed) has not been included here. The terms on the diagonals
(
nn
M ) are the primary coefficients relating properties such as hydrodynamic mass in one
direction to the inertia forces in that same direction. Offdiagonal terms (such as
13
M )
represent hydrodynamic mass only, which is associated with an inertia dependent force in one
direction caused by a motion component in another.
Forward speed has an effect on the velocity potentials itself, but is not discussed in this
Section. This effect is quite completely explained by Timman and Newman [1962].
2.3.4 Wave and Diffraction Loads
The wave and diffraction terms in the hydrodynamic force and moment are:
( )
,
_
,
_
+
S
d w
d w
S
d w
d w
dS n r
t t
M M
dS n
t t
F F
Equation 2.338
The principle of linear superposition allows the determination of these forces on a restrained
body with zero forward speed: 0 n . This simplifies the boundary condition on the
surface of the body to:
0
n n n
d w
Equation 2.339
The space and time dependent potentials, ( ) t z y x
w
, , , and ( ) t z y x
d
, , , , are written now in
terms of isolated space dependent potentials, ( ) z y x
w
, , and ( ) z y x
d
, , , multiplied by a
normalised oscillatory velocity, ( )
t i
e t v
1 :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
t i
d d
t i
w w
e z y x t z y x
e z y x t z y x
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
Equation 2.340
This results into:
n n
d w
Equation 2.341
With this and the expressions for the generalised directioncosines it is found for the wave
forces and moments on the restrained body in waves:
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37
( )
( )
+
+
S
k
d w
t i
S
k d w
t i
wk
dS
n
e i
dS f e i X
for: 6 ,... 1 k
Equation 2.342
in which
k
is the radiation potential.
The potential of the incident waves,
w
, is known, but the diffraction potential,
d
, has to be
determined. Green's second theorem provides a relation between this diffraction potential,
d
,
and a radiation potential,
k
:
S
d
k
S
k
d
dS
n
dS
n
Equation 2.343
and with n n
d w
from Equation 2.341 one finds:
S
w
k
S
k
d
dS
n
dS
n
Equation 2.344
This elimination of the diffraction potential results into the socalled Haskind relations:
,
_
S
w
k
k
w
t i
wk
dS
n n
e i X
for: 6 ,... 1 k
Equation 2.345
This limits the problem of the diffraction potential because the expression for
wk
X depends
only on the undisturbed wave potential
w
and the radiation potential
k
.
These relations, found by Haskind [1957], are very important; they underlie the relative
motion (displacement  velocity  acceleration) hypothesis, as used in strip theory. These
relations are valid only for a floating body with a zero timeaveraged speed in all directions.
Newman [1962] however, has generalised the Haskind relations for a body with a constant
forward speed. He derived equations, which differ only slightly from those found by Haskind.
According to Newman's approach the wave potential has to be defined in the moving
( ) z y x O , , system. The radiation potential has to be determined for the constant forward speed
case, taking an opposite sign into account.
The corresponding wave potential for deep water  as given in a previous section  now
becomes:
( )
( ) t i y x k i z k
a
z k a
w
e e e
g i
y k x k t e
g
+
sin cos
sin cos sin
Equation 2.346
so that the isolated space dependent term is given by:
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( )
sin cos +
y x k i z k a
w
e e
g i
Equation 2.347
In these equations is the wave direction, defined as given in Figure 2.12.
The velocity of the water particles in the direction of the outward normal n on the surface of
the body is:
( ) { }
sin cos
sin cos
2 1 3
+ +
'
,
_
f f i f k
n
y
n
x
i
n
z
k
n
w
w
w
Equation 2.348
With this, the wave loads are given by:
( ) { }
+ + +
dS f f i f k e i
dS f e i X
k w
t i
S
k w
t i
wk
sin cos
2 1 3
for: 6 ,... 1 k
Equation 2.349
The first term in this expression for the wave forces and moments is the socalled Froude
Krilov force or moment, which is the wave load caused by the undisturbed incident wave. The
second term is related to the disturbance caused by the presence of the (restrained) body.
2.3.5 Hydrostatic Loads
In the notations used here, the buoyancy forces and moments are:
S
s dS n z g F and ( )
S
s dS n r z g M
Equation 2.350
or more generally:
S
k sk
dS f z g X for: 6 ,... 1 k
Equation 2.351
in which the
sk
X are the components of these hydrostatic forces and moments.
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39
2.4 Equations of Motion
The equations of motion are given here in a  with the ship speed V steadily moving  right
handed coordinate system ( ) z y x G , , , with the origin in the average position of the ships
centre of gravity G.
The total mass as well as its distribution over the body is considered to be constant with time.
For ships and other floating structures, this assumption is normally valid during a time that is
large relative to the period of the motions. This holds that small effects  such as for instance a
decreasing mass due to fuel consumption  can be ignored.
The solid mass matrix of a floating structure is given below.
,
_
zz zx
yy
xz xx
I I
I
I I
m
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
: matrix mass Solid
Equation 2.41
The moments of inertia here are often expressed in terms of the radii of inertia and the solid
mass of the structure. Since Archimedes law ( m ) is valid for a free floating structure:
2
2
2
zz zz
yy yy
xx xx
k I
k I
k I
Equation 2.42
When the actual distribution of the solid mass of a ship is unknown, the radii of inertia can be
approximated by:
'
L L
L L
B B
28 . 0 to 22 . 0 k
28 . 0 to 22 . 0 k
40 . 0 to 30 . 0 k
: ships for
zz
yy
xx
Equation 2.43
in which L is the length and B is the breadth of the ship.
Often, the (generally small) coupling terms,
zx xz
I I , are simply neglected.
Bureau Veritas proposes for the radius of inertia for roll of the ship's solid mass:
'
,
_
+
2
2
0 . 1 289 . 0
B
KG
B k
xx
Equation 2.44
in which KG is the height of the centre of gravity, G, above the keel.
For many ships without cargo on board (ballast condition), the mass is concentrated at the
ends (engine room aft and ballast water forward to avoid a large trim), while for ships with
cargo on board (full load condition) the  more or less amidships laden  cargo plays an
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40
important role. Thus for normal ships, the radii of inertia,
yy
k and
zz
k , are usually smaller in
the full load condition than in the ballast condition.
Notice here that the longitudinal radius of gyration of a long homogeneous rectangular beam
with a length L is equal to about L 12 1 or L 289 . 0 .
The equations of motions of a rigid body in a space fixed coordinate system follow from
Newton's second law. The vector equations for the translations of and the rotations about the
centre of gravity are given respectively by:
( ) U m
dt
d
F and ( ) H
dt
d
M
Equation 2.45
in which:
F resulting external force acting in the centre of gravity
m mass of the rigid body
U instantaneous velocity of the centre of gravity
M resulting external moment acting about the centre of gravity
H instantaneous angular momentum about the centre of gravity
t time
Two important assumptions are made for the loads in the righthand side of these equations:
a) The socalled hydromechanic forces and moments are induced by the harmonic
oscillations of the rigid body, moving in the undisturbed surface of the fluid.
b) The socalled wave exciting forces and moments are produced by waves coming in on the
restrained body.
Since the system is linear, these loads are added up for obtaining the total loads. Thus, after
assuming small motions, symmetry of the body and that the x , y  and z axes are principal
axes, one can write the following six equations of motion for the ship:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
Yaw
Pitch
: Roll
: Heave
: Sway
: Surge
w h zx zz zx zz
w h xx yy
w h xz xx xz xx
w h
w h
w h
X X I I I I
dt
d
X X I I
dt
d
X X I I I I
dt
d
X X z z
dt
d
X X y y
dt
d
X X x x
dt
d
+
+
+
+
+
+
& &
& &
&
&
& & &
& &
& &
&
&
& & &
& & &
& & &
Equation 2.46
in which:
density of water
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41
volume of displacement of the ship
ij
I solid mass moment of inertia of the ship
3 2 1
, ,
h h h
X X X hydromechanic forces in the x , y  and z directions
6 5 4
, ,
h h h
X X X hydromechanic moments about the x , y  and z axes
3 2 1
, ,
w w w
X X X exciting wave forces in the x , y  and z directions
6 5 4
, ,
w w w
X X X exciting wave moments about the x , y  and z axes
Generally, a ship has a verticallongitudinal plane of symmetry, so that its motions can be split
into symmetric and antisymmetric components. Surge, heave and pitch motions are
symmetric motions, that is to say that a point to starboard has the same motion as the mirrored
point to port side. It is obvious that the remaining motions sway, roll and yaw are anti
symmetric motions. Symmetric and antisymmetric motions of a freefloating structure are not
coupled; they don't have any effect on each other. For instance, a vertical force acting at the
centre of gravity can cause surge, heave and pitch motions, but will not result in sway, roll or
yaw motions.
Because of this symmetry and antisymmetry, two sets of three coupled equations of motion
can be distinguished for ships:
motions symmetric  anti
: Yaw
: Roll
: Sway
motions symmetric
: Pitch
: Heave
: Surge
6 6
4 4
2 2
5 5
3 3
1 1
w h zx zz
w h xz xx
w h
w h xx
w h
w h
X X I I
X X I I
X X y
X X I
X X z
X X x
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
Equation 2.47
Note that this distinction between symmetric and antisymmetric motions disappears when the
ship is anchored. Then, for instance, the pitch motions can generate roll motions via the
anchor lines.
The coupled surge, heave and pitch equations of symmetric motion are:
( )
( )
( ) (pitch)
(heave)
(surge)
5 55 55 55
53 53 53
51 51 51
3 35 35 35
33 33 33
31 31 31
1 15 15 15
13 13 13
11 11 11
w yy
w
w
X c b a I
z c z b z a
x c x b x a
X c b a
z c z b z a
x c x b x a
X c b a
z c z b z a
x c x b x a
+ + + +
+ + +
+ +
+ + +
+ + + +
+ +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
&
, and accelerations,
*
hj
& &
, at forward ship speed V in one
of the 6 directions j of a water particle in a cross section are defined by:
*
hj
{ }
* *
hj hj
Dt
D
&
{ }
* *
hj hj
Dt
D
& & &
Equation 2.52
in which:
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'
x
V
t Dt
D
Equation 2.53
is a mathematical operator which transforms the potentials ( ) t z y x , , ,
0 0 0
, defined in the
earth bounded (fixed) coordinate system, to the potentials ( ) t z y x , , , , defined in the ship's
steadily translating coordinate system with speed V .
In waves the motions of the water particles are depending on its local vertical distance to the
mean or still water surface. At each cross section of the ship an average (or equivalent)
constant value has to be found.
Relative to a restrained ship, moving forward with speed V in waves, the equivalent j
constant components of water particle displacements (
*
wj
), velocities (
*
wj
&
) and
accelerations (
*
wj
& &
) in a cross section are defined in a similar way by:
*
wj
{ }
* *
wj wj
Dt
D
&
{ }
* *
wj wj
Dt
D
& & &
Equation 2.54
The effect of the operator in Equation 2.53 can be understood easily when one realises that in
that earthbound coordinate system the sailing ship penetrates through a ''virtual vertical
disk''. For instance, when a ship sails with speed V and constant trim angle through still
water, the relative vertical velocity of a water particle with respect to the bottom of the sailing
ship becomes V V sin .
Two different types of strip theory methods (as has been used in SEAWAY) are discussed
here:
1. Ordinary Strip Theory Method
According to this classic method, the uncoupled twodimensional potential
hydromechanic loads and wave loads in an arbitrary direction j are defined by:
{ }
{ }
' * ' * ' *
' * ' * ' *
fkj wj jj wj jj wj
rsj hj jj hj jj hj
X N M
Dt
D
X
X N M
Dt
D
X
+ +
+ +
& &
& &
Equation 2.55
This is the first formulation of the strip theory that can be found in the literature. It
contains a more or less intuitive approach to the forward speed problem, as published in
detail by KorvinKroukovski and Jacobs [1957].
2. Modified Strip Theory Method
According to this modified method, these loads become:
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46
' * ' ' *
' * ' ' *
fkj wj jj
e
jj wj
rsj hj jj
e
jj hj
X N
i
M
Dt
D
X
X N
i
M
Dt
D
X
+
'
,
_
'
,
_
&
&
Equation 2.56
This formulation is a more fundamental approach of the forward speed problem, as
published in detail by Tasai [1969] and many others.
In the equations above,
'
jj
M and
'
jj
N are the 2D potential mass and damping coefficients.
'
rsj
X is the twodimensional quasistatic restoring spring term, as generally present for heave,
roll and pitch only.
'
fkj
X is the twodimensional FroudeKrilov force or moment which is
calculated by integration of the directional pressure gradient in the undisturbed wave over the
cross sectional area of the hull.
Equivalent directional components of the orbital acceleration and velocity  derived from
these FroudeKrilov loads  are used here to calculate the diffraction parts of the total wave
forces and moments.
From a theoretical point of view, one should prefer the use of the modified strip theory
method. However, it appeared from the authors experiences that for ships with moderate
forward speed ( 30 . 0 Fn ) the ordinary method could provide in some cases a better fit with
experimental data.
2.5.3 EndTerms
From the previous, it is obvious that in the equations of motion longitudinal derivatives of the
twodimensional potential mass
'
jj
M and damping
'
jj
N will appear. These derivatives have to
be determined numerically over the whole ship length in such a manner that the following
relation is fulfilled:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
+
+ +
L f dx
dx
x df
f
dx
dx
x df
dx
dx
x df
dx
dx
x df
dx
dx
x df
b
L x
x b
b
b
L x
L x b
b
b
L x
x b
b
b
x
x b
b
b
L x
x b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Equation 2.57
with L << , while ( )
b
x f is equal to the local values of ( )
b jj
x N
'
or ( )
b jj
x M
'
; see Figure 2.5
2.
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47
Figure 2.52: Integration of derivatives
The numerical integration of the derivatives will be carried out in the region
( ) ( ) L x x x
b b b
0 only. So, the additional socalled ''end terms'' are defined by ( ) 0 f and
( ) L f .
Because the integration of the derivatives should be carried out in the region just behind until
just before the ship, so ( ) ( ) + L x x x
b b b
0 , some can algebra provide the integral and
the first and second order moments (with respect to G) over the whole ship length (slender
body assumption):
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
b b
L x
x
b b b
L x
x b
b
b
L x
x
b b b
L x
x b
b
b
L x
x b
b
dx x x f dx x
dx
x df
dx x f dx x
dx
x df
dx
dx
x df
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
0
2
0
0 0
0
2
0
Equation 2.58
Notice that these expressions are valid for the integration of the potential coefficients over the
full ship length only. They can not be used for calculating local hydromechanic loads. Also for
the wave loads, these expressions can not be used, because there these derivatives are
multiplied with equivalent
b
x depending orbital motion amplitudes.
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48
2.6 Hydrodynamic Coefficients
In strip theory, the twodimensional hydrodynamic sway, heave and roll coefficients can be
calculated by several methods:
1. Methods based on Ursell's Theory and Conformal Mapping
Ursell [1949] derived an analytical solution for solving the problem of calculating the
hydrodynamic coefficients of an oscillating circular cylinder in the surface of a fluid:
a) Deep Water Coefficients with Lewis Conformal Mapping
Tasai [1959], Tasai [1961] and many others added the socalled Lewis transformation 
which is a very simple and in a lot of cases also more or less realistic method to
transform shiplike cross sections to this unit circle  to Ursell's solution. This
transformation will be carried out using a scale factor and two mapping coefficients.
Only the breadth, the draft and the area of the mapped cross section will be similar to
that of the actual cross section.
b) Deep Water Coefficients with CloseFit Conformal Mapping
A more accurate way of mapping has been added by Tasai [1960] and others too, by
using more than only two mapping coefficients. The accuracy obtained depends on the
number of mapping coefficients. Generally, a maximum number of 10 coefficients are
used for defining the cross section. These coefficients are determined in such a way
that the Root Mean Square of the differences between the offsets of the mapped and
the actual cross section is minimal.
c) Shallow Water Coefficients with Lewis Conformal Mapping
For shallow water, the theory of Keil [1974]  based on an expansion of Ursell's
potential theory for circular cylinders at deep water to shallow water  and Lewis
conformal mapping can be used.
2. Frank's Pulsating Source Theory for Deep Water
Mapping methods require an intersection of the cross section with the water plane and, as
a consequence of this, they are not suitable for submerged cross sections, like at a bulbous
bow. Also, conformal mapping can fail for cross sections with very low sectional area
coefficients, such as are sometimes present in the aft body of a ship.
Frank [1967] considered a cylinder of constant cross sections with an arbitrarily
symmetrical shape, of which the cross sections are simply a region of connected line
elements. This vertical cross section can be fully or partly immersed in a previously
undisturbed fluid of infinite depth. He developed an integral equation method utilising the
Green's function, which represents a complex potential of a pulsating point source of unit
strength at the midpoint of each line element. Wave systems were defined in such a way
that all required boundary conditions were fulfilled. The linearised Bernoulli equation
provides the pressures after which the potential coefficients were obtained from the in
phase and outofphase components of the resultant hydrodynamic loads.
The 2D potential pitch and yaw (moment) coefficients follow from the previous heave and
sway coefficients and the lever, i.e., the distance of the cross section to the centre of gravity
G.
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A more or less empirical procedure has followed by the author for the surge motion. An
equivalent longitudinal cross section has been defined. For each frequency, the two
dimensional potential hydrodynamic sway coefficient of this equivalent cross section is
translated to twodimensional potential hydrodynamic surge coefficients, by an empirical
method based on theoretical results of threedimensional calculations.
The 3D coefficients follow from an integration of these 2D coefficients over the ship's
length. Viscous terms have been be added for surge and roll.
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3 2D Potential Coefficients
This Chapter described the various methods, used in the SEAWAY computer code, to obtain
the 2D potential coefficients:
the theory of Tasai for deep water, based on Ursell's potential theory for circular cylinders
and Lewis and Nparameter conformal mapping
the theory of Keil for very shallow to deep water, based on a variation of Ursell's potential
theory for circular cylinders and Lewis conformal mapping
the theory of Frank for deep water, using pulsating sources on the cross sectional contour.
During the ship motions calculations different coordinate systems, as shown before, will be
used. The twodimensional hydrodynamic potential coefficients have been defined here with
respect to the ( ) z y x O , , coordinate system for the moving ship in still water.
However, in this section deviating axes systems are used for the determination of the two
dimensional hydrodynamic potential coefficients for sway, heave and roll motions. This holds
for the sway and roll coupling coefficients a change of sign. The signs of the uncoupled sway,
heave and roll coefficients do not change.
For each cross section, the following twodimensional hydrodynamic coefficients have to be
obtained:
'
22
M and
'
22
N 2D potential mass and damping coefficients of sway
'
24
M and
'
24
N 2D potential mass and damping coupling coefficients of roll into sway
'
33
M and
'
33
N 2D potential mass and damping coefficients of heave
'
44
M and
'
44
N 2D potential mass and damping coefficients of roll
'
42
M and
'
42
N 2D potential mass and damping coupling coefficients of sway into roll
The 2D potential pitch and yaw (moment) coefficients,
'
55
M ,
'
55
N ,
'
66
M and
'
66
N , follow
from the previous heave and sway coefficients and the lever of the loads, i.e., the distance of
the cross section to the centre of gravity G.
Finally, an approximation is given for the determination of the 2D potential surge coefficients
'
11
M and
'
11
N .
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3.1 Conformal Mapping Methods
Ursell's derivation of potential coefficients is valid for semicircular cross sections only. For
the determination of the twodimensional added mass and damping in the sway, heave and roll
mode of the motions of shiplike cross sections by Ursell's method, the cross sections have to
be mapped conformally to the unit semicircle. The advantage of conformal mapping is that the
velocity potential of the fluid around an arbitrarily shape of a cross section in a complex plane
can be derived from the more convenient semicircular section in another complex plane. In
this manner hydrodynamic problems can be solved directly with the coefficients of the
mapping function.
The general transformation formula see also Figure 3.11  is given by:
( )
{ }
1 2
1 2
n
n s
a M z
Equation 3.11
with:
iy x z + plane of the ship's cross section
i
e ie
plane of the unit circle
s
M scale factor
1
a 1 +
1 2 n
a conformal mapping coefficients ( N n ,... 1 )
N Maximum parameter index number
Figure 3.11: Mapping relation between two planes
From this follows the relation between the coordinates in the z plane (the ship's cross
section) and the variables in the plane (the circular cross section):
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { }
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { }
+
N
n
a n
n
n
s
N
n
a n
n
n
s
n e a M y
n e a M x
0
1 2
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
1 2 cos 1
1 2 sin 1
Equation 3.12
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The contour of the  by conformal mapping approximated  ship's cross section follows from
putting 0 in the previous relations in Equation 3.12:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+
N
n
n
n
s
N
n
n
n
s
n a M y
n a M x
0
1 2 0
0
1 2 0
1 2 cos 1
1 2 sin 1
Equation 3.13
The breadth on the waterline of the approximated ship's cross section is defined by:
a s
M b 2
0
with: { }
N
n
n a
a
0
1 2
and
a
s
b
M
2
0
Equation 3.14
The draught is defined by:
b s
M d
0
with: ( ) { }
N
n
n
n
b
a
0
1 2
1
Equation 3.15
3.1.1 Lewis Conformal Mapping
A very simple and in a lot of cases also a more or less realistic transformation of the cross
sectional hull form will be obtained with 2 N in the transformation formula, the well
known Lewis transformation, see reference Lewis [1929]. An extended and clear description
of the representation of ship hull forms by this Lewis twoparameter conformal mapping is
given by von Kerczek and Tuck [1969].
The twoparameter Lewis transformation of a cross section is defined by:
( )
3
3
1
1 1
+ + a a a M z
s
Equation 3.16
In here 1
1
+
+ +
Equation 3.18
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in which:
s
B sectional breadth on the water line
s
D sectional draught
Now the coefficients
1
a and
3
a and the scale factor
s
M will be determined in such a manner
that the sectional breadth, draught and area of the approximated cross section and of the actual
cross section are identical.
The half breadth to draught ratio
0
H is given by:
3 1
3 1
0
1
1 2
a a
a a
D
B
H
s
s
+
+ +
Equation 3.19
An integration of the Lewis form delivers the sectional area coefficient
s
:
( )
2
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
1
3 1
4
a a
a a
D B
A
s s
s
s
+
Equation 3.110
in which
s
A is the area of the cross section.
Putting
1
a , derived from the expression for
0
H in Equation 3.19, into the expression for
s
,
_
,
_
+
c c
c c
H
H
c
s s
Equation 3.111
The (valid) solutions for
3
a and
1
a become:
( ) 1
1
1
2 9 3
3
0
0
1
1
1 1
3
+
+
+ +
a
H
H
a
c
c c
a
Equation 3.112
Lewis forms with the other solution of
3
a in the quadratic equation, with a minus sign before
the square root expression:
1
1 1
3
2 9 3
c
c c
a
+
<
for 0 . 1
0
H :
,
_
<
0
1
2
32
3
H
s
Equation 3.113
conventional forms, bounded by:
for 0 . 1
0
H : ( )
,
_
< <
4
3
32
3
2
32
3
0
0
H
H
s
for 0 . 1
0
H :
,
_
< <
,
_
0 0
4
1
3
32
3 1
2
32
3
H H
s
Equation 3.114
bulbous and nottunneled forms, bounded by:
0 . 1
0
H and
,
_
< <
,
_
0
0
4
1
3
32
3
4
3
32
3
H
H
s
Equation 3.115
tunneled and notbulbous forms, bounded by:
for: 0 . 1
0
H and
,
_
< <
,
_
4
3
32
3
4
1
3
32
3
0
0
H
H
s
,
_
+ + < <
,
_
0
0
0
1
10
32 4
1
3
32
3
H
H
H
s
for: 0 . 1
0
H and
,
_
+ + < <
,
_
0
0
0
1
10
32 4
3
32
3
H
H
H
s
Equation 3.117
nonsymmetric forms, bounded by:
< <
0
0 H and
,
_
+ + >
0
0
1
10
32 H
H
s
Equation 3.118
These ranges of the half breadth to draught ratio
0
H and the area coefficient
s
for the
different typical Lewis forms are shown in Figure 3.13.
Figure 3.13: Ranges of
0
H and
s
of Lewis Forms
3.1.1.2 Acceptable Lewis Forms
Notacceptable forms of ships are supposed to be the reentrant forms and the asymmetric
forms. So conventional forms, bulbous forms and tunneled forms are considered to be valid
forms here, see Figure 3.13. To obtain shiplike Lewis forms, the area coefficient
s
is
bounded by a lower limit to omit reentrant Lewis forms and by an upper limit to omit non
symmetric Lewis forms:
for 0 . 1
0
H : ( )
,
_
+ + < <
0
0 0
1
10
32
2
32
3
H
H H
s
for 0 . 1
0
H :
,
_
+ + < <
,
_
0
0
0
1
10
32
1
2
32
3
H
H
H
s
+ + + a a a a M z
s
with 1
1
+
a .
Equation 3.120
So:
( )
( )
5 cos 3 cos cos cos
5 sin 3 sin sin sin
5
5
3
3 1
5
5
3
3 1
+
+ +
e a e a e a e M y
e a e a e a e M x
s
s
Equation 3.121
By putting 0 , the contour of this approximated form is expressed as:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
5 cos 3 cos cos 1
5 sin 3 sin sin 1
5 3 1 0
5 3 1 0
+
+ +
a a a M y
a a a M x
s
s
with scale factor:
5 3 1 5 3 1
1 1
2
a a a
D
a a a
B
M
s s
s
+
+ + +
Equation 3.122
in which:
s
B sectional breadth on the water line
s
D sectional draught
Now the coefficients
1
a ,
3
a and
5
a and the scale factor
s
M will be determined such that,
except the sectional breadth, draught and area, also the centroids of the approximated cross
section and of the actual cross section have a similar position.
The half breadth to draught ratio
0
H is given by:
5 3 1
5 3 1
0
1
1 2
a a a
a a a
D
B
H
s
s
+
+ + +
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Equation 3.123
An integration of the approximated form results into the sectional area coefficient
s
:
( ) ( )
2
5 1
2
3
2
5
2
3
2
1
1
5 3 1
4 a a a
a a a
D B
A
s s
s
s
+ +
Equation 3.124
A more complex expression has been obtained by Athanassoulis and Loukakis [1985] for the
relative distance of the centroid to the keel point:
{ }
{ }
3
0
3
1 2 0
3
0
1 2 1 2 1 2
3
0
3
0
1
i
i s
k
k j i ijk
j i
s
a H
a a a A
D
KB
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
'
+ +
+
+
+
+
+ +
k j i
k
k j i
k
k j i
k
k j i
k
A
ijk
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 3
2 1
4
1
Equation 3.125
The following requirements should be fulfilled when also bulbous cross sections are allowed:
reentrant forms are avoided when:
0 5 3 1
0 5 3 1
5 3 1
5 3 1
> + +
>
a a a
a a a
Equation 3.126
existence of a point of selfintersection is avoided when:
0 20 10 145 9
0 20 10 145 9
5 0 5 3
2
5
2
3
5 0 5 3
2
5
2
3
> +
> + + +
a H a a a a
a H a a a a
Equation 3.127
Taking these restrictions into account, the equations above can be solved in an iterative
manner.
3.1.3 CloseFit Conformal Mapping
A more accurate transformation of the cross sectional hull form can be obtained by using a
greater number of parameters N . A very simple and straight on iterative least squares method
of the first author to determine the CloseFit conformal mapping coefficients will be described
here shortly.
The scale factor
s
M and the conformal mapping coefficients
1 2 n
a , with a maximum value of
n varying from 2 N until 10 N , have been determined successfully from the offsets of
various cross sections in such that the sum of the squares of the deviations of the actual cross
section from the approximate described cross section is minimised.
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The general transformation formula is again given by:
( )
{ }
N
n
n
n s
a M z
0
1 2
1 2
with: 1
1
+
a .
Equation 3.128
Then the contour of the approximated cross section is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+
N
n
n
n
s
N
n
n
n
s
n a M y
n a M x
0
1 2 0
0
1 2 0
1 2 cos 1
1 2 sin 1
N
n
n
n
s
N
n
n
s
s
a
D
a
B
M
0
1 2
0
1 2
1
2
Equation 3.129
The procedure starts with initial values for [ ]
1 2
n s
a M . The initial values of
s
M ,
1
a and
3
a
are obtained with the Lewis method as has been described before, while the initial values of
5
a through
1 2 N
a are set to zero. With these [ ]
1 2
n s
a M values, a
i
value is determined for
each offset in such a manner that the actual offset ( )
i i
y x , lies on the normal of the
approximated contour of the cross section in ( )
i i
y x
0 0
, .
Now
i
has to be determined. Therefore a function ( )
i
F , will be defined by the distance
from the offset ( )
i i
y x , to the normal of the contour to the actual cross section through
( )
i i
y x
0 0
, , see Figure 3.14.
Figure 3.14: CoseFit conformal mapping
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These i offsets ( I i ,... 0 ) have to be selected at approximately equal mutual circumferential
lengths, eventually with somewhat more dense offsets near sharp corners. Then
i
is defined
by:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
2
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
sin
cos
+ +
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
i i i i
i i
i
i i i i
i i
i
y y x x
y y
y y x x
x x
Equation 3.130
With this
i
value, the numerical value of the square of the deviation of ( )
i i
y x , from ( )
i i
y x
0 0
,
is calculated:
( ) ( )
2
0
2
0 i i i i i
y y x x e +
Equation 3.131
After doing this for all 1 + I offsets, the numerical value of the sum of the squares of
deviations is known:
{ }
I
i
i
e E
0
Equation 3.132
The sum of the squares of these deviations can also be expressed as:
( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) { }
( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) { }
'
,
_
,
_
+ +
I
i
N
n
i n s
n
i
N
n
i n s
n
i
n a M y
n a M x
E
0
2
0
1 2
2
0
1 2
1 2 cos 1
1 2 sin 1
Equation 3.133
Then, new values of [ ]
1 2
n s
a M have to be determined such that E is minimised. This means
that the derivative of this equation to each coefficient [ ]
1 2
n s
a M is zero, so:
{ }
0
1 2
j s
a M
E
for: N j ,... 0
Equation 3.134
This provides 1 + N equations:
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
'
I
i
i i i i
I
i
N
n
i n s
n
i
N
n
i n s
n
i
j y j x
n a M j
n a M j
0
0
0
1 2
0
1 2
1 2 cos 1 2 sin
1 2 cos 1 1 2 cos
1 2 sin 1 1 2 sin
for: N j ,... 0
which are rewritten as:
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( ) [ ] ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
'
I
i
i i i i
N
n
I
i
i n s
n
j y j x
n j a M
0
0 0
1 2
1 2 cos 1 2 sin
2 2 cos 1
for: N j ,... 0
Equation 3.135
To obtain the exact actual breadth and draught, the last two equations ( 1 N j and N j )
in Equation 3.135 are replaced by the equations for the breadth at the water line and the
draught:
( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
[ ] { }
( ) [ ] { }
s
N
n
n s
n
s
N
n
n s
I
i
i i i i
N
n
I
i
i n s
n
D a M
B a M
N j j y j x
n j a M
+
'
0
1 2
0
1 2
0
0 0
1 2
1
2
2 ,... 0 : for 1 2 cos 1 2 sin
2 2 cos 1
Equation 3.136
These 1 + N equations can be solved numerically, so that new values for [ ]
1 2
n s
a M will be
obtained. These new values are used instead of the initial values to obtain new
i
values of
the 1 + I offsets again, etc. This procedure will be repeated several times and stops when the
difference between the numerical E values of two subsequent calculations becomes less than
a certain threshold value E , depending on the dimensions of the cross section; for instance:
( )
2
2
max
2
max
00005 . 0 1
,
_
+ + d b I E
Equation 3.137
in which:
max
b maximum half breadth of the cross section
max
d maximum draught of the cross section
Because 1
1
+
n s
a M by this
s
M value.
Reference is also given here to a report of de Jong [1973]. In that report several other, suitable
but more complex, methods are described to determine the scale factor
s
M and the conformal
mapping coefficients
1 2 n
a from the offsets of a cross section.
Attention has been paid in SEAWAY to divergence in the calculation routines and reentrant
forms. In these cases the number N will be decreased until the divergence or reentrance
vanish. In the worse case the ''minimum'' value of N will be attained without success. One
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63
can then switch to Lewis coefficients with an area coefficient of the cross section, eventually
set to the nearest border of the valid Lewis form area.
3.1.4 Mapping Comparisons
A first example has been given here for the amidships cross section of a container vessel, with
a breadth of 25.40 meter and a draught of 9.00 meter, with offsets as tabled below.
Table 3.11: Offsets of a cross section
For the least square method in the conformal mapping method, 33 new offsets at equidistant
length intervals on the contour of this cross section can be determined by a second degree
interpolation routine. The calculated data of the twoparameter Lewis and the N parameter
CloseFit conformal mapping of this amidships cross section are tabled below. The last line
lists the RMS values for the deviations of the 33 equidistant points on the approximate
contour of this cross section.
Table 3.12: Conformal mapping coefficients
Another example is given in Figure 3.15, which shows the differences between a Lewis
transformation and a 10parameter closefit conformal mapping of a rectangular cross section.
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Figure 3.15: Lewis and CloseFit conformal mapping of a rectangle
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3.2 Potential Theory of Tasai
In this section, the determination of the hydrodynamic coefficients of a heaving, swaying and
rolling cross section of a ship in deep water at zero forward speed is based on work published
by Ursell [1949], Tasai [1959], Tasai [1960], Tasai [1961] and de Jong [1973]. Tasai's
notations have been maintained here as far as possible.
The axes system of Tasai (and used here) is given in Figure 3.21.
Figure 3.21: Tasais axes system for heave, sway and roll oscillations
The figure shows a cross section of an infinite long cylinder in the surface of a fluid. This
cylinder will carry out forced harmonic heave, sway and roll motions, respectively. Using the
approach of Tasai (and de Jong), the determination of the hydrodynamic loads will be showed
in the following Sections.
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66
3.2.1 Heave Motions
The determination of the hydrodynamic coefficients of a heaving cross section of a ship in
deep and still water at zero forward speed, as described here, is based on work published by
Ursell [1949], Tasai [1959] and Tasai [1960]. Starting points for the derivation these
coefficients here are the velocity potentials and the conjugate stream functions of the fluid, as
they have been derived by Tasai and also by de Jong [1973].
Suppose an infinite long cylinder in the surface of a fluid, of which a cross section is given in
Figure 3.21. The cylinder is forced to carry out a simple harmonic vertical motion about its
initial position with a frequency of oscillation and small amplitude of displacement
a
y :
( ) + t y y
a
cos
Equation 3.21
in which is a phase angle.
Respectively, the vertical velocity and acceleration of the cylinder are:
( ) + t y y
a
sin & and ( ) + t y y
a
cos
2
& &
Equation 3.22
This forced vertical oscillation of the cylinder causes a surface disturbance of the fluid.
Because the cylinder is supposed to be infinitely long, the generated waves will be two
dimensional. These waves travel away from the cylinder and a stationary state is rapidly
attained.
Two kinds of waves will be produced:
A standing wave system, denoted here by subscript A.
The amplitudes of these waves decrease strongly with the distance to the cylinder.
A regular progressive wave system, denoted here by subscript B .
These waves dissipate energy. At a distance of a few wavelengths from the cylinder, the
waves on each side can be described by a single regular wave train. The wave amplitude at
infinity
a
is proportional to the amplitude of oscillation of the cylinder
a
y , provided that
this amplitude is sufficiently small compared with the radius of the cylinder and the
wavelength is not much smaller than the diameter of the cylinder.
The twodimensional velocity potential of the fluid has to fulfil the following requirements:
1. The velocity potential must satisfy to the equation of Laplace:
0
2
2
2
2
2
y x
Equation 3.23
2. Because the heave motion of the fluid is symmetrical about the (vertical) y axis, this
velocity potential has the following relation:
( ) ( ) y x y x , , +
Equation 3.24
from which follows:
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0
for: 0
Equation 3.25
3. The linearised free surface condition in deep water is expressed as follows:
0
2
+
y g
for:
2
s
B
x and 0 y
Equation 3.26
In consequence of the conformal mapping, the free surface condition in Equation 3.26 can be
written as:
( )
( )
{ } 0 1 2
0
1 2
1 2
N
n
n
n
a
b
e a n for: 0 and
2
t
in which:
s
a
b
M
g
2
or
g
b
b
2
0
2
0 0
&
Equation 3.28
in which n is the outward normal of the cylinder surface.
Using the stream function , this boundary condition on the surface of the cylinder ( 0 )
reduces to:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
N
n
n
n
s
n a n M y
y
y
0
1 2
0 0
1 2 cos 1 2 1
&
&
Equation 3.29
Integration results into the following requirement for the stream function on the surface of the
cylinder:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( ) t C n a M y
N
n
n
n
s
+
0
1 2 0
1 2 sin 1 &
Equation 3.210
in which ( ) t C is a function of time only.
When defining:
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68
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
N
n
n
n
a
n a
b
x
h
0
1 2
0
0
1 2 sin 1
1
2
Equation 3.211
the stream function on the surface of the cylinder is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) t C h
b
y +
2
0
0
&
Equation 3.212
Because of the symmetry of the fluid about the y axis, it is clear that ( ) 0 t C , so that:
( ) ( ) h
b
y
2
0
0
&
Equation 3.213
For the standing wave system a velocity potential and a stream function satisfying the
equation of Laplace, the symmetrical motion of the fluid and the free surface condition has to
be found.
The following set of velocity potentials, as they are given by Tasai [1959], Tasai [1960] and
de Jong [1973], fulfil these requirements:
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
,
_
1
2 2
1
2 2
sin , cos ,
m
m A m
m
m A m
a
A
t Q t P
g
in which:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+
N
n
n m
n
n
a
b
m
m A
n m e a
n m
n
m e
0
1 2 2
1 2
2
2
1 2 2 cos
1 2 2
1 2
1
2 cos ,
Equation 3.214
The set of conjugate stream functions is expressed as:
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
,
_
1
2 2
1
2 2
sin , cos ,
m
m A m
m
m A m
a
A
t Q t P
g
in which:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+
N
n
n m
n
n
a
b
m
m A
n m e a
n m
n
m e
0
1 2 2
1 2
2
2
1 2 2 sin
1 2 2
1 2
1
2 sin ,
Equation 3.215
These sets of functions tend to zero as tends to infinity.
In these expressions the magnitudes of the
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
series follow from the boundary
conditions as will be explained further on.
Another requirement is a diverging wave train for goes to infinity. It is therefore necessary
to add a stream function, satisfying the free surface condition and the symmetry about the y 
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69
axis, representing such a train of waves at infinity. For this, a function describing a source at
the origin O is chosen.
Tasai [1959], Tasai [1960] and de Jong [1973] gave the velocity potential of the progressive
wave system as:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t y x t y x
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
+
+ +
+
0
2 2
cos sin
sin
cos
dk e
k
y k k y k
x e
x e
x k y
Bs
y
Bc
while:
g
2
sin , cos ,
Equation 3.217
The conjugate stream function is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t y x t y x
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
+
+
+
+
0
2 2
sin cos
cos
sin
dk e
k
y k k y k
x e
x e
x k y
Bs
y
Bc
Equation 3.218
Changing the parameters provides:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t t
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
Equation 3.219
When calculating the integrals in the expressions for
Bs
and
Bc
numerically, the
convergence is very slowly.
Power series expansions, as given by Porter [1960], can be used instead of these last integrals
over k . Summations in these expansions converge much faster than the numeric integration
procedure. This will be shown in the Section 3.2.2 for the sway case.
The total velocity potential and stream function to describe the waves generated by a heaving
cylinder are:
B A
B A
+
+
Equation 3.220
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70
So the velocity potential and the conjugate stream function are expressed by:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
t Q
t P
g
t Q
t P
g
m
m A m Bs
m
m A m Bc
a
m
m A m Bs
m
m A m Bc
a
sin , ,
cos , ,
,
sin , ,
cos , ,
,
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
Equation 3.221
When putting 0 , the stream function is equal to the expression in Equation 3.213, found
from the boundary condition on the surface of the cylinder:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
h
b
y
t Q
t P
g
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
a
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
2
sin
cos
0
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
&
in which:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
+
+
N
n
n
n
a
b
m A
n m a
n m
n
m
0
1 2
02
1 2 2 sin
1 2 2
1 2
1
2 sin
Equation 3.222
In this expression, ( )
c B0
and ( )
s B0
are the values of ( ) ,
Bc
and ( ) ,
Bs
at the
surface of the cylinder, so for 0 .
So for each , the following equation has been obtained from Equation 3.222:
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
h
g
b
y
t Q
t P
a
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
2
sin
cos
0
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
&
Equation 3.223
The right hand side of this equation can be written as:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { } t B t A h
t
y
h h
g
b
y
b
a
a
a
+
'
sin cos
sin
2
0 0
0
&
in which:
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71
sin
0
b
a
a
y
A and
cos
0
b
a
a
y
B
Equation 3.224
This results for each into a set of two equations:
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
0
1
02 2 0
0
1
02 2 0
B h Q
A h P
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
+
+
Equation 3.225
When putting 2 , so at the intersection of the surface of the cylinder with the free
surface of the fluid where ( ) 1 h , we obtain the coefficients
0
A and
0
B :
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
+
+
1
02 2 0 0
1
02 2 0 0
2 2
2 2
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
Q B
P A
in which:
( ) ( )
'
N
n
n
m
a
b
m A
a
n m
n
0
1 2 02
1 2 2
1 2
1 2
Equation 3.226
A substitution of
0
A and
0
B into the set of two equations for each , results for each value
less than 2 in a set of two equations with the yet unknown parameters
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
, so:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1
2 2 0 0
1
2 2 0 0
2
2
m
m m s B s B
m
m m c B c B
Q f h
P f h
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2
02 02 2
m A m A m
h f +
Equation 3.227
The series in these two sets of equations converges uniformly with an increasing value of m.
For practical reasons the maximum value of m is limited to M , for instance 10 M .
Each value less than 2 will provide an equation for the
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
series. For a lot of
values, the best fit values of
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
are supposed to be those found by means of a
least square method. Notice that at least M values of , less than 2 , are required to solve
these equations.
Another favourable method is to multiply both sides of the equations with . Then the
summation over can be replaced by integration.
Herewith, two sets of M equations have been obtained, one set for
m
P
2
and one set for
m
Q
2
:
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72
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
'
'
2
0
2 0 0
1
2
0
2 2 2
2
0
2 0 0
1
2
0
2 2 2
2
2
d f h d f f Q
d f h d f f P
n s B s B
M
m
n m m
n c B c B
M
m
n m m
for: M n ,... 1
Equation 3.228
Now the
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
series can be solved by a numerical method and with these values, the
coefficients
0
A and
0
B are known too.
From the definition of these coefficients in Equation 3.224 follows the amplitude ratio of the
radiated waves and the forced heave oscillation:
2
0
2
0
B A
y
b
a
a
+
Equation 3.229
With the solved
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
values, the velocity potential on the surface of the cylinder
( 0 ) is known too:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
t Q
t P
g
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
a
sin
cos
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
in which:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
+
+
N
n
n
n
a
b
m A
n m a
n m
n
m
0
1 2
02
1 2 2 cos
1 2 2
1 2
1
2 cos
Equation 3.230
In this expression, ( )
c B0
and ( )
s B0
are the values of ( ) ,
Bc
and ( ) ,
Bs
at the
surface of the cylinder, so for 0 .
3.2.1.1 Pressure Distribution During Heave Motions
Now the hydrodynamic pressure on the surface of the cylinder can be obtained from the
linearised equation of Bernoulli:
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73
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+
,
_
+ +
t P
t Q
g
t
p
M
m
m A m c B
M
m
m A m s B
a
sin
cos
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
Equation 3.231
It is obvious that this pressure is symmetric in .
3.2.1.2 Heave Coefficients
The twodimensional hydrodynamic vertical force, acting on the cylinder in the direction of
the y axis, can be found by integrating the vertical component of the hydrodynamic pressure
on the surface of the cylinder:
( )
( )
d
d
dx
p
ds
ds
dx
p F
y
0
2
0
0
2
2
'
2
Equation 3.232
With this the twodimensional hydrodynamic vertical force due to heave oscillations can be
written as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) t N t M
b g
F
a
y
sin cos
0 0
0
'
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }
,
_
'
'
'
N
m
m N
n
n m n m
m
a
b
M
m
N
n
n m
m
a
N
n
n
n
s B
a
a a n Q Q
a
n m
n
Q
d n a n M
1 0
1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
1 0
1 2 2 2
2
2
2
0
0
1 2 0 0
1 2 1
4
1 2 2
1 2
1
1
1 2 cos 1 2 1
1
and
0
N as obtained from this expression above for
0
M , by replacing there ( )
s B0
by
( )
c B0
and
m
Q
2
by
m
P
2
.
Equation 3.233
For the determination of
0
M and
0
N , it is required that N M . These expressions coincide
with those as given by Tasai [1960].
With Equation 3.233 in some other format:
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74
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
0 0
0
'
cos
sin
sin cos
B
y
A
y
t N t M
b g
F
b a
a
b a
a
a
y
+ +
Equation 3.234
the twodimensional hydrodynamic vertical force can be resolved into components in phase
and out phase with the vertical displacement of the cylinder:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+ + + +
t B N A M t A N B M
y
b g
F
a b
a
y
sin cos
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2
2
0
'
Equation 3.235
This hydrodynamic vertical force can also be written as:
( ) ( ) + + +
t y N t y M
y N y M F
a a
y
sin cos
'
33
2 '
33
'
33
'
33
'
& & &
Equation 3.236
in which:
'
33
M 2D hydrodynamic mass coefficient of heave
'
33
N 2D hydrodynamic damping coefficient of heave
When using also the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and the forced heave oscillation,
found before in Equation 3.229, the twodimensional hydrodynamic mass and damping
coefficients of heave are given by:
+
+
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0
2
0 '
33
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0
2
0 '
33
2
2
B A
B N A M b
N
B A
A N B M b
M
Equation 3.237
The signs of these two coefficients are proper in both, the axes system of Tasai and the ship
motions ( ) z y x O , , coordinate system.
The energy delivered by the exciting forces should be equal to the energy radiated by the
waves, so:
( ) ( )
2
1
2
0
'
33
c g
dt y y N
T
a
T
osc
osc
& &
Equation 3.238
in which
osc
T is the period of oscillation.
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75
With the relation for the wave speed g c at deep water, follows the relation between the
twodimensional heave damping coefficient and the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and
the forced heave oscillation:
2
3
2
'
33
,
_
a
a
y
g
N
Equation 3.239
With this amplitude ratio the twodimensional hydrodynamic damping coefficient of heave is
also given by:
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
'
33
1
4
B A
b
N
Equation 3.240
When comparing this expression for
'
33
N with the expression found before, the following
energy balance relation is found:
2
2
0 0 0 0
B N A M
Equation 3.241
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76
3.2.2 Sway Motions
The determination of the hydrodynamic coefficients of a swaying cross section of a ship in
deep and still water at zero forward speed is based here on work published by Tasai [1961] for
the Lewis conformal mapping method. Starting points for the derivation these coefficients
here are the velocity potentials and the conjugate stream functions of the fluid as they have
been derived by Tasai [1961] and also by de Jong [1973].
Suppose an infinite long cylinder in the surface of a fluid, of which a cross section is given in
Figure 3.21. The cylinder is forced to carry out a simple harmonic lateral motion about its
initial position with a frequency of oscillation and small amplitude of displacement
a
x :
( ) + t x x
a
cos
Equation 3.242
in which is a phase angle.
Respectively, the lateral velocity and acceleration of the cylinder are:
( ) + t x x
a
sin & and ( ) + t x x
a
cos
2
& &
Equation 3.243
This forced lateral oscillation of the cylinder causes a surface disturbance of the fluid.
Because the cylinder is supposed to be infinitely long, the generated waves will be two
dimensional. These waves travel away from the cylinder and a stationary state is rapidly
attained.
Two kinds of waves will be produced:
A standing wave system, denoted here by subscript A.
The amplitudes of these waves decrease strongly with the distance to the cylinder.
A regular progressive wave system, denoted here by subscript B .
These waves dissipate energy. At a distance of a few wavelengths from the cylinder, the
waves on each side can be described by a single regular wave train. The wave amplitude at
infinity
a
is proportional to the amplitude of oscillation of the cylinder
a
x , provided that
this amplitude is sufficiently small compared with the radius of the cylinder and the
wavelength is not much smaller than the diameter of the cylinder.
The twodimensional velocity potential of the fluid has to fulfil the following requirements:
1. The velocity potential must satisfy to the equation of Laplace:
0
2
2
2
2
2
y x
Equation 3.244
2. Because the sway motion of the fluid is not symmetrical about the y axis, this velocity
potential has the following antisymmetric relation:
( ) ( ) y x y x , , +
Equation 3.245
3. The linearised free surface condition in deep water is expressed as follows:
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77
0
2
+
y g
for:
2
s
B
x and 0 y
Equation 3.246
In consequence of the conformal mapping, this free surface condition can be written as:
( )
( )
{ } 0 1 2
0
1 2
1 2
N
n
n
n
a
b
e a n for: 0 and
2
t
in which:
s
a
b
M
g
2
or
g
b
b
2
0
2
0 0
&
Equation 3.248
in which n is the outward normal of the cylinder surface S .
Using the stream function , this boundary condition on the surface of the cylinder ( 0 )
reduces to:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
N
n
n
n
s
n a n M x
x
x
0
1 2
0 0
1 2 sin 1 2 1
&
&
Equation 3.249
Integration results into the following requirement for the stream function on the surface of the
cylinder:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( ) t C n a M x
N
n
n
n
s
+
0
1 2 0
1 2 cos 1 &
Equation 3.250
in which ( ) t C is a function of time only.
When defining:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
N
n
n
n
a
n a
b
y
g
0
1 2
0
0
1 2 cos 1
1
2
Equation 3.251
the stream function on the surface of the cylinder is given by:
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78
( ) ( ) ( ) t C g
b
x +
2
0
0
&
Equation 3.252
For the standing wave system a velocity potential and a stream function satisfying to the
equation of Laplace, the nonsymmetrical motion of the fluid and the free surface condition
has to be found.
The following set of velocity potentials, as they are given by Tasai [1961] and de Jong [1973],
fulfil these requirements:
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
,
_
1
2 2
1
2 2
sin , cos ,
m
m A m
m
m A m
a
A
t Q t P
g
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+
+ +
N
n
n m
n
n
a
b
m
m A
n m e a
n m
n
m e
0
2 2
1 2
1 2
2
2 2 sin
2 2
1 2
1
1 2 sin ,
Equation 3.253
The set of conjugate stream functions is expressed as:
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
,
_
1
2 2
1
2 2
sin , cos ,
m
m A m
m
m A m
a
A
t Q t P
g
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+
+
+
N
n
n m
n
n
a
b
m
m A
n m e a
n m
n
m e
0
2 2
1 2
1 2
2
2 2 cos
2 2
1 2
1
1 2 cos ,
Equation 3.254
These sets of functions tend to zero as tends to infinity.
In these expressions the magnitudes of the
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
series follow from the boundary
conditions as will be explained further on.
Another requirement is a diverging wave train for goes to infinity. It is therefore necessary
to add a stream function, satisfying the equation of Laplace, the nonsymmetrical motion and
the free surface condition, representing such a train of waves at infinity. For this, a function
describing a twodimensional horizontal doublet at the origin O is chosen.
Tasai [1961] and de Jong [1973] gave the velocity potential of the progressive wave system
as:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t y x t y x
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
in which:
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79
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
0
2 2
sin cos
cos
sin
y x
x
dk e
k
y k k y k
x e j
x e j
x k y
Bs
y
Bc
+
+
+
+
+
while:
1 + j for: 0 > x
1 j for: 0 < x
g
2
sin , cos ,
Equation 3.256
The conjugate stream function is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t y x t y x
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
0
2 2
cos sin
sin
cos
y x
y
dk e
k
y k k y k
x e
x e
x k y
Bs
y
Bc
+
+
+ +
+
Equation 3.257
Changing the parameters provides:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t t
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
Equation 3.258
When calculating the integrals in the expressions for
Bs
and
Bc
numerically, the
convergence is very slowly.
Power series expansions, as given by Porter [1960], can be used instead of these last integrals
over k :
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
y x k
y x k
e x S x Q dk e
k
y k k y k
e x S x Q dk e
k
y k k y k
+
+
+
+
sin cos
cos sin
cos sin
sin cos
0
2 2
0
2 2
in which:
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80
( ) ( ) { }
( ) { }
( )
constant) (Euler ..... 57722 . 0
!
arctan
sin
cos ln
2 2
1
1
2 2
,
_
+
+ + +
n n
y x
p
y
x
n p S
n p y x Q
n
n
n
n
n
n
Equation 3.259
The summations in these expansions converge much faster than the numeric integration
procedure. A suitable maximum value for n should be chosen, N n ,... 1 .
The total velocity potential and stream function to describe the waves generated by a swaying
cylinder are:
B A
B A
+
+
Equation 3.260
So the velocity potential and the conjugate stream function are expressed by:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
t Q
t P
g
t Q
t P
g
m
m A m Bs
m
m A m Bc
a
m
m A m Bs
m
m A m Bc
a
sin , ,
cos , ,
,
sin , ,
cos , ,
,
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
Equation 3.261
When putting 0 , the stream function is equal to the expression found before in Equation
3.252 from the boundary condition on the surface of the cylinder:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) t C g
b
x
t Q
t P
g
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
a
+
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
2
sin
cos
0
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
&
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81
in which:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
+
+
+
+
N
n
n
n
a
b
m A
n m a
n m
n
m
0
1 2
02
2 2 cos
2 2
1 2
1
1 2 cos
Equation 3.262
In this expression, ( )
c B0
and ( )
s B0
are the values of ( ) ,
Bc
and ( ) ,
Bs
at the
surface of the cylinder, so for 0 .
So for each , the following equation has been obtained from Equation 3.262:
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) t C g
g
b
x
t Q
t P
a
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
*
0
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
2
sin
cos
+
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
&
Equation 3.263
When putting 2 , so at the intersection of the surface of the cylinder with the free
surface of the fluid where ( ) 0 g , we obtain the constant ( ) t C
*
:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
t Q
t P
t C
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
sin 2 2
cos 2 2
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
*
in which:
( ) ( )
'
N
n
n
m
a
b
m A
a
n m
n
0
1 2 02
2 2
1 2
1 2
Equation 3.264
A substitution of ( ) t C
*
in the equation for each value, results for each value less than
2 into the following equation:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
g
g
b
x
t Q
t P
a
m
m A m A m s B s B
m
m A m A m c B c B
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
2
sin 2 2
cos 2 2
0
1
02 02 2 0 0
1
02 02 2 0 0
&
Equation 3.265
The right hand side of this equation can be written as:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { } t Q t P g
t
x
g g
g
b
x
b
a
a
a
+
'
sin cos
sin
2
0 0
0
&
in which:
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82
sin
0
b
a
a
x
P and
cos
0
b
a
a
x
Q
Equation 3.266
This provides for each value less than 2 a set of two equations with the unknown
parameters
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+
+
1
2 2 0 0 0
1
2 2 0 0 0
2
2
m
m m s B s B
m
m m c B c B
Q f Q g
P f P g
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
02 02 2
m A m A m
f +
Equation 3.267
These equations can also be written as:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
0
2 2 0 0
0
2 2 0 0
2
2
m
m m s B s B
m
m m c B c B
Q f
P f
in which:
for : 0 m ( ) ( ) g f
0
for 0 > m : ( ) ( ) ( ) 2
02 02 2
m A m A m
f +
Equation 3.268
The series in these two sets of equations converges uniformly with an increasing value of m.
For practical reasons the maximum value of m is limited to M , for instance 10 M .
Each value less than 2 will provide an equation for the
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
series. For a lot of
values, the best fit values of
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
are supposed to be those found by means of a
least squares method. Notice that at least 1 + M values of , less than 2 , are required to
solve these equations.
Another favourable method is to multiply both sides of the equations with . Then the
summation over can be replaced by integration.
Herewith, two sets of 1 + M equations have been obtained, one set for
m
P
2
and one set for
m
Q
2
:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
'
'
2
0
2 0 0
0
2
0
2 2 2
2
0
2 0 0
0
2
0
2 2 2
2
2
d f d f f Q
d f d f f P
n s B s B
M
m
n m m
n c B c B
M
m
n m m
for: M n ,... 0
Equation 3.269
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83
Now the
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
series can be solved by a numerical method and with these values, the
coefficients
0
P and
0
Q are known now and from the definition of these coefficients in
Equation 3.266 follows the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and the forced sway
oscillation:
2
0
2
0
Q P
x
b
a
a
+
Equation 3.270
With the solved
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
values, the velocity potential on the surface of the cylinder
( 0 ) is known too:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
t Q
t P
g
M
m
m A m s B
M
m
m A m c B
a
sin
cos
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
in which:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
+
+
+ +
N
n
n
n
a
b
m A
n m a
n m
n
m
0
1 2
02
2 2 sin
2 2
1 2
1
1 2 sin
Equation 3.271
In this expression, ( )
c B0
and ( )
s B0
are the values of ( ) ,
Bc
and ( ) ,
Bs
at the
surface of the cylinder, so for 0 .
3.2.2.1 Pressure Distribution During Sway Motions
Now the hydrodynamic pressure on the surface of the cylinder can be obtained from the
linearised equation of Bernoulli:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+
,
_
+ +
t P
t Q
g
t
p
m
m A m c B
m
m A m s B
a
sin
cos
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
Equation 3.272
It is obvious that this pressure is skewsymmetric in .
3.2.2.2 Sway Coefficients
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84
The twodimensional hydrodynamic horizontal force, acting on the cylinder in the direction of
the x axis, can be found by integrating the horizontal component of the hydrodynamic
pressure on the surface S of the cylinder:
( ) ( ) { }
( )
d
d
dy
p
ds
ds
dy
p p F
x
+
0
2
0
0
2
0
'
2
Equation 3.273
With this the twodimensional hydrodynamic horizontal force due to sway oscillations can be
written as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) t N t M
b g
F
a
x
sin cos
0 0
0
'
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
'
+
+
+
+
M
m
N
n
N
i
i n m
m
a
b
N
m
m m
m
a
N
n
n
n
s B
a
a a
n i m
i n
Q
a m Q
d n a n M
1 0 0
1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2
1
1
1 2 2
2
0
0
1 2 0 0
1 2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1
1 2 1
4
1 2 sin 1 2 1
1
and
0
N as obtained from this expression above for
0
M , by replacing there ( )
s B0
by
( )
c B0
and
m
Q
2
by
m
P
2
.
Equation 3.274
For the determination of
0
M and
0
N , it is required that N M .
With Equation 3.274 in some other format:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
0 0
0
'
cos
sin
sin cos
Q
x
P
x
t N t M
b g
F
b a
a
b a
a
a
x
+ +
Equation 3.275
the twodimensional hydrodynamic horizontal force can be resolved into components in phase
and out phase with the horizontal displacement of the cylinder:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+ + + +
t Q N P M t P N Q M
x
b g
F
a b
a
x
sin cos
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2
2
0
'
Equation 3.276
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85
This hydrodynamic vertical force can also be written as:
( ) ( ) + + +
t x N t x M
x N x M F
a a
x
sin cos
'
22
2 '
22
'
22
'
22
'
& & &
Equation 3.277
in which:
'
22
M 2D hydrodynamic mass coefficient of sway
'
22
N 2D hydrodynamic damping coefficient of sway
When using also the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and the forced sway oscillation,
found before in Equation 3.270, the twodimensional hydrodynamic mass and damping
coefficients of sway are given by:
+
+
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0
2
0
'
22
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0
2
0
'
22
2
2
Q P
Q N P M b
N
Q P
P N Q M b
M
Equation 3.278
The signs of these two coefficients are proper in both, the axes system of Tasai and the ship
motions ( ) z y x O , , coordinate system.
The energy delivered by the exciting forces should be equal to the energy radiated by the
waves, so:
( ) ( )
2
1
2
0
'
22
c g
dt x x N
T
a
T
osc
osc
& &
Equation 3.279
in which
osc
T is the period of oscillation.
With the relation for the wave speed g c at deep water, follows the relation between the
twodimensional heave damping coefficient and the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and
the forced sway oscillation:
2
3
2
'
22
,
_
a
a
x
g
N
Equation 3.280
With this amplitude ratio the twodimensional hydrodynamic damping coefficient of heave is
also given by:
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
'
22
1
4 Q P
b
N
Equation 3.281
When comparing this expression for
'
22
N with the expression found before, the following
energy balance relation is found:
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86
2
2
0 0 0 0
Q N P M
Equation 3.282
3.2.2.3 Coupling of Sway into Roll
In the case of a sway oscillation generally a roll moment is produced. The hydrodynamic
pressure is skewsymmetric in .
The twodimensional hydrodynamic moment acting on the cylinder in the clockwise direction
can be found by integrating the roll component of the hydrodynamic pressure on the surface
S of the cylinder:
( ) ( ) { }
( )
d
d
dy
y
d
dx
x p
ds
ds
dy
y
ds
dx
x p p M
R
,
_
+
,
_
+
+
+
+
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
'
2
Equation 3.283
With this the twodimensional hydrodynamic roll moment due to sway oscillations can be
written as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) t X t Y
b g
M
R R
a
R
sin cos
2
0
'
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+
+
+
+
'
,
_
'
+
+
'
+
+
'
'
N
m
m N
n
N
n m i
i n m i n
N
m n
m n
i
i n m i n
m
m
a
b
M
m
N
n
N
i
i n m
m
a
N
n
N
i
i n
i n
s B
a
R
a a a
i n
i i n m
a a a
i n
i i n m
Q
a a
i n m
i n i
Q
d i n a a i Y
1
0
1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2
0
1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2
2
3
1 0 0
1 2 1 2
2 2
2
2
2
0
0 0
1 2 1 2 0
2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
1
8
2 2 1 2
2 2 1 2
1
2
1
2 2 sin 1 2 1
2
1
and
R
X as obtained from this expression above for
R
Y , by replacing there ( )
s B0
by
( )
c B0
and
m
Q
2
by
m
P
2
.
Equation 3.284
With Equation 3.284 in some other format:
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87
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
2
0
'
cos
sin
sin cos
Q
x
P
x
t X t Y
b g
M
b a
a
b a
a
R R
a
R
+ +
Equation 3.285
the twodimensional hydrodynamic roll moment can be resolved into components in phase
and out phase with the lateral displacement of the cylinder:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
+ + + +
t Q X P Y t P X Q Y
x
b g
M
R R R R
a b
a
R
sin cos
0 0 0 0
2
2 2
0
'
Equation 3.286
This hydrodynamic roll moment can also be written as:
( ) ( ) + + +
t x N t x M
x N x M M
a a
R
sin cos
'
42
2
'
42
'
42
'
42
'
& & &
Equation 3.287
in which:
'
42
M 2D hydrodynamic mass coupling coefficient of sway into roll
'
42
N 2D hydrodynamic damping coupling coefficient of sway into roll
When using also the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and the forced sway oscillation,
found before, the twodimensional hydrodynamic mass and damping coupling coefficients of
sway into roll in Tasai's axes system are given by:
+
+
2
0
2
0
0 0
3
0
'
42
2
0
2
0
0 0
3
0
'
42
2
2
Q P
Q X P Y b
N
Q P
P X Q Y b
M
R R
R R
Equation 3.288
In the ship motions ( ) z y x O , , coordinate system these two coupling coefficients will change
sign.
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88
3.2.3 Roll Motions
The determination of the hydrodynamic coefficients of a rolling cross section of a ship in deep
and still water at zero forward speed, is based here on work published by Tasai [1961] for the
Lewis method. Starting points for the derivation these coefficients here are the velocity
potentials and the conjugate stream functions of the fluid as they have been derived by Tasai
and also by de Jong [1973].
Suppose an infinite long cylinder in the surface of a fluid, of which a cross section is given in
Figure 3.21. The cylinder is forced to carry out a simple harmonic roll motion about the
origin O with a frequency of oscillation and small amplitude of displacement
a
:
( ) + t
a
cos
Equation 3.289
in which is a phase angle.
Respectively, the angular velocity and acceleration of the cylinder are:
( ) + t
a
sin
&
and ( ) + t
a
cos
2
& &
Equation 3.290
This forced angular oscillation of the cylinder causes a surface disturbance of the fluid.
Because the cylinder is supposed to be infinitely long, the generated waves will be two
dimensional. These waves travel away from the cylinder and a stationary state is rapidly
attained.
Two kinds of waves will be produced:
A standing wave system, denoted here by subscript A.
The amplitudes of these waves decrease strongly with the distance to the cylinder.
A regular progressive wave system, denoted here by subscript B .
These waves dissipate energy. At a distance of a few wavelengths from the cylinder, the
waves on each side can be described by a single regular wave train. The wave amplitude at
infinity
a
is proportional to the amplitude of oscillation of the cylinder
a
, provided that
this amplitude is sufficiently small compared with the radius of the cylinder and the wave
length is not much smaller than the diameter of the cylinder.
The twodimensional velocity potential of the fluid has to fulfil the following requirements:
1. The velocity potential must satisfy to the equation of Laplace:
0
2
2
2
2
2
y x
Equation 3.291
2. Because the sway motion of the fluid is not symmetrical about the y axis, this velocity
potential has the following antisymmetric relation:
( ) ( ) y x y x , , +
Equation 3.292
3. The linearised free surface condition in deep water is expressed as follows:
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89
0
2
+
y g
for:
2
s
B
x and 0 y
Equation 3.293
In consequence of the conformal mapping, this free surface condition can be written as:
( )
( )
{ } 0 1 2
0
1 2
1 2
N
n
n
n
a
b
e a n for: 0 and
2
t
in which:
s
a
b
M
g
2
or
g
b
b
2
0
2
0
0
0
&
Equation 3.295
in which n is the outward normal of the cylinder surface S and
0
r is the radius from the
origin to the surface of the cylinder.
Using the stream function , this boundary condition on the surface of the cylinder ( 0 )
reduces to:
( )
,
_
2
2
0
2
0 0
y x
s s
&
Equation 3.296
Integration results into the following requirement for the stream function on the surface of the
cylinder:
( ) ( ) ( ) t C y x + +
2
0
2
0 0
2
&
Equation 3.297
in which ( ) t C is a function of time only.
The vertical oscillation at the intersection of the surface of the cylinder and the waterline is
defined by:
( ) + t
b
a
sin
2
0
Equation 3.298
When defining:
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90
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
2
0
1 2
2
0
1 2
2
0
2
0
2
0
1 2 cos 1
1
1 2 sin 1
1
2
,
_
+ +
,
_
N
n
n
n
a
N
n
n
n
a
n a
n a
b
y x
Equation 3.299
the stream function on the surface of the cylinder is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) t C
b
+
4
0
0
&
Equation 3.2100
For the standing wave system a velocity potential and a stream function satisfying to the
equation of Laplace, the nonsymmetrical motion of the fluid and the free surface condition
has to be found.
The following set of velocity potentials, as they are given by Tasai [1961] and de Jong [1973],
fulfil these requirements:
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
,
_
1
2 2
1
2 2
sin , cos ,
m
m A m
m
m A m
a
A
t Q t P
g
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+
+ +
N
n
n m
n
n
a
b
m
m A
n m e a
n m
n
m e
0
2 2
1 2
1 2
2
2 2 sin
2 2
1 2
1
1 2 sin ,
Equation 3.2101
The set of conjugate stream functions is expressed as:
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
,
_
1
2 2
1
2 2
sin , cos ,
m
m A m
m
m A m
a
A
t Q t P
g
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+
+
+
N
n
n m
n
n
a
b
m
m A
n m e a
n m
n
m e
0
2 2
1 2
1 2
2
2 2 cos
2 2
1 2
1
1 2 cos ,
Equation 3.2102
These sets of functions tend to zero as tends to infinity.
In these expressions the magnitudes of the
m
P
2
and the
m
Q
2
series follow from the boundary
conditions as will be explained further on.
Another requirement is a diverging wave train for goes to infinity. It is therefore necessary
to add a stream function, satisfying the equation of Laplace, the nonsymmetrical motion and
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91
the free surface condition, representing such a train of waves at infinity. For this, a function
describing a twodimensional horizontal doublet at the origin O is chosen.
Tasai [1961] and de Jong [1973] gave the velocity potential of the progressive wave system
as:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t y x t y x
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
0
2 2
sin cos
cos
sin
y x
x
dk e
k
y k k y k
x e j
x e j
x k y
Bs
y
Bc
+
+
+
+
+
while:
1 + j for: 0 > x
1 j for: 0 < x
g
2
sin , cos ,
Equation 3.2104
The conjugate stream function is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t y x t y x
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
in which:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
0
2 2
cos sin
sin
cos
y x
y
dk e
k
y k k y k
x e
x e
x k y
Bs
y
Bc
+
+
+ +
+
Equation 3.2105
Changing the parameters provides:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t t
g
Bs Bc
a
B
+
sin , cos ,
Equation 3.2106
When calculating the integrals in the expressions for
Bs
and
Bc
numerically, the
convergence is very slowly.
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92
Power series expansions, as given by Porter [1960], can be used instead of these last integrals
over k . Summations in these expansions converge much faster than the numeric integration
procedure. This has been showed for the sway case.
The total velocity potential and stream function to describe the waves generated by a swaying
cylinder are:
B A
B A
+
+
Equation 3.2107
So the velocity potential and the conjugate stream function are expressed by:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
t Q
t P
g
t Q
t P
g
m
m A m Bs
m
m A m Bc
a
m
m A m Bs
m
m A m Bc
a
sin , ,
cos , ,
,
sin , ,
cos , ,
,
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
Equation 3.2108
When putting 0 , the stream function is equal to the expression found before in Equation
3.2100 from the boundary condition on the surface of the cylinder:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) t C
b
t Q
t P
g
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
a
+
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
4
sin
cos
0
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
&
in which:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
+
+
+
+
N
n
n
n
a
b
m A
n m a
n m
n
m
0
1 2
02
2 2 cos
2 2
1 2
1
1 2 cos
Equation 3.2109
In this expression, ( )
c B0
and ( )
s B0
are the values of ( ) ,
Bc
and ( ) ,
Bs
at the
surface of the cylinder, so for 0 .
So for each , the following equation has been obtained:
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93
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) t C
g
b
t Q
t P
a
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
*
0
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
4
sin
cos
+
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
&
Equation 3.2110
When putting 2 , so at the intersection of the surface of the cylinder with the free
surface of the fluid where ( ) 1 , we obtain the constant ( ) t C
*
:
( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
a
m
m A m s B
m
m A m c B
g
b
t Q
t P t C
+
,
_
+ +
,
_
4
sin 2 2
cos 2 2
0
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
*
&
in which:
( ) ( )
'
N
n
n
m
a
b
m A
a
n m
n
0
1 2 02
2 2
1 2
1 2
Equation 3.2111
A substitution of ( ) t C
*
in the equation for each value, results for any value less than
2 into the following equation:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) { } 1
4
sin 2 2
cos 2 2
0
1
02 02 2 0 0
1
02 02 2 0 0
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
a
m
m A m A m S B s B
m
m A m A m c B c B
g
b
t Q
t P
&
Equation 3.2112
The right hand side of this equation can be written as:
( ) { } ( ) { } ( )
( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } t Q t P
t
g
b
b
a
a
a
+
'
sin cos 1
sin
2
1 1
4
0 0
0
&
in which:
( )
sin
2
0
b
a
a
P and ( )
cos
2
0
b
a
a
Q
Equation 3.2113
This provides for each value less than 2 a set of two equations with the unknown
parameters
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
:
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94
( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( ) { }
+
+
1
2 2 0 0 0
1
2 2 0 0 0
1 2
1 2
m
m m s B s B
m
m m c B c B
Q f Q
P f P
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
02 02 2
m A m A m
f +
Equation 3.2114
These equations can also be written as:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
0
2 2 0 0
0
2 2 0 0
2
2
m
m m s B s B
m
m m c B c B
Q f
P f
in which:
for : 0 m ( ) ( ) 1
0
f
for 0 > m : ( ) ( ) ( ) 2
02 02 2
m A m A m
f +
Equation 3.2115
The series in these two sets of equations converges uniformly with an increasing value of m.
For practical reasons the maximum value of m is limited to M , for instance 10 M .
Each value less than 2 will provide an equation for the
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
series. For a lot of
values, the best fit values of
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
are supposed to be those found by means of a
least squares method. Note that at least 1 + M values of , less than 2 , are required to
solve these equations.
Another favourable method is to multiply both sides of the equations with . Then the
summation over can be replaced by integration. Herewith, two sets of 1 + M equations
have been obtained, one set for
m
P
2
and one set for
m
Q
2
:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
'
'
2
0
2 0 0
0
2
0
2 2 2
2
0
2 0 0
0
2
0
2 2 2
2
2
d f d f f Q
d f d f f P
n s B s B
M
m
n m m
n c B c B
M
m
n m m
for: M n ,... 0
Equation 3.2116
Now the
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
series can be solved by a numerical method and with these values, the
coefficients
0
P and
0
Q are known now and from the definition of these coefficients follows
the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and the forced sway oscillation:
2
0
2
0
2 Q P
b
a
a
+
Equation 3.2117
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95
With the solved
m
P
2
and
m
Q
2
values, the velocity potential on the surface of the cylinder
( 0 ) is known too:
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
t Q
t P
g
M
m
m A m s B
M
m
m A m c B
a
sin
cos
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
in which:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
+
+
+ +
N
n
n
n
a
b
m A
n m a
n m
n
m
0
1 2
02
2 2 sin
2 2
1 2
1
1 2 sin
Equation 3.2118
In this expression ( )
c B0
and ( )
s B0
are the values of ( ) ,
Bc
and ( ) ,
Bs
at the surface
of the cylinder, so for 0 .
3.2.3.1 Pressure Distribution During Roll Motions
Now the hydrodynamic pressure on the surface of the cylinder can be obtained from the
linearised equation of Bernoulli:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
,
_
,
_
+
,
_
+ +
t P
t Q
g
t
p
m
m A m c B
m
m A m s B
a
sin
cos
1
02 2 0
1
02 2 0
0
Equation 3.2119
It is obvious that this pressure is skewsymmetric in .
3.2.3.2 Roll Coefficients
The twodimensional hydrodynamic moment acting on the cylinder in the clockwise direction
can be found by integrating the roll component of the hydrodynamic pressure on the surface
S of the cylinder:
( ) ( ) { }
( )
d
d
dy
y
d
dx
x p
ds
ds
dy
y
ds
dx
x p p M
R
,
_
+
,
_
+
+
+
+
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
'
2
Equation 3.2120
With this the twodimensional hydrodynamic moment due to roll oscillations can be written as
follows:
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96
( ) ( ) ( ) t X t Y
b g
M
R R
a
R
sin cos
2
0
'
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+
+
+
+
'
,
_
'
+
+
'
+
+
'
M
m
m N
n
N
n m i
i n m i n
N
m n
m n
i
i n m i n
m
m
a
b
M
m
N
n
N
i
i n m
m
a
N
n
N
i
i n
i n
s B
a
R
a a a
i n
i i n m
a a a
i n
i i n m
Q
a a
i n m
i n i
Q
d i n a a i Y
1
0
1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2
0
1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2
2
3
1 0 0
1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2
2
0
0 0
1 2 1 2 0
2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
1
8
2 2 1 2
2 2 1 2
1
2
1
2 2 sin 1 2 1
2
1
and
R
X as obtained from this expression above for
R
Y , by replacing there ( )
s B0
by
( )
c B0
and
m
Q
2
by
m
P
2
.
Equation 3.2121
These expressions are similar to those found before for the hydrodynamic roll moment due to
sway oscillations.
With Equation 3.2121 in some other format:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
2
0
'
2
cos
2
sin
sin cos
Q
x
P
x
t X t Y
b g
M
b a
a
b a
a
R R
a
R
+ +
Equation 3.2122
the twodimensional hydrodynamic roll moment can be resolved into components in phase
and out phase with the angular displacement of the cylinder:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+ + + +
t Q X P Y t P X Q Y
b g
M
R R R R
a b
a
R
sin cos
2
0 0 0 0
2
2 2
0
'
Equation 3.2123
This hydrodynamic roll moment can also be written as:
( ) ( )
+ + +
t N t M
N M M
a a
R
sin cos
'
44
2 '
44
'
44
'
44
'
& & &
Equation 3.2124
in which:
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97
'
44
M 2D hydrodynamic mass moment of inertia coefficient of roll
'
44
N 2D hydrodynamic damping coefficient of roll
When using also the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and the forced roll oscillation,
found before, the twodimensional hydrodynamic mass and damping coefficients of roll in
Tasai's axes system are given by:
+
+
2
0
2
0
0 0
4
0
'
44
2
0
2
0
0 0
4
0
'
44
8
8
Q P
Q X P Y b
N
Q P
P X Q Y b
M
R R
R R
Equation 3.2125
The signs of these two coefficients are proper in both, the axes system of Tasai and the ship
motions ( ) z y x O , , coordinate system.
The energy delivered by the exciting moments should be equal to the energy radiated by the
waves, so:
( ) ( )
2
1
2
0
'
44
c g
dt N
T
a
T
osc
osc
& &
Equation 3.2126
in which
osc
T is the period of oscillation.
With the relation for the wave speed g c in deep water, follows the relation between the
twodimensional heave damping coefficient and the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and
the forced sway oscillation:
2
3
2
'
44
,
_
a
a
g
N
Equation 3.2127
With this amplitude ratio the twodimensional hydrodynamic damping coefficient of heave is
also given by:
2
0
2
0
4
0
2
'
44
1
64 Q P
b
N
Equation 3.2128
When comparing this expression for
'
44
N with the expression found before, the following
energy balance relation is found:
8
2
0 0
Q X P Y
R R
Equation 3.2129
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98
3.2.3.3 Coupling of Roll into Sway
In the case of a roll oscillation generally a sway force produced too. The hydrodynamic
pressure is skewsymmetric in .
The twodimensional hydrodynamic lateral force, acting on the cylinder in the direction of the
x axis, can be found by integrating the horizontal component of the hydrodynamic pressure
on the surface S of the cylinder:
( ) ( ) { }
( )
d
d
dy
p
ds
ds
dy
p p F
x
+
0
2
0
0
2
0
'
2
Equation 3.2130
With this the twodimensional hydrodynamic horizontal force due to sway oscillations can be
written as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) t N t M
b g
F
a
x
sin cos
0 0
0
'
in which:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
'
+
+
+
+
M
m
N
n
N
i
i n m
m
a
b
N
m
m m
m
a
N
n
n
n
s B
a
a a
n i m
i n
Q
a m Q
d n a n M
1 0 0
1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2
1
1
1 2 2
2
0
0
1 2 0 0
1 2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1
1 2 1
4
1 2 sin 1 2 1
1
and
0
N as obtained from this expression above for
0
M , by replacing there ( )
s B0
by
( )
c B0
and
m
Q
2
by
m
P
2
.
Equation 3.2131
For the determination of
0
M and
0
N , it is required that N M .
With Equation 3.2131 in some other format:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
0 0
0
'
2
cos
2
sin
sin cos
Q
x
P
x
t N t M
b g
F
b a
a
b a
a
a
x
+ +
Equation 3.2132
the twodimensional hydrodynamic horizontal force can be resolved into components in phase
and out phase with the horizontal displacement of the cylinder:
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99
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
+ + + +
t Q N P M t P N Q M
b g
F
a b
a
x
sin cos
2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2
2
0 '
Equation 3.2133
This hydrodynamic vertical force can also be written as:
( ) ( )
+ + +
t N t M
N M F
a a
x
sin cos
'
24
2 '
24
'
24
'
24
'
& & &
Equation 3.2134
in which:
'
24
M 2D hydrodynamic mass coupling coefficient of roll into sway
'
24
N 2D hydrodynamic damping coupling coefficient of roll into sway
When using also the amplitude ratio of the radiated waves and the forced sway oscillation,
found before, the twodimensional hydrodynamic mass and damping coupling coefficients of
roll into sway are given by:
+
+
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0
3
0
'
24
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0
3
0
'
24
8
8
Q P
Q N P M b
N
Q P
P N Q M b
M
Equation 3.2135
In the ship motions ( ) z y x O , , coordinate system these two coupling coefficients will change
sign.
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100
3.2.4 Low and High Frequencies
The potential coefficients for very small and very large frequencies in the ship motions
( ) z y x O , , coordinate system have been given in the following subsections.
3.2.4.1 NearZero Frequency Coefficients
The 2D hydrodynamic mass coefficient for sway of a Lewis cross section is given by Tasai
[1961] as:
( ) ( ) { }
2
3
2
1
2
3 1
'
22
3 1
1 2
0 a a
a a
D
M
s
+
,
_
Equation 3.2136
The 2D hydrodynamic mass coupling coefficient of sway into roll of a Lewis cross section is
given by Grim [1955] as:
( ) ( )
( )
2
3
2
1
2
3 3
2
3 3 1 3 1 1
3 1
'
22
'
42
3 1
7
12
5
4
5
3
5
4
1
1 3
16
0 0
a a
a a a a a a a a
a a
D
M M
s
+
+
,
_
+ +
Equation 3.2137
In Tasai's axes system,
'
42
M will change sign.
The 2D hydrodynamic mass coefficient of heave of a Lewis cross section goes to infinite, so:
( ) 0
'
33
M
Equation 3.2138
The 2D hydrodynamic mass moment of inertia coefficient of roll of a Lewis cross section is
given by Grim [1955] as:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
,
_
+ + + +
,
_
+ +
2
3 3 3 1
2
3
2
1
4
3 1
'
44
9
16
1
9
8
1
1 2
16
0
a a a a a a
a a
B
M
s
Equation 3.2139
The 2D hydrodynamic mass coupling coefficient of roll into sway of a Lewis cross section is
given by Grim [1955] as:
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101
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
3 3 3 1
2
3
2
1
2
3 1 3 3 3 1 3 1 1
3 1
'
44
'
24
9
16
1
9
8
1
7
12
1
5
4
1
5
3
1 1
1
6
0 0
a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a
D
a a
M M
s
+ + + +
+ + + +
+
Equation 3.2140
In Tasai's axes system,
'
24
M will change sign.
All potential damping values for zero frequency will be zero:
( )
( ) 0 0
0 0
'
42
'
22
N
N
( ) 0 0
'
33
N
( )
( ) 0 0
0 0
'
24
'
44
N
N
Equation 3.2141
3.2.4.2 Infinite Frequency Coefficients
The 2D hydrodynamic mass coefficient of sway of a Lewis cross section is given by
Landweber and de Macagno [1957, 1959] as:
( ) ( )
,
_
+ +
,
_
2
3
2
3 1
2
3 1
'
22
3
16
1
1
2
a a a
a a
D
M
s
Equation 3.2142
The 2D hydrodynamic mass coefficient of heave of a Lewis cross section is given by Tasai
[1959] as:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
3
2
1
2
3 1
'
33
3 1
1 2 2
a a
a a
B
M
s
+ +
,
_
+ +
Equation 3.2143
The 2D hydrodynamic mass moment of inertia coefficient of roll of a Lewis cross section is
given by Kumai [1959] as:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
3
2
3
2
1
4
3 1
'
44
2 1
1 2
a a a
a a
B
M
s
+ +
,
_
+ +
Equation 3.2144
Information about the 2D hydrodynamic mass coupling coefficients between sway and roll
of a Lewis cross section could not be found in literature, so:
( )
( ) ?
?
'
24
'
42
M
M
Equation 3.2145
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102
All potential damping values for infinite frequency will be zero:
( )
( ) 0
0
'
42
'
22
N
N
( ) 0
'
33
N
( )
( ) 0
0
'
24
'
44
N
N
Equation 3.2146
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103
3.3 Potential Theory of Keil
In this section, the determination of the hydrodynamic coefficients of a heaving, swaying and
rolling cross section of a ship in shallow at zero forward speed is based on work published by
Keil [1974]. His method is based on Lewis conformal mapping of the ships' cross sections to
the unit circle and the shallow water potential theory.
Journe [2001] has given a few comparisons of predicted and measured data on vertical
motions at various water depths. Recently, Vantorre and Journe [2003] have given more
extended comparisons of computed results by Keils theory with model test data on vertical
motions of a slender and a full ship, sailing at very shallow water.
For a significant part, the detailed description of the shallow water potential theory in this
Section is simply a translation of Keils original 1974 German report into the English
language. However, it has been supplemented with some numerical improvements and
outcomes of discussions with the author in the early eighties. The theory has been presented
here in a layout, more or less as used in the computer code SEAWAY.
3.3.1 Notations of Keil
Keils notations have been maintained here as far as possible:
a Lewis coefficient
index
A source strength
index A amplitude ratio
b Lewis coefficient
B breadth of body
c wave velocity
index
C nondimensional force or moment
index
E nondimensional exciting force or moment
index
F hydrodynamic force
g acceleration of gravity
G function (real part)
h water depth
H function (imaginary part)
indices
H fictive moment arm
HT water depth  draft ratio
"
I hydrodynamic moment of inertia
x
k wave number in x direction
y
k wave number in y direction
"
m hydrodynamic mass
indices
M hydrodynamic moment
indices
N hydrodynamic damping coefficient
p pressure
2 2
y x r + polar coordinate
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104
t time or integer value
T draught
U velocity amplitude of horizontal oscillation
V velocity amplitude of vertical oscillation
x
A cross sectional area
z y x , , earthbounded coordinates
indices
Y transfer functions
Euler constant (= 0.57722)
phase shift
wave amplitude
polar coordinate or pitch amplitude
wavelength
wave direction
g
2
wave number at deep water
2
0
wave number
density of water
roll angle
indices
timedependent potential
indices
part of potential
indices
timedependent stream function
indices
part of stream function
circular frequency of oscillation
In here, the indices being used by Keil  are:
E related to excitation
H horizontal or related to horizontal motions
j imaginary part
n numbering of potential parts
Q related to transverse motions
r real part
R related to roll motions
V related to vertical or vertical motions
W related to waves
3.3.2 Basic Assumptions
Figure 3.31 shows the coordinate system as used by Keil and maintained here.
The potentials of the incoming waves have been described in Appendix I of this Section.
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105
Figure 3.31: Keils axes system
The wave number, 2
0
, follows from:
[ ] h
h
g
1
]
1
0 0
2
tanh
2
tanh
2
Equation 3.31
The fluid is supposed to be incompressible and inviscid. The flow caused by the oscillating
body in the surface of this fluid can be described by a potential flow. The problem will be
linearised, i.e., contributions of second and higher order in the definition of the boundary
conditions will be ignored. Physically, this yields an assumption of small amplitude motions.
The earthbounded axes system of the sectional contour is given in Figure 3.32a.
Figure 3.32: Definition of sectional contour
Velocities are positive if they are directed in the positive coordinate direction:
y
v
y
z
v
z
The value of the stream function increases when  going in the positive direction  the flow
goes in the negative y direction:
2 1
<
'
z y
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106
4 3
>
'
n s
s n
y z
Equation 3.32
For the imaginary parts, the symbols i and j have been used: i for geometrical variables
(potential and stream function) and j for functions of time.
3.3.3 Vertical Motions
3.3.3.1 Boundary Conditions
The twodimensional velocity potential of the fluid has to fulfil the following requirements:
1. The fluid is incompressible and the velocity potential must satisfy to the Continuity
Condition and the Equation of Laplace:
0
2
2
2
2
2
z y
Equation 3.33
2. The linearised free surface condition follows from the condition that the pressure at the
free surface is not timedepending but constant:
0
2
2
,
_
t z
g
t
p
for:
2
B
y and 0 z
from which follows:
0
2
+
z g
or 0
+
z
for:
2
B
y and 0 z
Equation 3.34
3. The seabed is impervious, so the vertical fluid velocity at h z is zero:
0
z
for: h z
Equation 3.35
4. The harmonic oscillating cylinder produces a regular progressive wave system, travelling
away from the cylinder, which fulfils the Sommerfeld radiation condition:
{ } { } 0 Im Re lim
0
'
,
_
y
y
y
Equation 3.36
In here, 2
0
is the wave number of the radiated wave.
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107
5. The oscillating cylinder is impervious too; thus at the surface of the body is the fluid
velocity equal to the body velocity, see Figure 3.32b. This yields that the boundary
conditions on the surface of the body are given by:
body
body
body
n
body
ds
d
ds
dz
y ds
dy
z
v
n
Equation 3.37
Two cases have to be distinguished:
a) The hydromechanical loads, which have to be obtained for the vertically oscillating
cylinder in still water with a vertical velocity equal to:
t j
e V V
The boundary condition on the surface of the body becomes:
t j
body body
e
ds
dy
V
ds
d
or:
( ) C y e V t z y
body
t j
body
+
, ,
Equation 3.38
b) The wave loads, which have to be obtained for the restrained cylinder in regular waves
from the incoming undisturbed wave potential
W
and the diffraction potential
S
:
body
S W
body
S S W W
body
S W
ds
d
ds
d
ds
dz
y ds
dy
z ds
dz
y ds
dy
z
n n
0
or:
( ) ( )
body
W W
body
W
body
S
dz
y
dy
z
t z y d t z y d
, , , ,
Equation 3.39
The stream function of an incoming wave  which travels in the negative y direction, so
0
90 +  is given in Appendix I of this Section by:
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108
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } z h z e j
y t j
W
+
0 0 0
cosh tanh sinh
0
Equation 3.310
Because only vertical forces have to be determined, only the in y symmetric part of the
potential and stream functions have to be considered. From this follows the boundary
condition on the surface of the body for beam waves, so wave direction
0
90 + :
( ) ( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
body
t j
body
W
body
S
y z h z e
t z y t z y
0 0 0 0
sinh cosh tanh sinh
, , , ,
Equation 3.311
In case of another wave direction, this problem becomes threedimensional and a stream
function can not be written. However, boundary condition (Equation 3.311) provides us a
''quasi stream function''
s
~
, i.e. this is the amount of fluid which has to come out of the body
per unit of length, so that  in total  no fluid of the incoming wave enters into the body.
This function can be used as an approximation of the problem:
( )
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] [ ] ( )
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] [ ] ( )
'
1
1
0
1
0
0 0 0 0
2
0
1 0 0 1 0 1 0
0
0
1 1 1
cosh tanh sinh sin cos
sin 1
cosh tanh sinh sin sin sin
cos cos
, , ,
~
y
t j
body
z
z
W
y
W
body
s
dy z h z y
z h z y
x e
dz
y
dy
z
t z y x
Equation 3.312
3.3.3.2 Potentials
3.3.3.2.1 3D Radiation Potential
Suppose a threedimensional oscillating cylindrical body in previously still water. To find the
potential of the resulting fluid motions, an oscillating pressure p at the free surface will
replace this body. The unknown amplitude p of this pressure has to follow from the boundary
conditions.
This pressure is not supposed to act over the full breadth of the body; it is supposed to act 
over the full length L of the body  only over a small distance 2 y on both sides of 0 y ,
so:
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109
( ) ( )
( ) 2 and 2 : for 0 , ,
: or
, , , , ,
0
0 0
L x y y z z y x p
e z z y x p j t z z y x p
t j
Equation 3.313
in which
0
z is the z coordinate of the fluid surface.
The resulting force P in the z direction becomes:
( )
( )
+
<
2
2
'
2
2
2
2
0
, ,
L
L
L
L
y
y
dx x P
dx dy z z y x p P
Equation 3.314
The boundary condition in Equation 3.313 can be fulfilled by pressure amplitude
( )
0
, , z z y x p , which is found by a superposition of an infinite number of harmonic pressures.
From Equation 3.314 follows that the pressure amplitude ( ) x p can be integrated, so a
Fourier series expansion follows from:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
+
0
cos
1
x x
dk d x k p x p
Because the pressure amplitude p depends on two variables, the Fourier series expansion has
to be twodimensional too:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
x y x y
dk dk d d x k y k
p z z y x p
+
+
cos cos
,
1
, ,
0 0
2
0
in which
x
k is the wave number in the x direction and
y
k is the wave number in the y 
direction.
According to Equation 3.313, the pressure amplitude p disappears for 2 y y and
2 L x , so for this pressure expression remains:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
x y x y
L
L
y
y
dk dk d d x k y k
p z z y x p
+
cos cos
,
1
, ,
0 0
2
2
2
2
2
0
It is assumed that the value of y is small. This means that remains small too. Thus, one
can safely suppose that:
( ) ( ) ( ) y k y k
y y
cos cos
which results in:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
+
+
2
2
'
0 0
2
0 0
2
2
2
2
2 0
cos cos
1
cos cos ,
1
, ,
L
L
x y x y
x y y x
L
L
y
y
dk dk d x k P y k
dk dk y k d x k d p z z y x p
d dk dk
h k k
h z k k
y k x k k k C e t z y x
y x
y x
y x
y x y x
t j
r
1
]
1
+
1
]
1
+
2 2
2 2
0 0 0
0
sinh
cosh
cos cos , , , ,
Equation 3.316
in which the function ( )
y x
k k C , is still unknown.
This expression in Equation 3.316 for the radiation potential fulfils the Equation of Laplace:
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
z y x
Now, the harmonic pressure at the free surface
1
p can be obtained from an integration of the 
with the Bernoulli Equation obtained  derivative to the time of the pressure:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d dk dk
h k k
h k k k k g
y k x k k k C e
t
p
y x
y x
y x y x
y x y x
t j
1
]
1
+
1
]
1
+ +
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0
1
tanh
tanh
cos cos ,
Equation 3.317
The harmonic oscillating pressure is given by:
( ) ( )
t j
e z z y x p j t z z y x p
0 1 0 1
, , , , ,
Equation 3.318
and its amplitude becomes:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d dk dk
h k k
h k k k k g
y k x k k k C z z y x p
y x
y x
y x y x
y x y x
1
]
1
+
1
]
1
+ +
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0
0 1
tanh
tanh
cos cos , , ,
Equation 3.319
If this pressure amplitude
1
p is supposed to be equal to the amplitude p , then combining
Equation 3.315 and Equation 3.319 provides the unknown function ( )
y x
k k C , :
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( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d dk dk
h k k
h k k k k
x k k k C y k
g
z z y x p
dk dk d x k P y k z z y x p
y x
y x
y x y x
x y x y
x y
L
L
x y
1
]
1
+
1
]
1
+ +
2 2
2 2 2 2
0 0 0
0 1
0
2
2
'
0
2 0
tanh
tanh
cos , cos
, ,
cos cos
1
, ,
Equation 3.320
Comparing the two integrands provides:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
d x k P
d
h k k
h k k k k
g
x k k k C
L
L
x
y x
y x y x
x y x
1
]
1
+
1
]
1
+ +
2
2
'
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
0
cos
1
tanh
tanh
cos ,
or:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
d x k P
g
h k k k k
h k k
d x k k k C
L
L
x
y x y x
y x
x y x
1
]
1
+ +
1
]
1
2
2
'
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
0
cos
tanh
tanh
cos ,
Equation 3.321
When defining:
( )
( )
2
'
0
g
P
A
and substituting Equation 3.321 in Equation 3.316 provides the radiation potential:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
d dk dk
h k k k k h k k
y k h z k k
x k A e t z y x
y x
y x y x y x
y y x
x
L
L
t j
r
1
]
1
+ +
1
]
1
+
1
]
1
0
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
0
2
2
0 0
sinh cosh
cos cosh
cos , , ,
Equation 3.322
This potential fulfils both, the radiation condition at infinity and the boundary condition at the
free surface.
3.3.3.2.2 2D Radiation Potential
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112
In case of an oscillating twodimensional body, no waves are travelling in the x direction, so
0
x
k and k k
y
. The distribution of ( ) A is constant over the full length of the body from
until + and the radiation potential  given in Equation 3.322  reduces to:
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) dk y k
h k k h k
h z k
A e t z y
t j
r
0
0 0
cos
sinh cosh
cosh
, ,
Equation 3.323
To fulfil also the Sommerfeld radiation condition in Equation 3.36, a term has to be added.
For this, use will be made here of the value of the potential given in Equation 3.323 at a large
distance from the body:
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) ( )
'
0 0
0
0
0 0
2
1
cos
sinh cosh
cosh
, ,
dk e k F dk e k F A e
dk y k
h k k h k
h z k
A e t z y
y k i y k i t j
t j
r
with:
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ] h k k h k
h z k
k F
sinh cosh
cosh
+ + +
+ + +
+
IV III II I
IV III
R
II
y u i
J J J J
du du du dk du e u F
with:
( ) ( )
IV III II
R
y k i
J J J dk e k F + +
+
0
lim
The location of the singular point follows from the denominator in the expression for
( ) k F :
[ ] [ ] 0 sinh cosh
0 0 0
h h
Because ( ) 0 lim
III
R
J and
IV
J disappears too for a large y , the singular point itself
delivers a contribution only:
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
y i
y i
II
e
h h h
h z h
i
e
h h h h h
h z
i
i J
+
+
+
+
0
0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
0
0
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
cosh sinh sinh
cosh
Residue
and the searched integral becomes for y :
( )
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
y i y k i
e
h h h
h z h
i dk e k F
+
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
+ + +
+ + +
VII VI V I
VII VI
R
V
y u i
J J J J
du du du dk du e u F
with:
( ) ( )
VII VI V
R
y k i
J J J dk e k F + +
0
lim
Because ( ) 0 lim
VI
R
J and
VII
J disappears too for a large y , the singular point itself
delivers a contribution only:
( )
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
y i
V
e
h h h
h z h
i
i J
+
+
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
Residue
and the searched integral becomes for y :
( )
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
y i y k i
e
h h h
h z h
i dk e k F
+
+
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
Equation 3.324
The Sommerfeld radiation condition in Equation 3.36 will be fulfilled when:
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) ( ) { } 0 , , Im cos
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
+
t z y y
h h h
h z h
A e
t j
or:
( ) { } ( )
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) y
h h h
h z h
A e
t z y t z y
t j
j
+
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0
cos
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
, , , , Im
Equation 3.325
With Equation 3.324 and Equation 3.325, the radiation potential becomes:
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
'
+
+
+
y
h h h
h z h
j
dk y k
h k k h k
h z k
A e t z y j t z y
t j
j r
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0 0
cos
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
cos
sinh cosh
cosh
, , , ,
Equation 3.326
From this follows for y :
( )
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
y j t j
e
h h h
h z h
A e j t z y
+
0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
, ,
This means that Equation 3.326 describes a flow, consisting of waves with amplitude:
[ ]
[ ] [ ] h h h
h
g
A
+
0 0 0
0
2
0
cosh sinh
cosh
Equation 3.327
travelling away from both sides of the cylinder.
From the orthogonality condition:
z y
+
follows the stream function:
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
'
+
+
+
y
h h h
h z h
j
dk y k
h k k h k
h z k
A e t z y j t z y
t j
j r
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0 0
sin
cosh sinh
sinh cosh
sin
sinh cosh
sinh
, , , ,
Equation 3.328
For an infinite water depth, Equation 3.326 and Equation 3.328 reduce to:
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( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
'
y e j dk y k
k
e
A e t z y j t z y
y e j dk y k
k
e
A e t z y j t z y
z
z k
t j
j r
z
z k
t j
j r
sin sin
, , , ,
cos cos
, , , ,
0
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
Equation 3.329
Now, the potential and stream functions can be written as:
( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
'
+ +
'
+
+
+ +
y
h h h
h z h
j
dk
h k k h k
z k k z k
y k
k
e
dk y k
k
e
A e
j
y
h h h
h z h
j
dk
h k k h k
z k k z k
y k
k
e
dk y k
k
e
A e
j
h k
z k
t j
j rad r
h k
z k
t j
j rad r
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
sin
cosh sinh
sinh cosh
sinh cosh
sinh cosh
sin
sin
cos
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
sinh cosh
cosh sinh
cos
cos
Equation 3.330
In here,
r 0
is the potential at deep water and
rad 0
is the additional potential due to the
finite water depth.
j
can be written in the same way.
3.3.3.2.3 Alternative Derivation
Assuming that the real part of the potential at an infinite water depth,
r
, is known, another
derivation of the 2D potential is given by Porter [1960]. The additional potential for a
restricted water depth,
rad
, will be determined in such a way that it fulfils the free surface
condition and  together with
r
 also the boundary condition at the seabed.
As a start for the real additional potential will be chosen:
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] { } ( ) dk y k h z k k C z k k C A e t z y
t j
rad
+
cos cosh sinh , ,
0
2 1 0 0
Equation 3.331
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116
From the free surface condition in Equation 3.34 follows for 2 B y :
( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] { } ( ) 0 cos sinh cosh
0
2 1 2 0
+
dk y k h k k k C k k C h k k C A e
t j
cos
0
is known:
( ) ( ) ( )
d k g k f
cos
1
0
Also will be obtained:
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ] { } 0 sinh cosh
2 1
+ h k k h k k C k k C k f
from which follows:
( )
[ ] [ ]
( ) k C
h k k h k
k
k C
1 2
sinh cosh
'
cos
sinh cosh
cosh
sinh
, ,
0
1
0 0
'
0
1
0
0
0 0
cos cosh
cos
0
dk y k h k k k C
dk y k
k
e k
A e
z z
h k
t j
h z
rad r
So:
( )
( ) [ ]
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] { } [ ] h k h k k h k k
e k
k C
h k k
e
k C
h k
h k
cosh sinh cosh
cosh
2
1
With this, the real additional potential, as given in Equation 3.330, becomes:
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) dk y k
h k k h k
z k k z k
k
e
A e t z y
h k
t j
rad
cos
sinh cosh
cosh sinh
, ,
0
0 0
Equation 3.332
The imaginary part can be obtained as described before.
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117
3.3.3.2.4 2D MultiPotential
The free surface conditions can not be fulfilled with the potential and the stream function in
Equation 3.330 only.
Additional potentials
n
are required which fulfil the boundary conditions in Equation 3.33
through Equation 3.36 and together with
0
also fulfil the boundary conditions in Equation
3.37 through Equation 3.39:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+ +
+ + +
+
1
' ' '
'
0
'
0
'
0 0
1
' '
0 0
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
n
nj nrad nr n
j rad r
n
n n
t z y j t z y t z y A
t z y j t z y t z y A
t z y A t z y A t z y
Equation 3.333
Use will be made here of multipotentials given by Grim [1956, 1957] of which  using the
Sommerfeld radiation condition  the real additional potential
nrad
and the imaginary
potential part
nj
will be determined. This results in:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( )
[ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) y
h h h
h z
h
A e t z y
dk y k
h k k h k
z k k z k
e k k
A e t z y
dk y k e k k
A e t z y
n
n
t j
nj
kh n
n
t j
nrad
kz n
n
t j
nr
+
+
+
+
+
0
0 0 0
0
0
2
0
0
1 2
1 2
0
cos
cosh sinh
cosh
cosh
, ,
cos
sinh cosh
cosh sinh
, ,
cos
, ,
Equation 3.334
The orthogonality condition provides the stream functions:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( )
[ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) y
h h h
h z
h
A e t z y
dk y k
h k k h k
z k k z k
e k k
A e t z y
dk y k e k k
A e t z y
n
n
t j
nj
kh n
n
t j
nrad
kz n
n
t j
nr
+
+
+
+
+
0
0 0 0
0
0
2
0
0
1 2
1 2
0
sin
cosh sinh
sinh
cosh
, ,
sin
sinh cosh
sinh cosh
, ,
sin
, ,
'
+ + +
+
'
+ + +
+
+ + +
0
0
' ' '
' ' '
0
' ' '
, , , , , , , ,
n nj nr nrad nr nj
nj nj nrad nr nr
t j
n
nj nr nrad nr nj
nj nj nrad nr nr
n
nj nrad nr nj nr
A A j
A A
e
A A j
A A
t z y j t z y t z y A j A t z y
( ) { } ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { }
{ }
{ } { }
{ }
{ } { }
'
+ + +
+
'
+ + +
+
+ + +
0
0
' ' '
' ' '
0
' ' '
, , , , , , , ,
n nj nr nrad nr nj
nj nj nrad nr nr
t j
n
nj nr nrad nr nj
nj nj nrad nr nr
n
nj nrad nr nj nr
A A j
A A
e
A A j
A A
t z y j t z y t z y A j A t z y
Equation 3.336
Summarised, the complex total potential can now be written as:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] ( ) ( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
{ }
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
( ) ( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
'
'
+
+
+
+
'
+
+
+
+
+ +
1
0 0 0
0
0
2
0
0
1 2 2 2
0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0
cosh sinh
cos
cosh
sinh cosh
cos
cosh sinh
cos cosh
sinh cosh
cos
, , , ,
n
n
n
nj nr
t j
j r
t j
h h h
h z i y
h
j
dk
h k k h k
h z i y k
k k
A j A
e
h h h
h z i y h
j
dk
h k k h k
h z i y k
A j A e t z y i t z y
Equation 3.337
The coefficients
nr
A and
nj
A with n 0 have to be determined in such a way that the
instantaneous boundary conditions on the body surface have been fulfilled. These coefficients
are dimensional and it is very practical to determine them for the amplitude of the flow
velocity V ; also if they then have the dimension [ ]
1 2 + n
L :
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
J.M.J. Journe and L.J.M. Adegeest Revision: 14122003
119
( )
' '
j r
j r
j r
A j A V
V
A j A
V A j A
+
+
+
Then,
n n
A
'
and
n n
A
'
have the dimensions of a length [ ] L .
3.3.3.3 Expansion of Potential Parts
The expansion of the potential parts at an infinite water depth is given by Grim, see Kirsch
[1969].
For 0
2 2
+ z y r :
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) { } ( )
'
,
_
+
,
_
,
_
+ +
'
,
_
,
_
,
_
+ +
y y i z
m m z
y
y y i z
m m
r
e
y y i z
m m z
y
y y i z
m m
r
e
m
m
m
m
m
m
z
r
m
m
m
m
m
m
z
r
cos Im
!
arctan
sin Re
!
ln
sin Im
!
arctan
cos Re
!
ln
1
1
0
1
1
0
Equation 3.338
with the Euler constant: 57722 . 0 .
For +
2 2
z y r :
( )
( ) { } ( )
( )
( ) { } ( ) y
y
y
e y i z
r
m
y
y
y
e y i z
r
m
z
M
m
m
m m r
z
M
m
m
m m r
'
'
cos Im
! 1
sin Re
! 1
1
2 0
1
2 0
Equation 3.339
Mind you that
( )
( )
m
m m
y i z
r
m
+
2
! 1
is semiconvergent.
( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
{ }
( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
{ }
,
_
,
_
+ +
1 2 2
1 2 2
Re
1 2
Im ! 1 2 1
Im
1 2
Re ! 1 2 1
n n n
nr
n n n
nr
z i y
n
z i y n
z i y
n
z i y n
Equation 3.340
For the expansion of the remaining potential parts use has been made of the following
relations as derived in Appendix II:
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
J.M.J. Journe and L.J.M. Adegeest Revision: 14122003
120
[ ] ( )
( )
( ) { }
[ ] ( )
( )
( ) { }
[ ] ( )
( )
( ) { }
[ ] ( )
( )
( ) { }
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
0
1 2
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
0
2
2
0
2
2
Im
! 1 2
sin cosh
Re
! 1 2
cos sinh
Im
! 2
sin sinh
Re
! 2
cos cosh
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
y i z
t
k
y k z k
y i z
t
k
y k z k
y i z
t
k
y k z k
y i z
t
k
y k z k
With these relations follows from Equation 3.332:
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
( )
( ) { }
( )
( ) { }
( ) ( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
( )
( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( )
+
+
+
+
'
+ + +
+
+
'
+ + +
,
_
,
_
'
'
+
+
,
_
0
2 1 2
0
2 1 2
0
1 2
0
2
2
0
1 2
1 2
0
0
Re 1 2 Re
! 1 2
1 2
Re 1 2 Re
sinh cosh ! 1 2
1
Re
! 2
Re
! 1 2
sinh cosh
t
t t
t
t t
h k t
t
t
t
t
t
t
h k
rad
y i z t y i z
t
t G
y i z t y i z
dk
h k k h k k
e k
t
y i z
t
k
k y i z
t
k
dk
h k k h k k
e
Equation 3.341
It is obvious that:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( ) { } ( )
'
+ + +
+
+
0
1 2 2
0
Im Im 1 2
! 1 2
1 2
t
t t
rad
y i z y i z t
t
t G
Equation 3.342
The function:
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
dk
h k k h k k
e k
t G
h k t
0
sinh cosh
will be treated in the next Section.
Further follows from Equation 3.334:
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
J.M.J. Journe and L.J.M. Adegeest Revision: 14122003
121
( )
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
( )
( ) { }
( )
( ) { }
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( )
+
+
+ +
+
+
'
+ + +
+
+ + +
'
+ + +
,
_
,
_
'
'
+
+
,
_
0
2 1 2
2
0
2 1 2
0
1 2 2
2
0
1 2 2
0
2
2
0
1 2
1 2
0
1 2 2 2
Re 1 2 Re
! 1 2
1 2 2 1 2 2
Re 1 2 Re
sinh cosh
sinh cosh
! 1 2
1
Re
! 2
Re
! 1 2
sinh cosh
t
t t
t
t t
h k n t
h k n t
t
t
t
t
t
t
h k n
nrad
y i z t y i z
t
n t G n t G
y i z t y i z
dk
h k k h k k
e k
dk
h k k h k k
e k
t
y i z
t
k
k y i z
t
k
dk
h k k h k k
e k k
Equation 3.343
It is clear that:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( )
'
+ + +
+
+ + +
0
2 1 2
2
Im 1 2 Im
! 1 2
1 2 2 1 2 2
t
t t
nrad
y i z t y i z
t
n t G n t G
Equation 3.344
For the imaginary parts can be written:
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) { } [ ]
( )
( ) { }
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) { } [ ]
( )
( ) { }
,
_
'
+
+
'
,
_
'
+
+
'
+
+
+
+
+
+
0
1 2
1 2
0
0
0
2
2
0
0 0 0
0
2
0
0
1 2
1 2
0
0
0
2
2
0
0 0 0
0
2
0
Im
! 1 2
tanh Im
! 2
cosh sinh
cosh
Re
! 1 2
tanh Re
! 2
cosh sinh
cosh
t
t
t
t
t
t
j
t
t
t
t
t
t
j
y i z
t
h y i z
t
h h h
h
y i z
t
h y i z
t
h h h
h
Equation 3.345
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122
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) { } [ ]
( )
( ) { }
( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) { } [ ]
( )
( ) { }
( )
( )
j
n
t
t
t
t
t
t
n
nj
j
n
t
t
t
t
t
t
n
nj
y i z
t
h y i z
t
h h h
y i z
t
h y i z
t
h h h
0
2 2
0
1 2
0
0
1 2
1 2
0
0
0
2
2
0
0 0 0
2
0
0
2 2
0
1 2
0
0
1 2
1 2
0
0
0
2
2
0
0 0 0
2
0
Im
! 1 2
tanh Im
! 2
cosh sinh
Re
! 1 2
tanh Re
! 2
cosh sinh
,
_
'
+
+
'
+
+
,
_
'
+
+
'
+
+
+
+
Equation 3.346
3.3.3.4 Function G(t)
The function:
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
dk
h k k h k k
e k
t G
h k t
0
sinh cosh
with unit [ ]
t
L
1
has two singular points: k and
0
k , see Figure 3.34.
Figure 3.34: Singularities in the Gfunction
Thus, it is not possible to solve this integral directly.
First, this integral will be normalised:
( ) ( )
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
du
u u u h h u
e u
h t G t G
u t
t
0
1 '
sinh cosh
Equation 3.347
A substitution of:
+
i
e v i u w 2
2
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
J.M.J. Journe and L.J.M. Adegeest Revision: 14122003
123
provides:
( ) [ ] [ ] { }
0
...
... ... ... ... ...
sinh cosh
0
0
+ + + +
+ + + +
IV III II I
IV III II I
w t
J J J J du
dw dw dw dw du
dw
w w w h h w
e w
J
From this follows:
( ) [ ] [ ] { }
{ }
IV III II I
u t
J J J J du
u u u h h u
e u
+ + +
Re
sinh cosh
0
I
J and
II
J are imaginary because they are residues and 0
III
J for R .
So, it remains:
( ) [ ] [ ] { }
{ }
( ) [ ] [ ] { }
;
'
IV
w t
IV
u t
dw
w w w h h w
e w
J
du
u u u h h u
e u
sinh cosh
Re
Re
sinh cosh
0
With the complex function:
( ) [ ] [ ] { } w w w h h w
~
sinh
~ ~
cosh
~
with real:
i
e w 2
2
~
the nominator of this integral will be made real by removing.
So:
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
J.M.J. Journe and L.J.M. Adegeest Revision: 14122003
124
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] { }
( ) [ ] [ ] { }
( ) [ ] [ ] { }
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
[ ] [ ] ( )
( )
'
,
_
,
_
'
+ +
+
,
_
'
,
_
,
_
+ +
'
'
,
_
+ + +
,
_
,
_
,
_
'
,
_
,
_
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2
2
'
sin 2 cos 2
tanh 2 2 cosh
2
sin
4
tan 1 cos
4
tan 1
sin
4
tan cos 4
sin
4
tan 1 cos
4
tan 1 2
2
4
cos
~
sinh
~ ~
cosh
~
sinh cosh
~
sinh
~ ~
cosh
~
Re
d
h h
h h
h h
t
e
t
t
h
t
e
t
h
t
dw
w w w h h w
w w w h h w
w w w h h w
e w
t G
t
IV
w t
Equation 3.348
Because t is always odd:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) { }
[ ] [ ] ( )
( )
d
h h
h h
h h
h e h t
t G
t
,
_
,
_
'
+ +
+
+ +
2
sin 2 cos 2
tanh 2 2 cosh
2
sin cos 4 cos 2 sin 4
4
cos
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
'
for ,...... 9 , 5 , 1 t
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) { }
[ ] [ ] ( )
( )
d
h h
h h
h h
h e h t
t G
t
,
_
,
_
'
+ +
+
+
2
sin 2 cos 2
tanh 2 2 cosh
2
sin cos 4 sin 2 cos 4
4
cos
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
'
for ,...... 11 , 7 , 3 t
For 1 > t the function ( ) t G
'
becomes finite.
However, ( ) 1
'
G does not converge for 0 h ; the integral increases monotone with
decreasing h . This will be investigated first.
( ) ( )
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
du
u u u h h u
e u
G G
u
0
'
sinh cosh
1 1
Equation 3.349
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J.M.J. Journe and L.J.M. Adegeest Revision: 14122003
125
This integral converges fast for small h values. This will be approximated by:
( )
( ) ( )
du
u h h u
e u
G
u
h
0
2 1
0
1 lim
Equation 3.350
This can be written as:
( )
( )
( )
'
+
+
du
h u
e
h h
du
h u
e
h h
du
h u
e
h
G
u
u
u
h h
0
0
0
0
1
0
1 2
1
1 2
1
1
1
lim 1 lim
From:
'
+ +
1
0
!
ln
m
m
a
u
m m
a
a e du
a u
e
follows:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
'
,
_
+
+
,
_
+
+
+
,
_
+ +
1
2
1
2
1
0
1
0
!
1
2
ln
1 2
! 2
ln
1 2
!
ln
1
lim 1 lim
m
m
m
h
m
m
h
m
m h
h h
m m
h h
h h
e
m m
h h
h h
e
m m
h
h
h
e
G
or:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
'
,
_
,
_
+ +
+
+
+
,
_
+ +
2
2
2
2
1
0
1
0
!
1
2
ln
1 2
1
! 2
ln
1 2
1
!
ln
1
lim 1 lim
m
m
m
h
m
m
h
m
m h
h h
m m
h
h
h
h h
e h
m m
h
h
h
h h
e h
m m
h
h
h
e
G
or:
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
J.M.J. Journe and L.J.M. Adegeest Revision: 14122003
126
( )
( )
( )
[ ]
[ ] ( )
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
'
,
_
+
+
,
_
,
_
,
_
+ +
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
0
1
0
!
1
!
1
! !
1 2
1 sinh
1
cosh
2
ln sinh
cosh
1
1
!
ln
1
lim 1 lim
m
m
m
h
m
m
m
h
m
m
h
m
m
h
m
m h
h h
m m
h
e
m m
h
e
m m
h
e
m m
h
e
h h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
m m
h
h
h
e
G
or:
( ) ( ) h G
h
ln 1 1 lim
1
0
Equation 3.351
The imaginary part of integral in Equation 3.348 has been treated in Appendix III.
3.3.3.5 Hydrodynamic Loads
The hydrodynamic loads can be found from an integration of the pressures on the hull of the
oscillating body in (previously) still water. With a known potential, these pressures can be
found from the linear part of the instationary pressures as follows from the Bernoulli equation:
j
t
p p p
stat dyn
The potential is inphase with the oscillation velocity. To obtain the phase of the pressures
with respect to the oscillatory motion a phase shift of
0
90 is required, which means a
multiplication with j . Then the pressure is:
dyn
p
The hydrodynamic force on the body is equal to the integrated pressure on the body. In the
twodimensional case, this is a force per unit length.
The vertical force becomes:
( )
( ) { }
+
+
+
0
' ' ' '
' '
n
S
nr nj nj nr nj nj nr nr
t j
Vj Vr
S
Vj Vr V
dy A A j A A e V
F j F V
dy p
F j F F
Equation 3.352
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127
The real part of this force is equal to the hydrodynamic mass coefficient times the oscillatory
acceleration, from which the hydrodynamic mass coefficient follows:
V
F
b
F
m
Vr
Vr
"
or nondimensional:
V B
F
B
m
C
Vr
V
2 2
"
8 8
Equation 3.353
The imaginary part of the force must be equal to the hydrodynamic damping coefficient times
the oscillatory velocity, from which the damping coefficient follows:
V
F
N
Vj
V
Instead of this coefficient, generally the ratio between amplitude of the radiated wave and
the oscillatory motion z will be used. The energy balance provides:
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
Vj
V
group
V
V
F
h h h
h
V
N
h h
h
g
c
N
g
z
A
,
_
0 0 0
0
2 2
0 0
0 0
2
2
2
cosh sinh
cosh
2 sinh 2
2 sinh
2
Equation 3.354
In deep water, the hydrodynamic mass for 0 becomes infinite, because the potential in
Equation 3.338 becomes:
( ) r
r
+
ln lim
0
0
Equation 3.355
and the nondimensional mass of a circle becomes:
( )
( )
,
_
,
_
1
2 2
2
"
0 0
1 4
1
ln
8
8
lim lim
n
V
n n
r
B
m
C
and the amplitude ratio in this deep water case becomes:
B
d
A d V
,
_
0
lim
The hydrodynamic mass for 0 in shallow water remains finite. Because the multi
potentials  just as in deep water provide finite contributions, the radiation potential has to
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128
be discussed only, which is decisive (infinite mass) in deep water. The changeover borderline
''deep to shallow'' water provides for this radiation potential:
( ) ( ) ( )
,
_
+
+ +
h
r
h r
rad r
ln
ln ln lim
0 0
0
Equation 3.356
It is obvious that Equation 3.356  just as Equation 3.355  provides an infinite value.
When the contributions of the multipotentials (which disappear here for the borderline case
0 ) are ignored, it follows from Equation 3.327 for the amplitude ratio in shallow water:
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] h h h
h h
A
h h h
h
V
A
h h h
h
z
A
h h h
h
z g
A
z
AV
+
+
0 0 0
0 0 0
'
0
0 0 0
0
2
0
0 0 0
0
2
0
0 0 0
0
2
0
cosh sinh
cosh sinh
cosh sinh
cosh
cosh sinh
cosh
cosh sinh
cosh
Because:
1 lim
'
0
0
,
_
B
A
follows:
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] h h h
h h
B AV
+
0 0 0
0 0 0
0
cosh sinh
cosh sinh
lim
and:
[ ] [ ]
,
_
,
_
,
_
h h h
B
d
d
d
A d
d
A d V V
0 0 0
0
0
0
0 0
cosh sinh
1
lim
2
lim lim
0
0
Thus, ( ) 2 B AV has at 0 2 B a vertical tangent.
The fact that the hydrodynamic mass goes to infinity for zero frequency can be explained
physically as follows. The smaller the frequency becomes, the longer becomes the radiated
wave and the faster travels it away from the cylinder. In the borderline case 0 has the
wave an infinite length and it travels away  just as the pressure (incompressible fluid)  with
an infinite velocity. This means that all fluid particles are in phase with the motions of the
body. This means that the hydrodynamic force is in phase with the motion of the body, which
holds too that:
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129
0 arctan arctan
'
'
,
_
,
_
Vr
Vj
Vr
Vi
HT
F
F
F
F
Because
B AV
0
0
lim follows
2 '
0
0
lim B FVj
. The term
" '
m FVj has to be infinite.
The finite value of the hydrodynamic mass at shallow water is physically hard to interpret. A
full explanation is not given here. However, it has been shown here that the result makes some
sense. At shallow water can the wave (even in an incompressible fluid) not travel with an
infinite velocity; its maximum velocity is h g . In case of long waves at shallow water, the
energy has the same velocity. From that can be concluded that at low decreasing frequencies
the damping part in the hydrodynamic force will increase. This means that:
0 arctan
'
'
,
_
Vr
Vi
HT
F
F
So,
" '
m FVr has to be finite.
3.3.3.6 Wave Loads
The wave forces
E
F on the restrained body in waves consist of:
forces
1
F in the undisturbed incoming waves (FroudeKrylov hypothesis) and
forces caused by the disturbance of the waves by the body:
one part
2
F in phase with the accelerations of the water particles and
another part
3
F in phase with the velocity of the water particles.
Thus:
3 2 1
F j F F F
E
+ +
These forces will be determined from the undisturbed wave potential
W
and the disturbance
potential
S
. As mentioned before, for
0
90 only an approximation will be found.
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( )
( ) { }
'
+ +
+
+
+ +
S
n
S
nr nj nj nr nj nj nr nr
x j
t j
S
S W
E
dy
A A j A A V
y z h z
e
e
dy
F j F F F
0
' ' ' '
0 0 0 0
cos
3 2 1
sin cos sinh tanh cosh
0
Equation 3.357
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130
In here:
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( ) { }
{ }
{ } dy A A e V F
dy A A e V F
dy y z h z
e F
n
S
nr nj nj nr
t j
n
S
nj nj nr nr
t j
S
x t j
+
0
' '
3
0
' '
2
0 0 0 0
cos
2
1
sin cos sinh tanh cosh
0
Using V , the nondimensional amplitudes are:
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( ) { }
{ }
{ } dy A A
B
B g
F
E
dy A A
B
B g
F
E
dy y z h z
B
B g
F
E
n
S
nr nj nj nr
n
S
nj nj nr nr
S
+
0
' '
3
3
0
' '
2
2
0 0 0 0
1
1
sin cos sinh tanh cosh
1
Equation 3.358
In case of
0
90 , so beam waves, the theory of HaskindNewman see Haskind [1957] or
Newman [1962]  can be used too to determine the amplitudes 1 E , 2 E and 3 E .
When
t j
W W
e
is the potential of the incoming wave and
t j
S S
e
is the potential
of the disturbance by the body at a large distance from the body with velocity amplitude
1 V , then:
dz
y y
e F
h
W
W
t j
E
,
_
Equation 3.359
According to Equation 3.3105 in Appendix I is:
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( ) y z h z
W
0 0 0 0
cos sinh tanh cosh
From the previous subsections follows the asymptotic expression for the disturbance potential
in still water with 1 V :
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131
( )
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( )
( ) ( )
( )
{ }
'
+ +
1
1 2
0
' ' 2 2
0
'
0
'
0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0
2
sin sinh tanh cosh
cosh sinh
cosh
n
n
nj nr j r
y
A j A A j A
y z h z
h h h
h
'
+ +
'
+ +
1
1 2
0
' ' 2 2
0
'
0
'
0
1
1 2
0
' ' 2 2
0
'
0
'
0
0
2
0 0 0
0 0 0
0
2
0
sinh tanh cosh
cosh sinh
cosh 2
n
n
nj nr j r
t j
n
n
nj nr j r
h
t j
E
A j A A j A
e g
A j A A j A
dz z h z
h h h
h
e g F
Nondimensional:
{ }
( )
( )
{ }
{ }
( )
( )
{ }
'
'
1
1 2
0
' 2 2
0
'
0
3
1
1 2
0
'
2
2
0
'
0
2 1
Im
Re
n
n
nj j
E
n
n
nr r
E
A A
B
B g
F
E
A A
B
B g
F
E E
Equation 3.360
3.3.3.7 Solution
The Lewis transformation of a cross section is given by:
3 +
+ + +
i i i
e b e a e z i y
Equation 3.361
Then, the coordinates of the cross section are:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 sin sin 1
3 cos cos 1
+ +
b a z
b a y
Equation 3.362
Then:
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132
( ) ( )
3 + +
+ + +
i i i
e b e a e i z i y i y i z
Equation 3.363
All calculations will be carried out in the Lewis domain. Scale factors are given in the table
below.
Ship Lewis form
form Lewis
Ship
Breadth BR ( ) b a + + 1 2 ( ) { } b a BR + + 1 2
Draught TI b a + 1 ( ) b a TI + 1
Water depth TI HT ( ) b a HT WT + 1 ( ) b a TI + 1
Wave number
0
( ) b a TI WF + 1 /
0
( ) TI b a + 1
Acceleration
g g
1
Forces
G
F F
( ) { }
2
1 b a TI +
Table 3.31: Lewis form parameters
3.3.3.8 Determination of Source Strengths A
n
The yet unknown complex coefficients
n
A ( n 0 ), the source strengths of the by the flow
generated singularity, can be determined by substituting the stream function in Equation 3.3
36 and the coordinates of the cross section in the relevant boundary conditions in Equation
3.37 through Equation 3.39.
{ } { } t z y t z y
body
body
body
, , , ,
Equation 3.364
To determine the unknowns
n
A , an equal number of equations has to be formulated. Because
only Lewis forms are used here, a simple approach is possible.
All stream function parts and boundary conditions can be given as a Fourier series:
( ) ( ) [ ] { }
+ +
0
1 2 cos 2 sin
m
mn mn n
m d m c
or with:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) [ ]
( )
'
+
+
+
+
1
2 2
2
2 sin
1 2 4
1 2 2 2
1 1 2 cos
k
k
m k k
m
m
in:
( ) { }
+
1
0
2 sin
m
nm n n
m a a
The solution of the by equating coefficients generated equations provide the unknowns
'
n
A .
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133
3.3.4 Horizontal Motions
3.3.4.1 Boundary Conditions
The first four assumptions for the vertical motions are valid for horizontal motions too. The
potential must fulfil the motiondependent boundary conditions, which have been substituted
in Equation 3.33 through Equation 3.36. However, the fifth boundary condition needs here
a new formulation.
Because two motions (a translation and a rotation) are considered here, follows from:
body
n
body
v
n
also in still water two boundary conditions:
1. For sway:
body
t j
body
body
body
n
body
ds
dz
e U
ds
d
ds
dz
y ds
dy
z
v
n
or:
body
t j
body
dz e U d
from which follows:
( ) C z e U t z y
body
t j
body
+
, ,
Equation 3.365
2. For roll:
body
t j
body
body
body
n
body
r
ds
dr
e
ds
d
ds
dz
y ds
dy
z
v
n
or:
body
t j
body
dr r e d
from which follows:
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134
( ) C z y e t z y
body
t j
body
+ +
2 2
2
, ,
Equation 3.366
For the restrained body in waves, only the force in the horizontal direction and the moment
about the longitudinal axis of the body will be calculated. One gets in beam waves only the in
y pointsymmetric part of the potential and the in y symmetric part of the stream function of
the wave (see Appendix I), respectively:
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( )
body
t j
body
S
y z h z
e t z y
0 0 0 0
cos cosh tanh sinh
, ,
Equation 3.367
and in oblique waves:
( ) ( )
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { }
( )
( ) [ ] [ ] [ ] { }
body
y
t j
body
S
dy z h z y
z h z
y
x e t z y x
1
0
0 0 0 0
2
0
1 0 0 1 0
1 0
0 1 1
cosh tanh sinh sin sin
sin 1
cosh tanh sinh
sin cos sin
cos sin , , ,
Equation 3.368
3.3.4.2 Potentials
3.3.4.2.1 2D Radiation Potential
In a similar way as Equation 3.322 for heave, the threedimensional radiation potential for
sway and roll can be derived as:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
d dk dk y k
h k k k k h k k
h z k k k k
x k A e t z y x
y x y
y x y x y x
y x y x
x
L
L
t j
r
1
]
1
+ +
1
]
1
+
1
]
1
+ +
sin
sinh cosh
cosh
cos , , ,
0
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
0
2
2
0 0
Equation 3.369
This expression reduces for the twodimensional case ( 0
x
k and k k
y
) into:
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135
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) dk y k
h k k h k
h z k k
A e t z y
t j
r
sin
sinh cosh
cosh
, ,
0
0 0
Equation 3.370
With the Sommerfeld radiation condition in Equation 3.36 and Appendix III, the total
radiation potential becomes:
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
'
+
+
+
y
h h h
h h z
j
dk y k
h k k h k
h z k k
A e t z y j t z y
t j
j r
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0 0 0
sin
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
sin
sinh cosh
cosh
, , , ,
Equation 3.371
and the stream function becomes:
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
'
+
+
+
y
h h h
h h z
j
dk y k
h k k h k
h z k k
A e t z y j t z y
t j
j r
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0 0 0
cos
cosh sinh
cosh sinh
cos
sinh cosh
sinh
, , , ,
Equation 3.372
Potential and stream function are divided in:
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
'
+
+
+ +
y
h h h
h h z
j
dk y k
h k k h k
z k k z k
k
e k
dk y k
k
e k
A e j
h k
z k
t j
j rad r
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0
sin
cosh sinh
cosh cosh
sin
sinh cosh
cosh sinh
sin
Equation 3.373
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136
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
'
+
+
+ +
y
h h h
h h z
j
dk y k
h k k h k
z k k z k
k
e k
dk y k
k
e k
A e j
h k
z k
t j
j rad r
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0
cos
cosh sinh
cosh sinh
cos
sinh cosh
sinh cosh
cos
Equation 3.374
3.3.4.2.2 2D MultiPotential
The twodimensional multipole potential becomes:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( )
[ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) y
h h h
h z
h
A e t z y
dk y k
h k k h k
z k k z k
e k k A e t z y
dk y k e k k A e t z y
n
n
t j
nj
h k n
n
t j
nrad
z k n
n
t j
nr
+
+
+
+
+
0
0 0 0
0
0
1 2
0
1 2
0
1 2
0
sin
cosh sinh
cosh
cosh
, ,
sin
sinh cosh
cosh sinh
, ,
sin , ,
Equation 3.375
The related stream function is:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( )
[ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( ) y
h h h
h z
h
A e t z y
dk y k
h k k h k
z k k z k
e k k A e t z y
dk y k e k k A e t z y
n
n
t j
nj
h k n
n
t j
nrad
z k n
n
t j
nr
+
+
+
+ +
+
0
0 0 0
0
0
1 2
0
1 2
0
1 2
0
cos
cosh sinh
sinh
cosh
, ,
cos
sinh cosh
sinh cosh
, ,
cos , ,
Equation 3.376
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137
3.3.4.2.3 Total Potentials
With exception of the complex constant
n
A with n 0 , the potential is known:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }
[ ] [ ]
[ ] ( ) ( ) { }
[ ] [ ]
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { }
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
( ) ( ) { }
[ ] [ ]
'
'
+
+
+
+
'
+
+
+
+
+ + +
1
0 0 0
0
0
1 2
0
0
1 2 2 2
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0
cosh sinh
sin
cosh
sinh cosh
sin
cosh sinh
sin cosh
sinh cosh
sin
, , , ,
n
n
n
nj nr
t j
oj r
t j
h h h
h z i y
h
j
dk
h k k h k
h z i y k
k k
A j A
e
h h h
h z i y h
j
dk
h k k h k
h z i y k k
A j A e t z y i t z y
Equation 3.377
Writing this in a similar way as for heave provides:
( )
( )
( ) { }
'
+ +
+
+
0
, ,
n nj nr nrad nr nj
nj nj nrad nr nr
t j
A A j
A A
e t z y
Equation 3.378
and
( )
( )
( ) { }
'
+ + +
+
+
0
, ,
n nj nr nrad nr nj
nj nj nrad nr nr
t j
A A j
A A
e t z y
Equation 3.379
with:
( )
( ) roll for
sway for
' '
' '
j r j r
j r j r
A j A A j A
A j A U A j A
+ +
+ +
'
n
A has dimension [ ]
2 2 + n
L .
n n
A
'
and
n n
A
'
have for sway dimension [ ] L and for roll dimension [ ]
2
L .
The determination of the coefficients
'
n
A follow from the boundary conditions at the body
contour.
3.3.4.3 Expansion of Potential Parts
For 0
2 2
+ z y r :
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( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) { } ( )
'
,
_
+
,
_
,
_
+ +
+
+
'
,
_
,
_
,
_
+ +
+
+
y y i z
m m z
y
y y i z
m m
r
e
z y
z
y y i z
m m z
y
y y i z
m m
r
e
z y
y
m
m
m
m
m
m
z
r
m
m
m
m
m
m
z
r
sin Im
!
arctan
cos Re
!
ln
cos Im
!
arctan
sin Re
!
ln
1
1
2 2
0
1
1
2 2 0
Equation 3.380
with the Euler constant: 57722 . 0 .
For +
2 2
z y r :
( )
( ) { } ( )
( )
( ) { } ( ) y
y
y
e y i z
r
m
z y
z
y
y
y
e y i z
r
m
z y
y
z
M
m
m
m m r
z
M
m
m
m m r
'
+
+
'
+
+
sin Re
! 1
cos Im
! 1
1
2 2 2 0
1
2 2 2 0
Equation 3.381
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
{ } ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
{ } ( ) { }
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ + +
+ +
+ +
n n n
nr
n n n
nr
z i y
n
z i y n
z i y
n
z i y n
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
Re
2
Im ! 2 1
Im
2
Re ! 2 1
Equation 3.382
( )
( )
( ) { }
( )
( )
( ) { }
( )
( )
( ) { }
( )
( )
( ) { }
'
+
+
+
+
+
'
+
+
+
+
+
0
2 1 2
0
0
2 1 2
0
Re
! 2
1 2
Re
! 1 2
3 2
Im
! 2
1 2
Im
! 1 2
3 2
t
t t
rad
t
t t
rad
y i z
t
t G
y i z
t
t G
y i z
t
t G
y i z
t
t G
Equation 3.383
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
'
+
+ + +
+
+
+ + + +
+
'
+
+ + +
+
+
+ + + +
+
0 2
2
1 2
2
0 2
2
1 2
2
Re
! 2
1 2 2 1 2 2
Re
! 1 2
1 2 2 3 2 2
Im
! 2
1 2 2 1 2 2
Im
! 1 2
1 2 2 3 2 2
t t
t
nrad
t t
t
nrad
y i z
t
n t G n t G
y i z
t
n t G n t G
y i z
t
n t G n t G
y i z
t
n t G n t G
Equation 3.384
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139
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) { }
[ ]
( )
( ) { }
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) { }
[ ]
( )
( ) { }
'
+
+
+
'
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
0
2
2
0
0
0
1 2
1 2
0
0 0 0
0
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
1 2
1 2
0
0 0 0
0
2
0
Re
! 2
tanh
Re
! 1 2
cosh sinh
cosh
Im
! 2
tanh
Im
! 1 2
cosh sinh
cosh
t
t
t
t
t
t
oj
t
t
t
t
t
t
oj
y i z
t
h
y i z
t
h h h
h
y i z
t
h
y i z
t
h h h
h
Equation 3.385
( )
( )
( )
( )
j
n
nj
j
n
nj
0
2 2
0
1 2
0
0
2 2
0
1 2
0
Equation 3.386
3.3.4.4 ZeroFrequency Potential
Grim [1956, 1957] gives for the horizontal motions at zero frequency the complex potential:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
{ }
'
+ + + +
+ +
+
+ +
+
1
1 2 1 2
1 2
0
2 2
m
n n
n
n
n
mh i z i y mh i z i y
z i y
A i
Equation 3.387
For Lewis forms this becomes:
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140
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
'
'
'
,
_
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
'
'
,
_
,
_
'
'
'
,
_
+ +
,
_
+
+ +
+
'
,
_
+
+
+
+
+ + +
+ + +
+
+
+
1 0
1 2
0 0
1 2 2 2
1 2
0 0
1 2 2 2
0
1 0
1 2
3
1 2
0
4 2 1 2
0
1 2
1 2
1 2 2
2 1
2
2
1
2
1 2
1 2 2
1
2 2
2
1
m p
p
l
l
k
k l p i k k l
n p n p
p
p
l
l p n i l l p
p
n
n
m p
p
i i i
p
n
p
p
i i
p
n i
n
n
e b a
k
l
l
p
p
p n
H m
e b a
l
p
p
p n
A
H m
e b e a e
p
n p
H m i i
e b e a
p
p n
e
A i
Equation 3.388
These sums converge as long as:
( )
1
1 2 2
3 3
<
+
+ +
+ +
+ +
b a HT m
e b e a e
H m
e b e a e
i i i i i i
Equation 3.389
Because 1 m , it follows the condition:
b a
e b e a
HT
i i
+
+ +
1
1
2
4 2
!
Equation 3.390
The potential converges too when:
T
B
b a
b a
HT
+
+ +
2 1
1
2 or h B 4
Equation 3.391
3.3.4.5 Hydrodynamic Loads
The hydrodynamic force at sway oscillations in still water becomes:
( ) { } dz A A j A A
e U
F j F F
n
S
nr nj nj nr nj nj nr nr
t j
Qj Qr Q
+ +
+
0
' ' ' '
Equation 3.392
and at roll oscillations:
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141
( ) { } dz A A j A A
e
F j F F
n
S
nr nj nj nr nj nj nr nr
t j
Rj Rr R
+ +
+
0
' ' ' '
2
Equation 3.393
The hydrodynamic moment at sway oscillations in still water becomes:
( ) { } ( ) dz z dy y A A j A A
e U
M j M M
n
S
nr nj nj nr nj nj nr nr
t j
Qj Qr Q
+ + +
+
0
' ' ' '
Equation 3.394
and at roll oscillations:
( ) { } ( ) dz z dy y A A j A A
e
M j M M
n
S
nr nj nj nr nj nj nr nr
t j
Rj Rr R
+ + +
+
0
' ' ' '
2
Equation 3.395
Of course, the coefficients
'
nr
A and
'
nj
A of sway and roll will differ.
Fictive moment levers are defined by:
Rr
Rr
Qr
Qr
F
I
H
m U
M
H
2 "
"
Rj
R
Rj
Q
Qj
Qj
F
B N
H
N U
M
H
2
Nondimensional values for the sway motions are:
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
Qj
Qj Qj
Qr
Qr Qr
Qj Q
Qr
H
F T
M
T
H
F T
M
T
H
F
h h h
h
U
y
A
T U
F
T
m
C
0 0 0
0
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
"
cosh sinh
cosh
2 2
Equation 3.396
and for roll motions:
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142
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
Rj
Rj Rj
Rr
Rr Rr
Rj R
Rr
R
F T
M
T
H
F T
M
T
H
M
h h h
h
B B
A
T
M
T
I
C
0 0 0
0
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
4 2 4
"
cosh sinh
cosh 4
4
8 8
Equation 3.397
3.3.4.6 Wave Loads
The wave loads are separated in contributions of the undisturbed wave and diffraction:
{ }
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
( ) { }
'
+ + +
+
+ +
S
n
nr nj nj nr nj nj nr nr
x j
t j
S
S W
E
dz
A A j A A U
y z h z
e
e
dz
F j F F F
0
' ' ' '
0 0 0 0
cos
3 2 1
sin sin sinh tanh cosh
0
Equation 3.398
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
( ) { }
( )
'
+ + +
+ +
S
n
nr nj nj nr nj nj nr nr
x j
t j
E
dz z dy y
A A j A A U
y z h z
e
e
M j M M M
0
' ' ' '
0 0 0 0
cos
3 2 1
sin sin sinh tanh cosh
0
Equation 3.399
The separate parts are:
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
J.M.J. Journe and L.J.M. Adegeest Revision: 14122003
143
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
{ }
{ } dz A A e U F
dz A A e U F
dz y z h z
e F
n
S
nr nj nj nr
t j
n
S
nj nj nr nr
t j
S
x t j
+
+
0
' '
3
0
' '
2
0 0 0 0
cos
2
1
sin sin sinh tanh cosh
0
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( ) ( )
{ } ( )
{ } ( ) dz z dy y A A e U M
dz z dy y A A e U M
dz z dy y y z h z
e M
n
S
nr nj nj nr
t j
n
S
nj nj nr nr
t j
S
x t j
+ +
+
+
+
0
' '
3
0
' '
2
0 0 0 0
cos
2
1
sin sin sinh tanh cosh
0
Dimensionless:
[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
[ ]
{ }
[ ]
{ } dz A A
A
h
A g
F
E
dz A A
A
h
A g
F
E
dz y z h z
A
h
A g
F
E
n
S
nr nj nj nr
x
x
n
S
nj nj nr nr
x
x
S
x
x
+
0
' '
0
0
3
3
0
' '
0
0
2
2
0 0 0 0
0
0
1
1
tanh
tanh
sin sin sinh tanh cosh
tanh
( ) 2 1
2 1
F F T
M M
T
HWr
+
+
3
3
F T
M
T
HWj
Equation 3.3100
The HaskindNewman relations see Newman [1962]  are valid too here:
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144
{ }
( )
( )
{ }
{ }
( )
( )
{ }
,
_
,
_
+
+
1
1 2
0
' 2 2
0
'
0
0
3
1
1 2
0
'
2
2
0
'
0
0
2 1
Im
Re
n
n
nj j
x
x
E
n
n
nr r
x
x
E
A A
A
A g
F
E
A A
A
A g
F
E E
Equation 3.3101
3.3.4.7 Solution
To determine the unknowns
n
A , an equal number of equations have to be formulated. Because
Lewis forms are used only here, a simple approach is possible.
All stream function parts and boundary conditions can be given as a Fourier series:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+ +
0
2 cos 1 2 sin
m
nm nm n
m d m c
or with
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+ + + +
+
0
2
1 2 sin
1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
16
1 2 cos
k
k
k m k m k
m
m
in:
( ) ( ) { }
+
0
1 2 sin
m
nm n
m a
The solution of the by equating coefficients generated equations provide the unknowns
'
n
A .
3.3.5 Appendices
3.3.5.1 Appendix I: Undisturbed Wave Potential
The general expression of the complex potential of a shallow water wave, travelling in the
negative y direction, is:
( ) ( ) { }
[ ]
[ ]
( ) [ ] ( )
( ) [ ] ( )
[ ]
( ) [ ] ( )
( ) [ ] ( )
'
+
+
'
+
+
+ +
+
t y h z i
t y h z
h
t y h z i
t y h z
h
c
h
t h z i y
c i
W W
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
sin sinh
cos cosh
cosh
sin sinh
cos cosh
sinh
: ith w
sinh
cos
Equation 3.3102
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145
[ ]
( ) [ ] ( )
[ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] { }
y j t j
y j t j
W
e z h z e
e h z e
h
t y h z
h
+
0
0
0 0 0
0
0
0 0
0
sinh tanh cosh
cosh
cosh
cos cosh
cosh
[ ]
( ) [ ] ( )
[ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] { }
y j t j
y j t j
W
e z h z e j
e h z e
h
j
t y h z
h
0
0
0 0 0
0
0
0 0
0
cosh tanh sinh
sinh
cosh
sin sinh
cosh
For the vertical motions is the in y symmetrical part of the potential significant. For the
horizontal motions is the in y pointsymmetrical part (multiplied with j , so a phase shift of
0
90 ) important.
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( ) y z h z e
y z h z e
t j
WV
t j
WV
+
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
sin cosh tanh sinh
cos sinh tanh cosh
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( ) y z h z e
y z h z e
t j
WH
t j
WH
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
cos cosh tanh sinh
sin sinh tanh cosh
Equation 3.3103
When the wave travels in the
w
x direction, the potential becomes:
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } z h z e
w
x t j
W
0 0 0
sinh tanh cosh
0
With:
cos sin
sin cos
+
y x y
y x x
w
w
Equation 3.3104
the potential becomes:
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } z h z e e
x y j t j
WV
0 0 0
cos sin
sinh tanh cosh
0
Equation 3.3105
This results for the vertical motions in:
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146
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( )
sin cos sinh tanh cosh
0 0 0 0
cos
0
+
y z h z e
x t j
WV
Equation 3.3106
and for the horizontal motions in:
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } ( )
sin sin sinh tanh cosh
0 0 0 0
cos
0
y z h z e
x t j
WH
Equation 3.3107
3.3.5.2 Appendix II: Series Expansions of Hyperbolic Functions
With:
t
,
_
t
+ t
i
z
y
i
e r
e z y y i z
arctan
2 2
the following series expansions can be found.
[ ] ( ) [ ] [ ]
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] { }
[ ] [ ] { }
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) { }
+
+
+
'
+
+ +
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
Re
! 2
2 cos
! 2
! 2 ! 2 2
1
cosh cosh
2
1
cosh cosh
2
1
cosh cosh cos cosh
t
t
t
t
t
t
t i
t
t
t i
t
i i
y i z
t
k
t
t
r k
e
t
r k
e
t
r k
e r k e r k
y i z k y i z k
y k i z k y k z k
[ ] ( ) [ ] [ ]
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] { }
[ ] [ ] { }
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
'
+
+
+
+ +
0
1 2
1 2
0
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
Re
! 1 2
1 2 cos
! 1 2
! 1 2 ! 1 2 2
1
sinh sinh
2
1
sinh sinh
2
1
cosh sinh cos sinh
t
t
t
t
t
t
t i
t
t
t i
t
i i
y i z
t
k
t
t
r k
e
t
r k
e
t
r k
e r k e r k
y i z k y i z k
y k i z k y k z k
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147
[ ] ( ) [ ] [ ]
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] { }
[ ] [ ] { }
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) { }
+
+
+
'
+
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
Im
! 2
2 sin
! 2
! 2 ! 2 2
cosh cosh
2
cosh cosh
2
sinh sinh sin sinh
t
t
t
t
t
t
t i
t
t
t i
t
i i
y i z
t
k
t
t
r k
e
t
r k
e
t
r k i
e r k e r k
i
y i z k y i z k
i
y k i z k i y k z k
[ ] ( ) [ ] [ ]
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] { }
[ ] [ ] { }
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
'
+
0
1 2
1 2
0
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
Im
! 1 2
1 2 sin
! 1 2
! 1 2 ! 1 2 2
sinh sinh
2
sinh sinh
2
sinh cosh sin cosh
t
t
t
t
t
t
t i
t
t
t i
t
i i
y i z
t
k
t
t
r k
e
t
r k
e
t
r k i
e r k e r k
i
y i z k y i z k
i
y k i z k i y k z k
3.3.5.3 Appendix III: Treatment of Singular Points
The determination of
j 0
and its terms  which can be added to
r 0
in Equation 3.323 with
which the by
j r
j
0 0
+ described flow of the waves (travelling from both sides of the body
away) is given  is also possible in another way. This approach is based on work carried out by
Rayleigh and is given in the literature by Lamb [1932] for an infinite water depth.
In this approach, a viscous force w will be included in the Euler equations, is the
dynamic viscosity and w is the velocity. Because the fluid is assumed to be nonviscous, in a
later stage this dynamic viscosity will be set to zero.
From the Euler equation follows with this viscosity force the with time changing pressure
change:
'
2
2
0
lim
t t z
g
t
p
From this follows the approach as given in a subsection before for the twodimensional
radiation potential:
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148
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) ( ) { }
jad rad j r
t j
h k
z k
t j
t j
j r
j j A e
dk y k
h k k h k
g
j
z k k z k
g
j
k
g
j
e
dk y k
k
g
j
e
A e
dk y k
h k k h k
g
j
h z k
A e t z y j t z y
0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
cos
sinh cosh
cosh sinh
cos
lim
cos
sinh cosh
cosh
lim
, , , ,
+ + +
'
,
_
,
_
'
,
_
The first integral leads to the potential in Equation 3.329 and the second integral can be
expanded as follows:
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
( ) { }
( )
( ) { }
( )
[ ] [ ]
( ) { }
( )
( ) { }
( )
( ) ( ) { }
'
'
+ + +
'
+
+
,
_
'
'
'
,
_
,
_
'
+
+
,
_
'
,
_
,
_
+
+
0
2 1 2
0
0
0
1 2
2 1 2
0
0
0
0 0
1 2 1 2
! 2
Re
! 1 2
Re
lim
sinh cosh
! 2
Re
! 1 2
Re
lim
cos
sinh cosh
cosh sinh
lim
t
t t
t
t h k
t t
h k
jad rad
t H j t G
t
y i z
t
y i z
g
j
dk
h k k h k
g
j k
g
j
k e
t
y i z
t
y i z
g
j
dk y k
h k k h k
g
j
z k k z k
g
j
k
g
j
e
j
The function:
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149
( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
'
'
,
_
,
_
0
0
sinh cosh
lim
dk
h k k h k
g
i
k
g
i k
e
t H i t G
t
h k
'
'
'
,
_
'
,
_
+ +
0
0
1 ' '
sinh cosh
lim du
u u u
g
h
i h
g
h
i h u
e u
t H i t G h t H i t G
u t
t
This is a complex integral and must be solved in the complex domain with v i u w + .
The integrand has a singularity for:
g
h
i h w
1
and
2
w is the solution of the equation:
[ ] [ ] 0 sinh cosh
,
_
w w w
g
h
i h
'
+ +
'
+ +
II I
R
II
R
I
t w
J J du
dw dw du dw
w w w w w w
w e
Also:
( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
{ }
II I
R
u t
J J
du
u u u
g
h
i h
g
h
i h u
e u
t H i t G
+
'
'
'
'
,
_
'
,
_
and 0
0
0
' '
lim
sinh cosh
lim
Because:
0 lim
I
R
J
follows:
( ) ( )
( ) [ ] [ ] ( )
'
'
II
w t
dw
w w w w w w
e w
t H i t G
sinh cosh
lim
1 1
0
' '
'
'
'
II
w t
dw
w w w w w w
e w
t G
sinh cosh
lim Re
1 1
0
'
'
'
'
II
w t
dw
w w w w w w
e w
t H
sinh cosh
lim Im
1 1
0
'
IV
J disappears for R .
It can be found that:
{ } { }
III II
J J Re Re and { } { }
III II
J J Im Im +
Then it follows:
( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( )
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
'
h
h h h
h
h
w w
J t H
t t
II
0
1
0 0 0
0
2
1
0
2 1
0
0
'
tanh
cosh sinh
cosh
Residue Residue lim
lim Im
,
_
+
+
+
'
,
_
+
+
+
,
_
'
,
_
+
+
+
+
+
+
cos
Re
! 1 2
tanh Re
! 2
cosh sinh
cosh
! 1 2
Re
! 2
Re
cosh sinh
cosh
! 1 2
Re
! 2
Re
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
0
0
0
2
2
0
0 0 0
0
2
0
1 2 2
2
0 0 0
0
2
2
0
0
1 2 2
0
The same will be found as a difference between Equation 3.345 and Equation 3.329.
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
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152
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3.4 Potential Theory of Frank
As a consequence of conformal mapping of a cross section to the unit circle, the cross section
needs to have a certain breadth at the water surface. Fully submersed cross sections  such as
at the bulbous bow  cannot be mapped. Mapping problems can also appear for cross sections
with a very high or low area coefficient. These cases require another approach: the pulsating
source method of Frank or the socalled Frank CloseFit Method.
For explaining this method as it has been used in the computer code SEAWAY, relevant parts
of the report of Frank [1967] have been copied to this Section, supplemented with some
numerical improvements.
Hydrodynamic research of horizontal cylinders oscillating in or below the free surface of a
deep fluid has increased in importance in the last decades and has been studied by a number of
investigators. The history of this subject began with Ursell [1949], who formulated and solved
the boundaryvalue problem for the semiimmersed heaving circular cylinder within the
framework of linearised freesurface theory. He represented the velocity potential as the sum
of an infinite set of multipoles, each satisfying the linear freesurface condition and each
being multiplied by a coefficient determined by requiring the series to satisfy the kinematic
boundary condition at a number of points on the cylinder.
Grim [1953] used a variation of the Ursell method to solve the problem for twoparameter
Lewis form cylinders by conformal mapping onto a circle. Tasai [1959] and Porter [1960],
using the Ursell approach obtained the added mass and damping for oscillating contours
mappable onto a circle by the more general Theodorsen transformation. Ogilvie [1963]
calculated the hydrodynamic forces on completely submerged heaving circular cylinders.
Despite the success of the multipole expansionmapping methods, Frank [1967] discussed the
problem from a different point of view. The velocity potential is represented by a distribution
of sources over the submerged cross section. The density of the sources is an unknown
function (of position along the contour) to be determined from integral equations found by
applying the kinematic boundary condition on the submerged part of the cylinder. The
hydrodynamic pressures are obtained from the velocity potential by means of the linearised
Bernoulli equation. Integration of these pressures over the immersed portion of the cylinder
yields the hydrodynamic forces or moments.
3.4.1 Notations of Frank
Franks notations have been maintained here as far as possible:
) ( m
A oscillation amplitude in the mth mode
B beam of cross section
0
C
0
C submerged part of cross sectional contour in rest position
g acceleration of gravity
) ( m
ij
I influence coefficient inphase with displacement on the i th midpoint
due to the j th segment in the mth mode of oscillation
) ( m
ij
J influence coefficient inphase with velocity on the i th midpoint due to
the j th segment in the mth mode of oscillation
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( )
( ) m
M
added mass force or moment for the mth mode of oscillation at
frequency
N number of line segments defining submerged portion of half section in
rest position
( )
( ) m
N
damping force or moment for the mth mode of oscillation at
frequency
( ) m
i
n direction cosine of the normal velocity at i th midpoint for the mth
mode of oscillation
PV Cauchy pricipal value of integral
( ) m
a
p hydrodynamic pressure inphase with displacement for the mth mode
of oscillation
( ) m
v
p hydrodynamic pressure inphase with velocity for the mth mode of
oscillation
( ) m
j
Q source strength inphase with displacement along the j th segment for
the mth mode of oscillation
( ) m
N j
Q
+
source strength inphase with velocity along the j th segment for the
mth mode of oscillation
s length variable along
0
C
j
s j th line segment
T draft of cross section
t time
( ) m
i
v normal velocity component at the i th midpoint for the mth mode of
oscillation
1
x abscissa of the i th midpoint
i
y ordinate of the i th midpoint
0
y ordinate of the center of roll
y i x z + complex field point in region of fluid domain
i i i
y i x z + complex midpoint of i th segment
i
angle between i th segment and positive x axis
complex variable along
0
C
j
j th complex input point along
0
C
j
ordinate of j th input point
g
2
wave number
k
k th irregular wave number for adjoint interior problem
j
abscissa of the j th input point
density of fluid
( ) m
velocity potential for th mth mode of oscillation
radian frequency of oscillation
k
k th irregular frequency for adjoint interior problem
( k th eigenfrequency)
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3.4.2 Formulation of the Problem
Consider a cylinder, whose cross section is a simply connected region, which is fully or
partially immersed horizontally in a previously undisturbed fluid of infinite depth. The body is
forced into simple harmonic motion and it is assumed that steady state conditions have been
attained.
The twodimensional nature of the problem implies three degrees of freedom of motion.
Therefore, consider the following three types of oscillatory motions: vertical or heave,
horizontal or sway and rotational about a horizontal axis or roll.
To use linearised freesurface theory, the following assumptions are made:
1. the fluid is incompressible and inviscid,
2. the effects of surface tension are negligible,
3. the fluid is irrotational and
4. the motion amplitudes and velocities are small enough that all but the linear terms of the
freesurface condition, the kinematic boundary condition on the cylinder and the Bernoulli
equation may be neglected.
For complete discussions of linearised freesurface theory, Frank refers the reader to Stoker
[1957] and Wehausen and Laitone [1960].
Given the above conditions and assumptions, the problem reduces to the following boundary
value problem of potential theory. The cylinder is forced into simple harmonic motion
( )
( ) t A
m
cos with a prescribed radian frequency of oscillation , where the superscript m
may take on the values 2, 3 and 4, denoting swaying, heaving and rolling motions,
respectively.
It is required to find a velocity potential:
( )
( )
( )
( ) { }
t i m m
e y x t y x
, Re , ,
Equation 3.41
satisfying the following conditions:
1. The Laplace equation:
( )
( ) ( )
0
2
2
2
2
2
y x
m m
m
Equation 3.42
in the fluid domain, i.e., for 0 < y and outside the cylinder.
2. The free surface condition:
( ) ( )
0
2
2
y
g
t
m m
Equation 3.43
on the free surface 0 y outside the cylinder, while g is the acceleration of gravity.
3. The seabed boundary condition for deep water:
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( )
( )
0 lim lim
y
m
y
m
y
Equation 3.44
4. The condition of the normal velocity component of the fluid at the surface of the
oscillating cylinder being equal to the normal component of the forced velocity of the
cylinder. i.e., if
n
v is the component of the forced velocity of the cylinder in the direction
of the outgoing unit normal vector n , then
( )
n
m
v n
Equation 3.45
This is the kinematic boundary condition on the oscillating body surface, being satisfied at
the mean (rest) position of the cylindrical surface.
5. The radiation condition that the disturbed surface of the fluid takes the form of regular
progressive outgoing gravity waves at large distances from the cylinder.
According to Wehausen and Laitone [1960], the complex potential at z of a pulsating point
source of unit strength at the point in the lower half plane is:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
{ } ( ) t e
t dk
k
e
PV z z t z G
z i
z k i
'
sin
cos 2 ln ln
2
1
, ,
0
*
Equation 3.46
so that the real pointsource potential is:
( ) ( ) { } t z G t y x H , , Re , , , ,
*
Equation 3.47
where:
y i x z + + i i g
2
Letting:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
{ }
'
z i
z k i
e i
dk
k
e
PV z z z G
Re
2 ln ln Re
2
1
,
0
Equation 3.48
then:
( ) ( ) { }
t i
e t z G t y x H
, , Re , , , ,
Equation 3.49
Equation 3.49 satisfies the radiation condition and also Equation 3.41 through Equation
3.44.
Another expression satisfying all these conditions is:
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( ) { }
t i
e z G i t y x H
,
_
, Re
2
, , , ,
Equation 3.410
Since the problem is linear, a superposition of Equation 3.49 and Equation 3.410 results in
the velocity potential:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
0
, Re , ,
C
t i m
ds e z G s Q t y x
Equation 3.411
where
0
C is the submerged contour of the cylindrical cross section at its mean (rest) position
and ( ) s Q represents the complex source density as a function of the position along
0
C .
Application of the kinematic boundary condition on the oscillating cylinder at z yields:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) m m
C
C
n A ds z G s Q n
ds z G s Q n
'
'
0
0
, Im
0 , Re
Equation 3.412
where
( ) m
A denotes the amplitude of oscillation and
( ) m
n the direction cosine of the normal
velocity at z on the cylinder. Both
( ) m
A and
( ) m
n depend on the mode of motion of the
cylinder, as will be shown in the following section.
The fact that ( ) s Q is complex implies that Equation 3.412 represent a set of two coupled
integral equations for the real functions ( ) { } s Q Re and ( ) { } s Q Im . The solution of these integral
equations and the evaluation of the kernel and potential integrals are described in the
following section and in Appendices II and III, respectively.
3.4.3 Solution of the Problem
Since ship sections are symmetrical, this investigation is confined to bodies with right and left
symmetry.
Take the x axis to be coincident with the undisturbed free surface of a conventional two
dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Let the cross sectional contour
0
C of the
submerged portion of the cylinder be in the lower half plane, the y axis being the axis of
symmetry of
0
C ; see Figure 3.41.
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158
Figure 3.41: Axes system and notations, as used by Frank [1967]
Select 1 + N points ( )
i i
, of
0
C to lie in the fourth quadrant so that ( )
1 1
, is located on the
negative y axis. For partially immersed cylinders, ( )
1 1
,
+ + N N
is on the positive x axis. For
fully submerged bodies,
1 1
+ N
and 0
1
<
+ N
.
Connecting these 1 + N points by successive straight lines, N straight line segments are
obtained which, together with their reflected images in the third quadrant, yield an
approximation to the given contour as shown in Figure 3.41.
The coordinates, length and angle associated with the j th segment are identified by the
subscript j , whereas the corresponding quantities for the reflected image in the third quadrant
are denoted by the subscript j , so that by symmetry
j j +
and
j j +
+ for
1 1 + N j .
Potentials and pressures are to be evaluated at the midpoint of each segment. The coordinates
of the midpoint of the i th segment are:
2
1 +
+
i i
i
x
and
2
1 +
+
i i
i
y
for: N i 1
Equation 3.413
The length of the i th segment is:
( ) ( )
2
1
2
1 i i i i i
s +
+ +
Equation 3.414
while the angle made by the i th segment with the positive x axis is given by:
,
_
+
+
i i
i i
i
1
1
arctan
Equation 3.415
The outgoing unit vector normal to the cross section at the i th midpoint ( )
i i
y x , is:
i i
i j i n cos sin
Equation 3.416
where i and j are unit vectors in the directions of increasing x and y , respectively.
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The cylinder is forced into simple harmonic motion with radian frequency , according to the
displacement equation:
( ) ( )
( ) t A S
m m
cos
Equation 3.417
for 4 , 3 , 2 m corresponding to sway, heave or roll, respectively.
The rolling oscillations are about an axis through a point ( )
0
, 0 y in the symmetry plane of the
cylinder.
In the translation modes, any point on the cylinder moves with the velocity:
( )
( )
( ) t A i v sin : sway
2
2
Equation 3.418
( )
( )
( ) t A j v sin : heave
3
3
Equation 3.419
The rolling motion about ( )
0
, 0 y is illustrated in Figure 3.41.
Considering a point ( )
i i
y x , on
0
C , an inspection of this figure yields:
( )
2
0
2
y y x R
i i i
+ and
,
_
,
_
,
_
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
R
x
R
y y
x
y y
arccos
arcsin
arctan
0
0
+
0
cos sin
so that:
( )
( )
( )
( ) { } ( ) t j x i y y A
S R v
i i
i
i
sin
: roll
0
4
4
4
Equation 3.420
The normal components of the velocity
( )
( ) m
i
m
i
v n v at the midpoint of the i th segment
( )
i i
y x , are:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) t x y y A v
t A v
t A v
i i i i i
i i
i i
+ +
+
sin cos sin : roll
sin cos : heave
sin sin : sway
0
4 4
3 3
2 2
Equation 3.421
Defining:
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( )
( )
( )
( ) t A
v
n
m
m
i
m
i
sin
then  consistent with the previously mentioned notation  the direction cosines for the three
modes of motion are:
( )
( )
( )
( )
i i i i i
i i
i i
x y y n
n
n
1 1
1 1
0
Equation 3.423
where the superscript
( ) m
denotes the mode of motion.
The ''influence coefficients''
( ) m
ij
I and
( ) m
ij
J and the potential
( )
( ) t y x
i i
m
, , are evaluated in
Appendix II. The resulting velocity potential consists of a term inphase with the displacement
and a term inphase with the velocity.
Note: Most authors refer to this first term as a component in phase with the acceleration.
However due to the displacement Equation 3.417, Frank deemed it more appropriate
to refer to this term as being 180 degrees outofphase with the acceleration or in
phase with the displacement.
The hydrodynamic pressure at ( )
i i
y x , along the cylinder is obtained from the velocity
potential by means of the linearized Bernoulli equation:
( )
( )
( )
( ) t y x
t
t y x p
i i
m
i i
m
, , , , , ,
Equation 3.424
as:
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) t y x p t y x p t y x p
i i
m
v i i
m
a i i
m
+ sin , , cos , , , , ,
Equation 3.425
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where
( ) m
a
p and
( ) m
v
p are the hydrodynamic pressures inphase with the displacement and in
phase with the velocity, respectively and denotes the density of the fluid.
As indicated by the notation of Equation 3.424 and Equation 3.425, the pressure as well as
the potential is a function of the oscillation frequency .
The hydrodynamic force or moment (when 4 m ) per unit length along the cylinder,
necessary to sustain the oscillations, is the integral of
( ) ( ) m m
n p over the submerged contour
of the cross section
0
C . It is assumed that the pressure at the i th midpoint is the mean
pressure for the i th segment, so that the integration reduces to a summation, whence:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
{ }
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
{ }
N
i
i
m
i i i
m
v
m
N
i
i
m
i i i
m
a
m
s n y x p N
s n y x p M
1
1
, , 2
, , 2
Equation 3.426
for the added mass and damping forces or moments, respectively.
The velocity potentials for very small and very large frequencies are derived and discussed in
the next section.
3.4.4 Low and High Frequencies
For very small frequencies, i.e., as 0 , the freesurface condition in Equation 3.43 of the
section formulating the problem degenerates into the wallboundary condition:
0
y
Equation 3.427
on the surface of the fluid outside the cylinder, whereas for extremely large frequencies, i.e.,
when , the freesurface condition becomes the ''impulsive'' surface condition:
0
Equation 3.428
on 0 y and outside the cylinder.
Equation 3.42, Equation 3.44 and Equation 3.45 remain valid for both asymptotic cases.
The radiation condition is replaced by a condition of boundedness at infinity.
Therefore, there is a Neumann problem for the case 0 and a mixed problem when
. The appropriate complex potentials for a source of unit strength at a point in the
lower half plane are:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
0 0
ln ln
2
1
, K z z z G +
Equation 3.429
and:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
+
K z z z G
ln ln
2
1
,
Equation 3.430
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for the Neuman and mixed problems, respectively, where
0
K and
0
, , , ,
C
a
m
a
m
a
ds y x s Q y x
Equation 3.431
for 0 a , and a , where
( ) m
a
Q is the expression for the source strength as a function of
position along the submerged contour of the cross section
0
C .
An analysis similar to the one in the section on formulating the problem leads to the integral
equation:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) m m
C
a
m
a
n A ds y x s Q n
0
, , ,
Equation 3.432
which  after application at the N segmental midpoint  yields a set of N linear algebraic
equations in the N unknown source strengths
j
Q .
It remains to be shown whether these two problems are, in the language of potential theory,
well posed, i.e., whether the solutions to these problems lead to unique forces or moments.
The mixed problem raises no difficulty, since as z , ( ) 0 ,
z G . In fact 0
K , which
can be inferred from the pulsating sourcepotential Equation 3.48 by letting .
Considering the Neumann problem, note that the constant
0
K in the Green's function equation
(Equation 3.429) yields by integration an additive constant K to the potential. However, for
a completely submerged cylinder the cross sectional contour
0
C is a simply closed curve, so
that the contribution of K in integrating the product of the pressure with the direction cosine
of the bodysurface velocity vanishes. For partially submerged bodies
0
C is no longer closed.
But since
( ) ( ) m
i
m
i
n n
+
for m being even,
( )
0
0
C
m
ds n K
so that the swaying force and rolling moment are unique.
The heaving force on a partially submerged cylinder is not unique for, in this case,
( ) ( ) 3 3
i i
n n
+
, so that:
( )
0
0
3
C
ds n K
The constant
0
K may be obtained by letting 0 in the pulsating sourcepotential Equation
3.48.
3.4.5 Irregular Frequencies
John [1950] proved the existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the three and two
dimensional potential problems pertaining to oscillations of rigid bodies in a free surface. The
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solutions were subject to the provisions that no point of the immersed surface of the body
would be outside a cylinder drawn vertically downward from the intersection of the body with
the free surface and that the free surface would be intersected orthogonally by the body in its
mean or rest position.
John [1950] also showed that for a set of discrete ''irregular'' frequencies the Green's function
integral equation method failed to give a solution. He demonstrated that the irregular
frequencies occurred when the following adjoint interiorpotential problem had eigen
frequencies.
Let ( ) y x, be such that:
1. 0
2
2
2
2
y x
inside the cylinder in the region bounded by the immersed surface of the
body and the extension of the free surface inside the cylinder.
2. 0
k
y
on the extension of the free surface inside the cylinder,
k
being the wave
number corresponding to the irregular frequency
k
, k 1,2,3,etc.
3. 0 on the surface of the cylinder below the free surface.
For a rectangular cylinder with beam B and draft T , the irregular wave numbers may be
easily obtained by separation of variables in the Laplace equation. Separating variables gives
the eigenfunctions:
1
]
1
,
_
B
y k
B
x k
B
k k
sinh sin for: k 1,2,3,etc.
where
k
B are Fourier coefficients to be determined from an appropriate boundary condition.
Applying the free surface condition (Equation 3.42) on T y for B x < < 0 , the eigenwave
numbers (or irregular wave numbers):
1
]
1
B
T k
B
k
k
coth
Equation 3.433
are obtained for k = 1, 2, 3, ..., etc.
In particular, the lowest such irregular wave number is given by:
1
]
1
B
T
B
coth
1
Equation 3.434
Keeping T fixed in Equation 3.434 but letting B vary and setting B b , then from the
Taylor expansion:
[ ]
( )
,
_
......
45 3
1
coth
3
T b T b
T b
b T b b
it is seen that as 0 b , which is equivalent to B , T 1
1
.
Therefore, for rectangular cylinders of draft T ,
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164
T 1
1
Equation 3.435
is a relation that John proved for general shapes complying with the restrictions previously
outlined.
For a beamtodraft ratio of 5 . 2 T B : 48 . 1
1
, while for 0 . 2 T B : 71 . 1
1
.
At an irregular frequency the matrix of influence coefficients of Equation 3.423 becomes
singular as the number of defining points per cross section increases without limit, i,e., as
N . In practice, with finite N , the determinant of this matrix becomes very small, not
only at the irregular frequency but also at an interval about this frequency. This interval can be
reduced by increasing the number of defining points N for the cross section.
Most surface vessels have nearly constant draft over the length of the ship and the maximum
beam occurs at or near amidships, where the cross section is usually almost rectangular, so
that for most surface ships the first irregular frequency
1
is less for the midsection than for
any other cross section.
As an example, for a ship with a 7:1 lengthtobeam and a 5:2 beamtodraft, the first irregular
wave encounter frequency  in nondimensional form with L denoting the ship length 
occurs at 09 . 5
1
g L , which is beyond the range of practical interest for shipmotion
analysis.
Therefore, for slender surface vessels, the phenomenon of the first irregular frequency of
wave encounter is not too important.
Increasing the number of contour line elements (or panels in 3D) does not remove the
irregular frequency, but tends to restrict the effects to a narrower band around it; see for
instance Huijsmans [1996]. It should be mentioned too that irregular frequencies appear for
free surface piercing bodies only; fully submerged bodies do not display these characteristics.
An effective method to reduce the effects of irregular frequencies is ''closing'' the body by
means of a discretisation of the free surface inside the body, i.e. putting a ''lid'' on the free
surface inside the body.
See here the computed added mass and damping of a hemisphere in Figure 3.42. The solid
line in this figure results from including the ''lid''.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0 1 2 3
heave
surge/sway
Frequency (rad/ s)
M
a
s
s
(
t
o
n
)
0
250
500
750
1000
1250
0 1 2 3
heave
surge/sway
Frequency (rad/s)
D
a
m
p
i
n
g
(
t
o
n
/
s
)
Figure 3.42: Effect of use of ''LidMethod'' on irregular frequencies
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3.4.6 Appendices
3.4.6.1 Appendix I: Evaluation of Principle Value Integrals
The real and imaginary parts of the principle value integral:
( )
dk
k
e
PV
z k i
z i
z k i z k i
e i dk
k
e
dk
k
e
PV
0 0
Equation 3.436
where the path of integration is the positive real axis indented into the upper half plane about
k .
Notice hereby that:
( ) 0
2
> g { } 0 Im < z { } 0 Im
The transformation ( ) ( ) z k i converts the contour integral on the right hand side
of Equation 3.436 to:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
,
_
<
>
+
'
'
+ +
,
_
<
>
+
0
0
: for
0
2
!
1
ln
0
0
: for
0
2
1
1
0
x
x i
n n
z i
z i
e
x
x i
z i E e
dw
w
e
e dk
k
e
n
n
n
z i
z i
z i
w
z i
z k i
where 57722 . 0 is the wellknown EulerMascheroni constant.
The definition of
1
E has been given by Abramovitz and Stegun [1964].
Setting:
( ) z i r and
( ) { }
( ) { }
+
,
_
z i
z i
Re
Im
arctan
the following expression is obtained for Equation 3.436:
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166
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( )
( )
( )
'
'
'
,
_
<
>
'
+ +
+
1
1
0
!
sin
0
0
: for
2
!
cos
ln
sin cos
n
n
n
n
y
z k i
n n
n r
x
x
i
n n
n r
r
x i x e dk
k
e
PV
Equation 3.437
Separating Equation 3.437 into its real and imaginary parts yields:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
'
+
+
+
+
x r S
x r C
e dk
k
x k e
PV
x r S
x r C
e dk
k
x k e
PV
y
y k
y
y k
cos ,
sin ,
sin
sin ,
cos ,
cos
0
0
Equation 3.438
provided that:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
,
_
<
>
'
'
+ +
0
0
: for
2 !
sin
,
!
cos
ln ,
1
1
x
x
n n
n r
r S
n n
n r
r r C
n
n
n
n
3.4.6.2 Appendix II: Evaluation of Kernel Integrals
The influence coefficients of Equation 3.423 are:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { }
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { }
( )
'
,
_
,
_
+ + +
,
_
+
i
j
j
z z
s
z k i
m
s
z k i
i
m
ij
ds
dk
k
e
PV
z z
ds
dk
k
e
PV
z z
n I
0
0
1
ln ln
2
1
1
1
ln ln
2
1
Re
Equation 3.439
and:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
'
,
_
+
+
i
j j
z z
s
z i m
s
z i
i
m
ij
ds e ds e n J
1 Re
Equation 3.440
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167
Notice that in the complex plane with
i
z on
i
s :
( ) ( ) { }
( )
i
i
i
z z
i
z z
i
dz
z dF
e i z F n
'
Re Re
Considering the term containing ( ) z ln , it is evident that the kernel integral is singular
when j i , so that the indicated differentiation cannot be performed under the integral sign.
However, in that case one may proceed as follows.
Since:
+ i
and
ds e
ds i ds
d i d d
j
i
j j
+
+
sin cos
for along the j th segment.
Therefore:
d e ds
j
i
and:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
'
,
_
'
,
_
'
,
_
+
+
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
z z
z z
i
i
z z
s
i
d z
dz
d
i
z d e
dz
d
e i
ds z n
1
1
ln
Re
ln
Re ln Re
Setting z
'
, the last integral becomes:
( ) ( ) ( )
'
,
_
+
1
' '
arg arg ln Re
1
j j j j
z z
z
z
z z d
dz
d
i
j
j
j
Equation 3.441
If j i , differentiation under the integral sign may be performed, so that:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
'
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
+
+
'
,
_
+
+
+ +
1
1
2
1
2
1
2 2
1
arctan arctan cos
ln sin
ln Re
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i
z z
s
i
x
y
x
y
y x
y x
ds z n L
i
j
d e ds
j
i
, so that:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
'
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
,
_
+ +
+ +
+
'
,
_
+
+
+ +
1
1
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
arctan arctan cos
ln sin
ln Re
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i
z z
s
i
x
y
x
y
y x
y x
ds z n L
i
j
Equation 3.443
The kernel integral, containing the principal value integrals, is:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+
'
+
+
'
'
,
_
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
5
sin
sin
cos
cos
cos
sin
Re
Re
1
1
1
dk
k
x k e
PV
dk
k
x k e
PV
dk
k
x k e
PV
dk
k
x k e
PV
dk
k
e
PV
d
d
d e i
dk
k
e
PV ds n L
j i
y k
j i
y k
j i
j i
y k
j i
y k
j i
z k i
i
z z
s
z k i
i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j
j
i
j i
i
j
Equation 3.444
The first integral on the right hand side of Equation 3.440 becomes:
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169
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
+
+ +
'
+
+
'
,
_
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
1
1
7
sin
sin
cos
cos
cos
sin
Re
1
1
j i
y
j i
y
j i
j i
y
j i
y
j i
z z
s
z i
i
x e
x e
x e
x e
ds e n L
j i
j i
j i
j i
i
j
Equation 3.445
The kernel integrals over the image segments are obtained from Equation 3.443 through
Equation 3.445 by replacing
j
,
1 + j
and
j
with
j j
,
( ) 1 1 + +
j j
and
j j
,
respectively.
3.4.6.3 Appendix III: Potential Integrals
The velocity potential of the mth mode of oscillation at the i th midpoint ( )
i i
y x , is:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
+
+
'
'
,
_
+ + +
,
_
N
j
s
z i m
s
z i
j N
N
j
s
z k i
i i
m
s
z k i
i i
j
i i
m
t
t
ds e ds e Q
ds dk
k
e
PV z z
ds dk
k
e
PV z z
Q
t y x
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
1
1
0
0
sin
cos
1 Re
2 ln ln
1
2 ln ln
Re
2
1
, ,
m
Equation 3.446
The integration of the ( )
i
z ln term is straight forward, yielding:
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170
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
+ + +
+
'
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
+ + +
+
'
+
+
+
+ + +
+
+
+
+
+ + +
+
1
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
1
2 2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
1
2 2
arctan arctan
ln
ln
sin
arctan arctan
ln
ln
cos ln Re
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i j i j i
j j j i j i j i
j
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i j i j i
j j j i j i j i
j
s
i
x
y
x
x
y
x
y x y
y x y
x
y
y
x
y
y
y x x
y x x
ds z
j
Equation 3.447
In the integration of the ( ) z ln term, note that
j
and
1 + j
are replaced by
j
and
1 +
j
,
respectively.
To evaluate the potential integral containing the principal value integral, proceed in the
following manner.
For an arbitrary z in the fluid domain:
( )
( )
dk
k
e e
k
e
PV e
d e dk
k
e
PV e
d e
k
dk
PV e dk
k
e
PV ds
j
k i
k i
z k i
i
k i
z k i
i
z k i i
z k i
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
+
+
+ +
1
1
1 1
0
0
0 0
where the change of integration is permissible since only one integral requires a principle
value interpretation.
After dividing by and multiplying by k k + under the integral sign, the last expression
becomes:
( ) ( )
'
+ +
0 0 0
1 1
dk
k
e
PV dk
k
e
PV dk
k
e e
e
e i
j j j j
z k i z k i
j
k i
k i
z k i
i
Equation 3.448
Regarding the first integral in Equation 3.448 as a function of z :
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171
( ) dk
k
e e
e z F
j
k i
k i
z k i
j
1
0
Equation 3.449
Differentiating Equation 3.449 with respect to z gives:
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
0 0
1 1
'
1
+
'
+
j
z k i z k i
z z
dk e dk e i z F
j j
So:
( ) ( ) ( ) K z z z F
j j
+
+1
ln ln
Equation 3.450
where K is a constant of integration to be determined presently. Since ( ) z F is defined and
analytic for all z in the lower half plane and since by Equation 3.449, ( ) { } 0 lim
z F
z
, it
follows from Equation 3.450 that 0 K .
Therefore:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
'
,
_
,
_
+
+
+
'
,
_
+ +
+ +
+
'
,
_
'
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
dk
k
x k e
PV dk
k
x k e
PV
x
y
x
y
dk
k
x k e
PV dk
k
x k e
PV
y x
y x
dk
k
e
PV dk
k
e
PV
z z
e i
dk
k
e
PV ds K
j i
y k
j i
y k
j i
j i
j i
j i
j
j i
y k
j i
y k
j i j i
j i j i
j
z k i z k i
j i j i
i
s
z k i
j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
j
j
i
0
1
0
1
1
0 0
1
2
1
2
1
2 2
0 0
1
0
5
sin sin
arctan arctan
cos
cos cos
ln
sin
1
ln ln
Re
Re
1
1
1
Equation 3.451
The integration of the potential component inphase with the velocity over
j
s gives:
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172
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
'
+
+
+
+
j j i
y
j j i
y
s
z i
x e
x e
ds e K
j i
j i
j
i
1
7
sin
sin
1
Re
1
Equation 3.452
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173
3.5 Comparisons between Calculated Potential Data
Figure 3.51 compares the calculated coefficients for an amidships cross section of a
container vessel by the three previous methods:
1. UrsellTasai's method with 2parameter Lewis conformal mapping.
2. UrsellTasai's method with 10parameter closefit conformal mapping.
3. Frank's pulsating source method.
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2 .5
Heave
M
'
33
0
1 000
2 000
3 000
4 000
5 000
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 .0 2.5
Roll
M
'
44
0
50
100
150
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2. 5
Heave
N
'
33
f requency (rad/ s)
0
5 0
10 0
15 0
20 0
0 0. 5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Sway
N
'
22
f requency (rad/s)
D
a
m
p
i
n
g
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
0
100
200
300
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Mid shi p s ecti on
of a c ontai ner sh ip
S way
M
'
22
M
a
s
s
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
0
50
100
150
200
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2. 0 2.5
Sway  Roll
Rol l  Sway
N
'
24
= N
'
42
f requency (rad/s)
3000
3250
3500
3750
4000
4250
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Sway  Roll
Rol l  Sway
M
'
24
= M
'
42
0
100
200
300
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Closefi t
Lewis
Frank
Roll
N
'
44
f requency (rad/ s)
Figure 3.51: Comparison of various calculated potential coefficients
With the exception of the roll motions, the three results are very close. The roll motion
deviation, predicted with the Lewis conformal mapping method, is caused by a too much
rounded description of the ''bilge'' by the simple Lewis transformation.
A disadvantage of Frank's method could be the relatively large computing time, when
compared with UrsellTasai's method. However  because of the significantly increased
computing speed of nowadays computers  this should not be a problem anymore.
Generally, it is advised to use the very robust UrsellTasai's method with 10 parameter close
fit conformal mapping.
For submerged sections, bulbous sections and sections with an area coefficient
s
less than
0.4 however, Frank's pulsating source method should be used.
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3.6 Estimated Potential Surge Coefficients
An equivalent longitudinal section, being constant over the ship's breadth B , is defined by:
sectional breadth
x
B = ship length L
sectional draught
x
d = amidships draught d
sectional area coefficient
Mx
C = block coefficient
B
C
By using a Lewis transformation of this equivalent longitudinal section to the unit circle, the
twodimensional potential mass
*
11
M and damping
*
11
N can be calculated in a similar manner
as has been described for the twodimensional potential mass and damping of sway,
'
22
M and
'
22
N .
With these twodimensional values, the total potential mass and damping of surge are defined
by:
*
11 11
*
11 11
N B N
M B M
Equation 3.61
in which B is the breadth of the ship.
These frequencydependent hydrodynamic coefficients do not include threedimensional
effects. Only the hydrodynamic mass coefficient  of which a large threedimensional effect is
expected  will be adapted here empirically.
According to Tasai [1961], the zerofrequency potential mass for sway can be expressed in
Lewiscoefficients:
( ) ( ) { }
2
3
2
1
2
3 1
'
22
3 1
1 2
0 a a
a a
d
M
x
+
,
_
+
Equation 3.62
When using this formula for surge, the total potential mass of surge is defined by:
( ) ( ) 0 0
*
11 11
M B M
Equation 3.63
A frequencyindependent total hydrodynamic mass coefficient is estimated empirically by
Sargent and Kaplan [1974] as a proportion of the total mass of the ship :
( )
a
a
K S M
2
&
11
with:
'
,
_
b
b
b
b
b
a 2
1
1
ln
1
3
2
where
2
1
,
_
L
B
b
Equation 3.64
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176
Figure 3.61: Hydrodynamic mass for surge
With this hydrodynamic mass value, a correction factor for threedimensional effects has
been determined:
( )
( ) 0
&
11
11
M
K S M
Equation 3.65
The threedimensional effects for the potential damping of surge are ignored.
So, the potential mass and damping of surge are defined by:
*
11 11
*
11 11
N B N
M B M
Equation 3.66
To obtain a uniform approach during all ship motions calculations, the cross sectional two
dimensional values of the hydrodynamic mass and damping have to be obtained.
Based on results of numerical 3D studies with a Wigley hull form by Adegeest [1994], a
proportionality of both the twodimensional hydrodynamic mass and damping with the
absolute values of the derivatives of the cross sectional areas
x
A in the
b
x direction has been
found:
11
'
11
M
dx
dx
dA
dx
dA
M
L
b
b
x
b
x
and
11
'
11
N
dx
dx
dA
dx
dA
N
L
b
b
x
b
x
Equation 3.67
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177
4 Viscous Damping
The strip theory is based on the potential flow theory. This holds that viscous effects are
neglected, which can deliver serious problems when predicting roll motions at resonance
frequencies. In practice, viscous roll damping effects can be accounted for by empirical
formulas. For surge and roll, additional damping coefficients have to be introduced. Because
of these additional contributions to the damping are from a viscous origin mainly, it is not
possible to calculate the total damping in a pure theoretical way.
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178
4.1 Surge Damping
The total damping for surge
v t
B B B
11 11 11
+ consists of a potential part,
11
B , and an
additional viscous part,
v
B
11
. At forward ship speed V , the total damping coefficient,
t
B
11
,
can be determined simply from the resistancespeed curve of the ship in still water, ( ) V R
sw
:
( ) { }
dV
V R d
B B B
sw
v t
+
11 11 11
Equation 4.11
4.1.1 Total Surge Damping
For a rough estimation of the still water resistance use can be made of a somewhat modified
empirical formula of Troost [1955], in principle valid at the ship's service speed for hull forms
with a block coefficient
B
C between about 0.60 and 0.80:
2 3 2
V C R
t sw
with:
{ } 60 . 0 log
0152 . 0
0036 . 0
10
+
+
L
C
t
Equation 4.12
in which:
volume of displacement of the ship in m
3
,
L length of the ship in m,
V forward ship speed in m/s.
This total resistance coefficient
t
C is given in Figure 4.11 as a function of the ship length.
Figure 4.11: Total Still Water Resistance Coefficient of Troost
Then the total surge damping coefficient at forward ship speed V becomes:
V C B
t t
3 2
11
2
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179
4.1.2 Viscous Surge Damping
This total damping coefficient includes a viscous part, which can be derived from the
frictional part of the ship's resistance, defined by the 1957 ITTCline:
( )
( ) { }
2
2
2 ln
075 . 0
2
1
Rn
S V V R
f
with:
L V
Rn
Equation 4.13
in which:
kinematic viscosity of seawater
S wetted surface of the hull of the ship
Rn Reynolds number
From this empirical formula follows the pure viscous part of the additional damping
coefficient at forward ship speed V :
( ) { }
dV
V R d
B
f
v
11
Equation 4.14
which can be obtained numerically.
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180
4.2 Roll Damping
In case of pure free rolling in still water (free decay test), the uncoupled linear equation of the
roll motion about the centre of gravity G is given by:
( ) ( ) 0
44 44 44 44
+ + + + C B B A I
v xx
& & &
with:
GM g C
b B
b OG b OG b OG b B
a OG a OG a OG a A
v v
+ + +
+ + +
44
44 44
22
2
24 42 44 44
22
2
24 42 44 44
Equation 4.21
For zero forward speed:
24 42
a a and
24 42
b b .
Equation 4.21 can be rewritten as:
0 2
2
0
+ +
& & &
with:
44
44 44
2
A I
B B
xx
v
+
+
(quotient of damping and moment of inertia)
44
44
2
0
A I
C
xx
+
(natural roll frequency squared)
Equation 4.22
The nondimensional roll damping coefficient, , is given by:
( )
44 44
44 44
0
2 C A I
B B
xx
v
+
+
Equation 4.23
This damping coefficient is written as a fraction between the actual damping coefficient,
v
B B
44 44
+ , and the critical damping coefficient, ( )
44 44 44
2 C A I B
xx cr
+ ; so for critical
damping: 1
cr
.
Herewith, the equation of motion can be rewritten as:
0 2
2
0 0
+ +
& & &
Equation 4.24
Suppose the vessel is deflected to an initial heel angle,
a
, in still water and then released. The
solution of the equation of motion of this decay becomes:
( ) ( )
'
+
t t e
t
a 0
0
0
sin cos
Equation 4.25
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181
Then, the logarithmic decrement of the motion is:
( )
( )
'
T t
t
T T
ln
0
Equation 4.26
Because
2
2
0
2
for the natural frequency oscillation and the damping is small so that
2
0
2
<< , one can neglect
2
here and use
0
'
Equation 4.28
The nonpotential part of the total roll damping coefficient follows from the average value of
by:
44
0
44
44
2
B
C
B
v
Equation 4.29
4.2.1 Experimental Determination
The values can easily been found when results of free rolling experiments with a model in
still water are available, see Figure 4.21.
Figure 4.21: Time History of a Roll Decay Test
The results of free decay tests can be presented in different ways:
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1. Generally they are presented by plotting the nondimensional damping coefficient,
obtained from two successive positive or negative maximum roll angles
i
a
and
2 + i
a
, by:
'
+2
ln
2
1
i
i
a
a
versus:
2
2 +
+
i i
a a
a
Equation 4.210
2. To avoid spreading in the successively determined values, caused by a possible zero
shift of the measuring signal, double amplitudes can be used instead:
'
+ +
+
3 2
1
ln
2
1
i i
i i
a a
a a
versus:
( ) ( )
4
3 2 1 + + +
+
i i i i
a a a a
a
Equation 4.211
3. Sometimes the results of free rolling tests are presented by:
a
a
versus:
a
with the absolute value of the average of two successive positive or negative
maximum roll angles, given by:
2
1 +
+
i i
a a
a
and the absolute value of the difference of the average of two successive positive or
negative maximum roll angles, given by:
1 +
i i
a a a
Then the total nondimensional roll damping coefficient becomes:
'
a
a
a
a
2
2
ln
2
1
Equation 4.212
The decay coefficient can therefore be estimated from the decaying oscillation by
determining the ratio between any pair of successive (double) amplitudes. When the damping
is very small and the oscillation decays very slowly, several estimates of the decay can be
obtained from a single record. It is obvious that for a linear system a constant value should
be found in relation to
a
.
Note that these decay tests provide no information about the relation between the potential
coefficients and the frequency of oscillation. Indeed, this is impossible since decay tests are
carried out at only one frequency: the natural frequency. These experiments deliver no
information on the relation with the frequency of oscillation.
The method is not really practical when is much greater than about 0.2 and is in any case
strictly valid for small values of only. Luckily, this is generally the case.
Be aware that this damping coefficient is determined by assuming an uncoupled roll motion
(no other motions involved). Strictly, this damping coefficient is not valid for the actual
coupled motions of a ship that will be moving in all directions simultaneously.
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183
The successively found values for , plotted on base of the average roll amplitude, will often
have a nonlinear behaviour as illustrated in Figure 4.22.
0
0. 01
0. 02
0. 03
0. 04
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
mean linear and cubic damping
mean linear and quadrat ic damping
second experiment , negat ive angles
second experiment , posit ive angles
first experiment, negative angles
first experiment, positive angles
Product carrier, V = 0 knots
mean roll amplitude (deg)
r
o
l
l
d
a
m
p
i
n
g
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
(

)
Figure 4.22: Roll Damping Coefficients
For a behaviour like this, it will be found:
a
+
2 1
Equation 4.213
while sometimes even a cubic roll damping coefficient,
2
3 a
, has to be added to this
formula.
This nonlinear behaviour holds that during frequency domain calculations, the damping term
is depending on the  so far unknown  solution for the transfer function of roll:
a a
. With a
known wave amplitude,
a
, this problem can be solved in an iterative manner. A less accurate
method is to use a fixed
a
.
4.2.2 Empirical Formula for Barges
From model experiments with rectangular barges  with its center of gravity, G, in the water
line  it has been found by Journee [1991]:
a
+
2 1
with:
50 . 0
0013 . 0
2
2
1
,
_
d
B
Equation 4.214
in which B is the breadth and d is the draft of the barge.
4.2.3 Empirical Method of Miller
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According to Miller [1974], the nondimensional total roll damping coefficient, , can be
obtained by:
a
+
2 1
with:
b
b
b
bk
bk
b b b
V
C d B L
r
B L
r
l
A
C
Fn
C
Fn
C
Fn
GM
L
B
L
C
'
'
,
_
,
_
,
_
3
3
2
3 2
1
0024 . 0 25 . 19
2 00085 . 0
Equation 4.215
where:
bk bk bk
h l A one sided area of bilge keel (m
2
)
bk
l length of bilge keel (m)
bk
h height of bilge keel (m)
b
r distance center line of water plane to turn of bilge (m)
(first point at which turn of bilge starts, relative to water plane)
L length of ship (m)
B breadth of ship (m)
d draft of ship (m)
b
C block coefficient ()
GM initial metacentric height (m)
Fn Froude number ()
a
amplitude of roll (rad)
V
C correction factor on
1
for speed effect ()
(in the original formulation of Miller: 0 . 1
V
C )
Generally 0 . 1
V
C , but (according to an experienced user of computer code SEAWAY) for
slender ships, like frigates, a suitable value for
V
C seems to be:
GM C
V
00 . 3 85 . 4
Equation 4.216
4.2.4 SemiEmpirical Method of Ikeda
Because the viscous part of the roll damping acts upon the viscosity of the fluid significantly,
it is not possible to calculate the total roll damping coefficient in a pure theoretical way.
Besides this, also experiments showed a nonlinear behaviour of viscous parts of the roll
damping.
Sometimes, for applications in frequency domain, an equivalent linear roll damping
coefficient,
( ) 1
44v
B , has to be determined. This coefficient can be obtained by stipulating that
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185
an equivalent linear roll damping dissipates an identical amount of energy as the nonlinear
roll damping. This results for a linearised quadratic roll damping coefficient,
( ) 2
44v
B , into:
( ) ( )
T
v
T
v
dt B dt B
0
2
44
0
1
44
& & & & &
or with some algebra:
( ) ( ) 2
44
1
44
3
8
v a v
B B
,
_
Equation 4.217
For the estimation of the nonpotential parts of the roll damping, use has been made of work
published by Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka [1978]. A few subordinate parts have been modified
and this empirical method is called here the ''Ikeda method''.
This Ikeda method estimates the following linear components of the roll damping coefficient
of a ship:
S
B
44
a correction on the potential roll damping coefficient due to forward speed,
F
B
44
the frictional roll damping coefficient,
E
B
44
the eddy making roll damping coefficient,
L
B
44
the lift roll damping coefficient and
K
B
44
the bilge keel roll damping coefficient.
So, the additional  mainly viscous  roll damping coefficient
V
B
44
is given by:
K L E F S V
B B B B B B
44 44 44 44 44 44
+ + + +
Equation 4.218
Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka [1978] claim fairly good agreements between their prediction
method and experimental results. They conclude that the method can be used safely for
ordinary ship forms, which conclusion has been confirmed by the author too. But for unusual
ship forms, for very full ship forms and for ships with a very large breadth to draft ratio the
method is not always accurate sufficiently.
For numerical reasons three restrictions have to be made:
if, locally, 999 . 0 >
s
then: 999 . 0
s
.
if, locally,
s s
D OG < then:
s s
D OG .
if a calculated component of the viscous roll damping coefficient becomes less than zero,
this component has to be set to zero.
4.2.4.1 Notations of Ikeda et.al.
In this description of the Ikeda method, the notation of the authors (Ikeda, Himeno and
Tanaka) is maintained as far as could be possible here:
density of water
kinematic viscosity of water
g acceleration of gravity
V forward ship speed
Rn Reynolds number
circular roll frequency
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186
a
roll amplitude
L length of the ship
B breadth
D amidships draught
M
C amidships section coefficient
B
C block coefficient
D L S
L
lateral area
f
S wetted hull surface area
OG distance of centre of gravity above still water level, positive upwards
(this sign convention deviates from that in the paper of Ikeda)
s
B sectional breadth water line
s
D sectional draft
s
A sectional area
s
sectional area coefficient
0
H sectional half breadth to draft ratio
1
a sectional Lewis coefficient
3
a sectional Lewis coefficient
s
M sectional Lewis scale factor
f
r average distance between roll axis and hull surface
O
L distance point of taking representative angle of attack to roll axis,
approximated by D L
O
3 . 0
R
L distance of centre of action of lift force in roll motion to roll axis,
approximated by D L
R
5 . 0
k
h height of the bilge keels
k
L length of the bilge keels
k
r distance between roll axis and bilge keel
k
f correction for increase of flow velocity at the bilge
p
C pressure coefficient
m
l lever of the moment
b
r local radius of the bilge circle
4.2.4.2 Effect of Forward Speed,
S
B
44
Ikeda obtained an empirical formula for the threedimensional forward speed correction on
the zero speed potential damping by making use of the general characteristics of a doublet
flow model. Two doublets have represented the rolling ship: one at the stern and one at the
bow of the ship.
With this, semitheoretically the forward speed effect on the linear potential damping
coefficient has been approximated as a fraction of the potential damping coefficient by:
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187
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
'
,
_
+
+ +
0 . 1
1 2
3 . 0 20 tanh 1 1
5 . 0
2
25 . 0 150
2 1
2 2
44 44
e A A
A A
B B
S
Equation 4.219
with:
44
B potential roll damping coefficient of the ship (about G)
g V nondimensional circular roll frequency
g D
D
2
nondimensional circular roll frequency squared
D
e A
D
+
2 2 . 1
1
0 . 1 maximum value of
44
B at 25 . 0
D
e A
D
+
2 0 . 1
2
5 . 0 minimum value of
44
B at large
4.2.4.3 Frictional Roll Damping,
F
B
44
Kato deduced semiempirical formulas for the frictional roll damping from experimental
results of circular cylinders, wholly immersed in the fluid. An effective Reynolds number of
the roll motion was defined by:
,
_
2
512 . 0
a
f
r
Rn
Equation 4.220
In here, for ship forms the average distance between the roll axis and the hull surface can be
approximated by:
( )
OG
L
S
C
r
f
B
f
+ +
2 145 . 0 887 . 0
Equation 4.221
with a wetted hull surface area
f
S , approximated by:
( ) B C D L S
B f
+ 7 . 1
Equation 4.222
The relation between the density, kinematic viscosity and temperture of fresh water and sea
water are given in Figure 4.23.
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188
990
1000
1010
1020
1030
0 10 20 30
Fresh Water
Sea Water
Temperature (
0
C)
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
k
g
/
m
3
)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 10 20 30
Sea Water
Fresh Water
Temperature (
0
C)
K
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c
V
is
c
o
s
i
t
y
(
m
2
s
)
Figure 4.23: Relation between density, kinematic viscosity and temperature of water
When eliminating the temperature of water, the following relation can express the kinematic
viscosity into the density of water in the kgms system:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 6
2 6
1025 02602 . 0 1025 1039 . 0 063 . 1 10 : water sea
1000 07424 . 0 1000 3924 . 0 442 . 1 10 : r fresh wate
+ +
+ +
Equation 4.223
as given in Figure 4.24.
0
5
10
15
20
25
997 998 999 1000
Viscosity Actual
Viscosity Polynomial
Temperature
Density Fresh Water (kg/m
3
)
K
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
*
1
0
7
(
m
2
s
)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
0
C
)
Fresh Water
0
5
10
15
20
25
1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028
Viscosity Actual
Viscosity Polynomial
Temperature
Density Salt Water (kg/m
3
)
K
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
*
1
0
7
(
m
2
s
)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
0
C
)
Salt Water
Figure 4.24: Kinematic viscosity as a function of density
Kato expressed the skin friction coefficient as:
114 . 0 5 . 0
014 . 0 328 . 1
+ Rn Rn C
f
Equation 4.224
The first part in this expression represents the laminar flow case. The second part has been
ignored by Ikeda, but has been included here.
Using this, the quadratic roll damping coefficient due to skin friction at zero forward ship
speed is expressed as:
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189
( )
f f f F
C S r B
3 2
44
2
1
0
Equation 4.225
This frictional roll damping component increases slightly with forward speed.
Semitheoretically, Tamiya deduced a modification coefficient for the effect of forward speed
on the friction component. Accurate enough from a practical point of view, this results into the
following formula for the speed dependent frictional damping coefficient:
( )
,
_
+
L
V
C S r B
f f f F
1 . 4 0 . 1
2
1 3 2
44
Equation 4.226
Then, the equivalent linear roll damping coefficient due to skin friction is expressed as:
,
_
,
_
L
V
C S r B
f f f a F
1 . 4 0 . 1
2
1
3
8 3
44
Equation 4.227
Ikeda confirmed the use of his formula for the threedimensional turbulent boundary layer
over the hull of an oscillating ellipsoid in roll motion.
4.2.4.4 Eddy Making Damping,
E
B
44
At zero forward speed the eddy making roll damping for the naked hull is mainly caused by
vortices, generated by a twodimensional separation. From a number of experiments with two
dimensional cylinders it was found that for a naked hull this component of the roll moment is
proportional to the roll frequency squared and the roll amplitude squared. This means that the
corresponding quadratic roll damping coefficient does not depend on the
period parameter but on the hull form only.
When using a simple form for the pressure distribution on the hull surface it appears that the
pressure coefficient
p
C is a function of the ratio of the maximum relative velocity
max
U to
the mean velocity
mean
U on the hull surface:
mean
U
U
max
Equation 4.228
The
p
C relation was obtained from experimental roll damping data of twodimensional
models. These experimental results are fitted by:
50 . 1 0 . 2 35 . 0
187 . 0
+
e e C
p
Equation 4.229
The value of around a cross section is approximated by the potential flow theory for a
rotating Lewis form cylinder in an infinite fluid.
An estimation of the local maximum distance between the roll axis and the hull surface,
max
r ,
has to be made.
Values of ( )
max
r have to be calculated for:
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0 . 0
1
and
( )
,
_
+
3
3 1
2
4
1
cos
5 . 0
a
a a
Equation 4.230
The values of ( )
max
r follow from:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
'
+
+ +
2
3 1
2
3 1
max
3 cos cos 1
3 sin sin 1
a a
a a
M r
s
Equation 4.231
With these two results a value
max
r and a value follow from the conditions:
For ( ) ( )
2 max 1 max
r r > : ( )
1 max max
r r and
1
For ( ) ( )
2 max 1 max
r r < : ( )
2 max max
r r and
2
Equation 4.232
The relative velocity ratio on a cross section is obtained by:
,
_
,
_
2 2
max
0
3
2
2
b a
H
M
r
D
OG
H D
f
s
s
s s
with:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
2 5
1 10 65 . 1
3
2
1 3 1
2
1
2
3 1
3 1 3
2
1 3 1
2
1
2
3 1
3 1 3
3 3 1
2
3
2
1
3 1 3 1
0
4 1
sin 3 3 6
3 sin 1 5 sin 2
cos 3 3 6
3 cos 1 5 cos 2
4 cos 6 2 cos 3 1 2 9 1
1 1 2
2
s
e f
a a a a a a
a a a b
a a a a a a
a a a a
a a a a a H
a a
D
a a
B
M
D B
A
D
B
H
s s
s
s s
s
s
s
s
+
+ + + +
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+
+ +
Equation 4.233
With this a quadratic sectional eddy making damping coefficient for zero forward speed
follows from:
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191
( )
'
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
2
1
0 2
1 1
2
max
4 ' 2
44
1 1
2
1
0
s
b
s
b
s s
b
p
s
s E
D
r f
H f
D
r f
D
OG
D
r f
C
D
r
D B
with:
[ ] { }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s s
s
s
e f
f
+
2 5 5
2
1
sin 1 5 . 1 cos 1 5 . 0
14 20 tanh 1 5 . 0
Equation 4.234
The approximations of the local radius of the bilge circle
b
r are given as:
( )
2
: and 1 for
: and 1 for
4
1
2 :
2
and for
0 0
0
0
s
b s b
s b s b
s
s b
s
b s b
B
r D H r H
D r D r H
H
D r
B
r D r
> <
> >
< <
Equation 4.235
For threedimensional ship forms the zero forward speed eddy making quadratic roll damping
coefficient is found by an integration over the ship length:
( ) ( )
L
b E E
dx B B
' 2
44
2
44
0 0
Equation 4.236
This eddy making roll damping decreases rapidly with the forward speed to a nonlinear
correction for the lift force on a ship with a small angle of attack. Ikeda has analysed this
forward speed effect by experiments and the result has been given in an empirical formula.
With this the equivalent linear eddy making damping coefficient at forward speed is given by:
( )
2
2
44 44
1
1
3
8
0
K
B B
E a E
+
,
_
with:
L
V
K
04 . 0
Equation 4.237
4.2.4.5 Lift Damping,
L
B
44
The roll damping coefficient due to the lift force is described by a modified formula of
Yumuro:
,
_
+ +
R O R
R O N L L
L L
OG
L
OG
L L k V S B
2
44
7 . 0 4 . 1 0 . 1
2
1
Equation 4.238
The slope of the lift curve
L
C is defined by:
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192
,
_
045 . 0 1 . 4
2
L
B
L
D
C
k
L
N
Equation 4.239
in which the coefficient is given by Ikeda in relation to the amidships section coefficient
M
C :
30 . 0 : 99 . 0 97 . 0
10 . 0 : 97 . 0 92 . 0
00 . 0 : 92 . 0
< <
< <
<
M
M
M
C
C
C
Equation 4.240
These data are fitted here by:
( ) ( )
3 2
91 . 0 700 91 . 0 106
M M
C C
with the restrictions:
if 91 . 0 <
M
C then 00 . 0
if 00 . 1 >
M
C then 35 . 0
Equation 4.241
4.2.4.6 Bilge Keel Damping,
K
B
44
The quadratic bilge keel roll damping coefficient has been into two components:
a component
( ) 2
44
N
K
B due to the normal force on the bilge keels
a component
( ) 2
44
S
K
B due to the pressure on the hull surface, created by the bilge keels.
The coefficient of the normal force component
( ) 2
44
N
K
B of the bilge keel damping can be
deduced from experimental results of oscillating flat plates. The drag coefficient
D
C depends
on the period parameter or the KeuleganCarpenter number. Ikeda measured this nonlinear
drag also by carrying out free rolling experiments with an ellipsoid with and without bilge
keels. This resulted in a quadratic sectional damping coefficient:
( )
D k k k K
C f h r B
N
2 3 ' 2
44
with:
( )
s
e f
f r
h
C
k
k a k
k
D
+
+
0 . 1 160
3 . 0 0 . 1
40 . 2 5 . 22
Equation 4.242
The approximation of the local distance between the roll axis and the bilge keel
k
r is given as:
2 2
0
293 . 0 0 . 1 293 . 0
,
_
+ +
,
_
s
b
s s
b
s k
D
r
D
OG
D
r
H D r
Equation 4.243
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193
The approximation of the local radius of the bilge circle
b
r in here is given before.
Assuming a pressure distribution on the hull caused by the bilge keels, a quadratic sectional
roll damping coefficient can be defined:
( )
k
S
h
m p k k K
dh l C f r B
0
2 2 ' 2
44
2
1
Equation 4.244
Ikeda carried out experiments to measure the pressure on the hull surface created by bilge
keels. He found that the coefficient
+
p
C the pressure on the front face of the bilge keel does
not depend on the period parameter, while the coefficient
p
C of the pressure on the back face
of the bilge keel and the length of the negative pressure region depend on the period
parameter.
Ikeda defines an equivalent length of a constant negative pressure region
0
S over the height of
the bilge keels, which is fitted to the following empirical formula:
k a k k
h r f S + 95 . 1 3 . 0
0
Equation 4.245
The pressure coefficients on the front face of the bilge keel,
+
p
C , and on the back face of the
bilge keel,
p
C , are given by:
20 . 1
+
p
C and 20 . 1 5 . 22
a k k
k
p
r f
h
C
Equation 4.246
and the sectional pressure moment is given by:
( )
+
+
k
h
p p s m p
C B C A D dh l C
0
2
with:
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194
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
b
b
b
b
b
s
s
s
b
r S
r
S
m m
r S m m m
r S
r S m
D
S
m
m m H
m H m H
m
m m H
m H m H
m
m H m
m m m
D
OG
m
D
r
m
m m m m m
m
m m m
m H
m
B
m m m m A
<
'
,
_
+
> +
<
>
+ +
+ +
+ +
+
25 . 0 : for cos 1 414 . 1
25 . 0 : for 414 . 0
25 . 0 : for 0 . 0
25 . 0 : for 25 . 0
215 . 0 1 215 . 0
0106 . 0 382 . 0 0651 . 0 414 . 0
215 . 0 1 215 . 0
0106 . 0 382 . 0 0651 . 0 414 . 0
0 . 1
215 . 0 1 6
2 1
215 . 0 3
0
0
1 7
0 1 7 8
0
0 1
0
7
1 1 0
1 0
2
1 0
6
1 1 0
1 0
2
1 0
5
1 0 4
2 1 3
2
1
6 4 5 3 1
1
2 3
2
1
1 0
3
4
2
7 8 4 3
Equation 4.247
The equivalent linear total bilge keel damping coefficient can be obtained now by integrating
the two sectional roll damping coefficients over the length of the bilge keels and linearizing
the result:
( )
k
S N
L
b K K a K
dx B B B
'
44
'
44 44
3
8
Equation 4.248
Experiments of Ikeda have shown that the effect of forward ship speed on this roll damping
coefficient can be ignored.
4.2.4.7 Calculated Roll Damping Components
In Figure 4.25 an example is given of the several roll damping components, as derived with
Ikeda's method, for the S175 container ship design.
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
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Figure 4.25: Roll damping coefficients of Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka
It may be noted that for fullscale ships, because of the higher Reynolds number, the frictional
part of the roll damping is expected to be smaller than showed above.
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5 Hydromechanical Loads
With the approach as mentioned before, a description will be given here of the determination
of the hydromechanical forces and moments for all six modes of motions.
In the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'', as published by KorvinKroukovsky and Jacobs [1957] and
others, the uncoupled twodimensional potential hydromechanical loads in the direction j are
defined by:
{ }
' * ' * ' '
RSj hj jj hj jj hj
X N M
Dt
D
X + +
& &
(Ordinary Strip Theory, OST)
In the ''Modified Strip Theory'', as has been published later by for instance Tasai [1969] and
others, these loads become:
' * ' ' '
RSj hj jj
e
jj hj
X N
i
M
Dt
D
X +
'
,
_
&
(Modified Strip Theory, MST)
In these definitions of the twodimensional hydromechanical load,
*
hj
&
is the harmonic
oscillatory motion,
'
jj
M and
'
jj
N are the twodimensional potential mass and damping and
the nondiffraction part
'
RSj
X is the twodimensional quasistatic restoring spring term.
At all following pages, the hydromechanical load has been calculated in the ( )
b b b
z y x G , , axes
system with the centre of gravity G in the still water level, so 0 OG .
Some of the terms in the hydromechanical loads have been outlined there:
the ''Modified Strip Theory'' (OST) includes these outlined terms, but
when ignoring these outlined terms, the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' (MST) has been
presented.
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5.1 Hydromechanical Forces for Surge
The hydromechanical forces for surge are found by integration over the ship length of the
twodimensional values:
L
b h h
dx X X
'
1 1
Equation 5.11
When assuming that the cross sectional hydromechanical force hold at a plane through the
local centroid of the cross section, b , parallel to ( )
b b
y x , , equivalent longitudinal motions of
the water particles, relative to the cross section of an oscillating ship in still water, are defined
by:
& &
& &
& & &
& &
& &
&
&
&
&
&
+
+
+
+
+
bG x
x
bG
V
x
bG
V bG x
bG x
x
bG
V bG x
bG x
b b
h
b
h
h
2
2
2 *
1
*
1
*
1
2
Equation 5.12
In here, bG is the vertical distance of the centre of gravity of the ship G above the centroid
b of the local submerged sectional area.
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the twodimensional potential hydromechanical
force on a surging cross section in still water is defined by:
{ }
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
*
1
'
11
*
1
'
11
'
1
h
b
h
h h h
dx
dM
V N M
N M
Dt
D
X
& & &
& &
,
_
+
+
Equation 5.13
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' this hydromechanical force becomes:
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
2
'
11
*
1
'
11
'
11
'
1
h
b
h
b e
h
e
h
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
N
i
M
Dt
D
X
,
_
,
_
'
,
_
Equation 5.14
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This results into the following coupled surge equation:
( )
1 15 15 15
13 13 13
11 11 11 1
w
h
X c b a
z c z b z a
x c x b x a X x
+ + +
+ + +
+ + + +
& & &
& & &
& & & & &
Equation 5.15
with:
0
0
0
0
0
15
11
'
11
'
11 15
'
11
2
'
11 15
13
13
13
11
11
'
11
'
11 11
'
11
2
'
11 11
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
c
BG b dx bG
dx
dM
V N b
dx bG
dx
dN V
dx bG M a
c
b
a
c
b dx
dx
dM
N b
dx
dx
dN V
dx M a
V
L
b
b
L
b
b
e L
b
V
L
b
b
L
b
b
e L
b
Equation 5.16
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring these outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
A small viscous surge damping coefficient
V
b
11
, derived from the still water resistance
approximation of Troost [1955], has been added here.
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After simplification (see the endterms in Section 253), the expressions for the total
hydromechanical coefficients in the coupled surge equation become:
0
0
0
0
0
15
11
'
11
'
11 15
'
11
2
'
11 15
13
13
13
11
11
'
11 11
'
11 11
,
_
+ +
+
c
BG b dx bG
dx
dM
V N b
dx bG
dx
dN V
dx bG M a
c
b
a
c
b dx N b
dx M a
V
L
b
b
L
b
b
e L
b
V
L
b
L
b
L
b h h
dx X X
'
2 2
Equation 5.21
The lateral and roll motions of the water particles, relative to the cross section of an oscillating
ship in still water, are defined by:
& &
& & & & &
& &
&
& &
&
+
+
OG V x y
OG V x y
OG x y
b h
b h
b h
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
& & & &
& &
*
4
*
4
*
4
h
h
h
Equation 5.22
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the twodimensional potential hydromechanical
force on a swaying cross section in still water is defined by:
{ } { }
*
4
'
24
'
24
*
4
'
24
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
*
4
'
24
*
4
'
24
*
2
'
22
*
2
'
22
'
2
h
b
h h
b
h
h h h h h
dx
dM
V N M
dx
dM
V N M
N M
Dt
D
N M
Dt
D
X
& & & & & &
& & & &
,
_
+ +
,
_
+
+ + +
Equation 5.23
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' this hydromechanical force becomes:
*
4
'
24
'
24
*
4
'
24
2
'
24
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
2
'
22
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
'
22
'
2
h
b
h
b e
h
b
h
b e
h
e
h
e
h
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
N
i
M
Dt
D
N
i
M
Dt
D
X
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
'
,
_
'
,
_
Equation 5.24
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This results into the following coupled sway equation:
( )
2 26 26 26
24 24 24
22 22 22 2
w
h
X c b a
c b a
y c y b y a X y
+ + +
+ + +
+ + + +
& & &
& & &
& & & & &
with:
0
2
0
0
26
'
22
2
2
'
22
'
22
'
22 26
'
22
2
'
22 2
'
22
'
22 2
'
22 26
24
'
22
'
22
'
24
'
24 24
'
22
2
'
24
2
'
22
'
24 24
22
'
22
'
22 22
'
22
2
'
22 22
,
_
+
+ +
,
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
+ +
,
_
+
+ +
c
dx
dx
dN V
dx M V dx x
dx
dM
V N b
dx x
dx
dN V
dx N
V
dx
dx
dM
V N
V
dx x M a
c
dx
dx
dM
V N OG dx
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dx
dN
OG
V
dx
dx
dN V
dx M OG dx M a
c
dx
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dx
dN V
dx M a
L
b
b e
L
b
L
b b
b
L L
b b
b e
b
e
L
b
b e L
b b
L
b
b L
b
b
L
b
b e L
b
b e
L
b
L
b
L
b
b
L
b
b e L
b
Equation 5.25
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring these terms the
''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
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After simplification (see the endterms in Section 253), the expressions for the total
hydromechanical coefficients in the coupled sway equation become:
0
0
0
26
'
22
'
22 26
'
22 2
'
22 26
24
'
22
'
24 24
'
22
'
24 24
22
'
22 22
'
22 22
+
+ +
+ +
+ +
+
+
c
dx M V dx x N b
dx N
V
dx x M a
c
dx N OG dx N b
dx M OG dx M a
c
dx N b
dx M a
L
b
L
b b
L
b
e L
b b
L
b
L
b
L
b
L
b
L
b
L
b
Equation 5.26
So no terms have been added for the ''Modified Strip Theory''.
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5.3 Hydromechanical Forces for Heave
The hydromechanical forces for heave are found by integration over the ship length of the
twodimensional values:
L
b h h
dx X X
'
3 3
Equation 5.31
The vertical motions of the water particles, relative to the cross section of an oscillating ship
in still water, are defined by:
& & &
& &
& &
&
&
&
+
+
+
V x z
V x z
x z
b h
b h
b h
2
*
3
*
3
*
3
Equation 5.32
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the twodimensional potential hydromechanical
force on a heaving cross section in still water is defined by:
{ }
*
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
'
33
*
3
*
3
'
33
*
3
'
33
'
3
2
2
h w h
b
h
h w h h h
y g
dx
dM
V N M
y g N M
Dt
D
X
+
,
_
+
+ +
& & &
& &
Equation 5.33
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' this hydromechanical force becomes:
*
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
'
33
2
'
33
*
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
'
3
2
2
h w h
b
h
b e
h w h
e
h
y g
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
y g N
i
M
Dt
D
X
,
_
,
_
+
+
'
,
_
& & &
&
Equation 5.34
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This results into the following coupled heave equation:
( )
3 35 35 35
33 33 33
31 31 31 3
w
h
X c b a
z c z b z a
x c x b x a X z
+ + +
+ + + +
+ + +
+
+
,
_
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
L
b b w
L
b
b
e
L
b
L
b b
b
L L
b b
b
e
b
e
L
b
b
e L
b b
L
b w
L
b
b
L
b
b e L
b
dx x y g c
dx
dx
dN V
dx M V dx x
dx
dM
V N b
dx x
dx
dN V
dx N
V
dx
dx
dM
N
V
dx x M a
dx y g c
dx
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dx
dN V
dx M a
c
b
a
2
2
2
0
0
0
35
'
33
2
2
'
33
'
33
'
33 35
'
33
2
'
33 2
'
33
'
33 2
'
33 35
33
'
33
'
33 33
'
33
2
'
33 33
31
31
31
Equation 5.36
The ''Modified Strip Theory Method'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring these terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
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After simplification (see the endterms in Section 253), the expressions for the total
hydromechanical coefficients in the coupled heave equation become:
+
+
+
+
L
b b w
L
b
L
b b
L
b
e L
b b
L
b w
L
b
L
b
dx x y g c
dx M V dx x N b
dx N
V
dx x M a
dx y g c
dx N b
dx M a
c
b
a
2
2
0
0
0
35
'
33
'
33 35
'
33
2
'
33 35
33
'
33 33
'
33 33
31
31
31
Equation 5.37
So no terms have been added for the ''Modified Strip Theory''.
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5.4 Hydromechanical Moments for Roll
The hydromechanical moments for roll are found by integration over the ship length of the
twodimensional values:
L
b h h
dx X X
'
4 4
Equation 5.41
The roll and lateral motions of the water particles, relative to the cross section of an oscillating
ship in still water, are defined by:
& & & &
& &
*
4
*
4
*
4
h
h
h
& &
& & & & &
& &
&
& &
&
+
+
OG V x y
OG V x y
OG x y
b h
b h
b h
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
Equation 5.42
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the twodimensional potential hydromechanical
moment on a rolling cross section in still water is defined by:
{ }
{ }
*
2
'
42
'
42
*
2
'
42
*
4
3
*
4
'
44
'
44
*
4
'
44
*
2
'
42
*
2
'
42
*
4
3
*
4
'
44
*
4
'
44
'
2
2 3
2
2 3
2
h
b
h
h
s w
h
b
h
h h
h
s w
h h h
dx
dM
V N M
bG
A y
g
dx
dM
V N M
N M
Dt
D
bG
A y
g N M
Dt
D
X
& & &
& & &
& &
& &
,
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
,
_
+ +
Equation 5.43
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' this hydromechanical moment becomes:
*
2
'
42
'
42
*
2
'
42
2
'
42
*
4
3
*
4
'
44
'
44
*
4
'
44
2
'
44
*
2
'
42
'
42
*
4
3
*
4
'
44
'
44
'
2
2 3
2
2 3
2
h
b
h
b e
h
s w
h
b
h
b e
h
e
h
s w
h
e
h
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
bG
A y
g
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
N
i
M
Dt
D
bG
A y
g N
i
M
Dt
D
X
,
_
,
_
+ +
+
,
_
,
_
,
_
'
,
_
,
_
'
,
_
Equation 5.44
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208
This results into the following coupled roll equation:
( )
( )
4 46 46 46
44 44 44
42 42 42 4
w xz
xx
h xz xx
X c b a I
c b a I
y c y b y a X I I
+ + + +
+ + + + +
+ + +
& & &
& & &
& & & & &
& &
Equation 5.45
with:
26 46
'
42
2
2
26
'
42
'
42
'
42 46
'
42
2
'
42 2
26
'
42
'
42 2
'
42 46
24
3
44
24 44
'
42
'
42
'
44
'
44 44
'
42
2
'
44
2
24
'
42
'
44 44
22 42
22
'
42
'
42 42
'
24
2
22
'
42 42
0
2
2 3
2
0
c OG c
dx
dx
dN V
b OG dx M V dx x
dx
dM
V N b
dx x
dx
dN V
dx N
V
a OG dx
dx
dM
V N
V
dx x M a
GM g
c OG dx bG
A y
g c
b OG b dx
dx
dM
V N OG dx
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dx
dN
OG
V
dx
dx
dN V
a OG dx M OG dx M a
c OG c
b OG dx
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dx
dN V
a OG dx M a
L
b
b e
L
b
L
b b
b
L L
b b
b e
b
e
L
b
b e L
b b
L
b
s w
L
V b
b L
b
b
L L
b
b e
b
b e
L
b
L
b
L
b
b
L
b
b e L
b
+
+
+
,
_
+
+ +
+
,
_
+ +
+
+
,
_
+ +
+ +
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
+ + +
+
+
,
_
+
+ + +
Equation 5.46
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring these terms the
''Ordinary Strip Theory Method'' is presented.
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209
A viscous roll damping coefficient
V
b
44
, derived for instance with the empirical method of
Ikeda [1978], has been added here.
After simplification (see the endterms in Section 253), the expressions for the total
hydromechanical coefficients in the coupled roll equation become:
0
0
46
26
'
42
'
42 46
26
'
42 2
'
42 46
44
24 44
'
42
'
44 44
24
'
42
'
44 44
24
22
'
42 42
22
'
42 42
+ +
+ + +
+
+ + + +
+ + +
+ +
+ +
c
b OG dx M V dx x N b
a OG dx N
V
dx x M a
GM g c
b OG b dx N OG dx N b
a OG dx M dx M a
c
b OG dx N b
a OG dx M a
L
b
L
b b
L
b
e L
b b
L
V b
L
b
L
b
L
b
L
b
L
b
Equation 5.47
So no terms have been added for the ''Modified Strip Theory''.
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210
5.5 Hydromechanical Moments for Pitch
The hydromechanical moments for pitch are found by integration over the ship length of the
twodimensional contributions of surge and heave into the pitch moment:
L
b h h
dx X X
'
5 5
with:
b h h h
x X bG X X
'
3
'
1
'
5
Equation 5.51
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the twodimensional potential hydromechanical
moment on a pitching cross section in still water is defined by surge and heave contributions:
*
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
'
33
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
'
5
2
h b w h b
b
h b
h
b
h h
x y g x
dx
dM
V N x M
bG
dx
dM
V N bG M X
,
_
,
_
& & &
& & &
Equation 5.52
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' this hydromechanical moment becomes:
*
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
'
33
2
'
33
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
2
'
11
'
5
2
h b w
h b
b
h b
b e
h
b
h
b e
h
x y g
x
dx
dM
V N x
dx
dN V
M
bG
dx
dM
V N bG
dx
dN V
M X
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
+
& & &
& & &
Equation 5.53
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211
This results into the following coupled pitch equation:
( )
5 55 55 55
53 53 53
51 51 51 5
w yy
h yy
X c b a I
z c z b z a
x c x b x a X I
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + +
,
_
+
+
,
_
+
+ +
,
_
+ +
+ +
,
_
,
_
+
L
b b w
L
b b
b e
L
b b
L
b b
b
V
L
b
b
L L
b b
b e
b b
e
L
b b
b e L
b b
L
b
b e L
b
L
b b w
L
b b
b
L
b b
b e L
b b
V
L
b
b
L
b
b e L
b
dx x y g c
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x M V dx x
dx
dM
V N
BG b dx bG
dx
dM
V N b
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x N
V
dx x
dx
dM
N
V
dx x M
dx bG
dx
dN V
dx bG M a
dx x y g c
dx x
dx
dM
V N b
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x M a
c
BG b dx bG
dx
dM
V N b
dx bG
dx
dN V
dx bG M a
2
55
'
33
2
2
'
33
2
'
33
'
33
2
11
2
'
11
'
11 55
2
'
33
2
'
33 2
'
33
'
33 2
2 '
33
2
'
11
2
2
'
11 55
53
'
33
'
33 53
'
33
2
'
33 53
51
11
'
11
'
11 51
'
11
2
'
11 51
2
2
2
0
+
+ +
+
,
_
+
+ + +
+ +
+
,
_
+
L
b b w
L
b
e L
b b
V
L
b
b
L
b b
e
L
b
e L
b b
e L
b b
L
b
b e L
b
L
b b w
L
b
L
b b
L
b
e L
b b
V
L
b
b
L
b
b e L
b
dx x y g c
dx N
V
dx x N
BG b dx bG
dx
dM
V N b
dx x N
V
dx M
V
dx x N
V
dx x M
dx bG
dx
dN V
dx bG M a
dx x y g c
dx M V dx x N b
dx N
V
dx x M a
c
bG b dx bG
dx
dM
V N b
dx bG
dx
dN V
dx bG M a
2
55
'
33 2
2
2 '
33
2
11
2
'
11
'
11 55
'
33 2
'
33 2
'
33 2
2 '
33
2
'
11
2
2
'
11 55
53
'
33
'
33 53
'
33 2
'
33 53
51
11
'
11
'
11 51
'
11
2
'
11 51
2
2
0
Equation 5.56
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213
5.6 Hydromechanical Moments for Yaw
The hydromechanical moments for yaw are found by integration over the ship length of the
twodimensional contributions of sway into the yaw moment:
L
b h h
dx X X
'
6 6
with:
b h h
x X X +
'
2
'
6
Equation 5.61
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the twodimensional potential hydromechanical
force on a yawing cross section in still water is defined by sway contributions:
*
4
'
24
'
24
*
4
'
24
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
'
2
h b
b
h b
h b
b
h b h
x
dx
dM
V N x M
x
dx
dM
V N x M X
& & &
& & &
,
_
+ +
,
_
+
Equation 5.62
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' this hydromechanical force becomes:
*
4
'
24
'
24
*
4
'
24
2
'
24
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
2
'
22
'
2
h b
b
h b
b e
h b
b
h b
b e
h
x
dx
dM
V N x
dx
dN V
M
x
dx
dM
V N x
dx
dN V
M X
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
+
Equation 5.63
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214
This results into the following coupled yaw equation:
( )
( )
6 66 66 66
64 64 64
62 62 62 6
w zz
zx
h zx zz
X c b a I
c b a I
y c y b y a X I I
+ + + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
& & &
& & &
& & &
& &
& &
Equation 5.64
with:
0
2
0
0
66
'
22
2
2
'
22
2
'
22
'
22 66
2
'
22
2
'
22 2
'
22
'
22 2
2 '
22 66
64
'
22
'
22
'
24
'
24 64
'
22
2
'
24
2
'
22
'
24 64
62
'
22
'
22 62
'
22
2
'
22 62
,
_
+
+ +
,
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
+ +
,
_
+
+ +
c
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x M V dx x
dx
dM
V N b
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x N
V
dx x
dx
dM
V N
V
dx x M a
c
dx x
dx
dM
V N OG dx x
dx
dM
V N b
dx x
dx
dN
OG
V
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x M OG dx x M a
c
dx x
dx
dM
V N b
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x M a
L
b b
b e
L
b b
L
b b
b
L L
b b
b e
b b
e
L
b b
b
e L
b b
L
b b
b L
b b
b
L
b b
b e L
b b
b e
L
b b
L
b b
L
b b
b
L
b b
b
e L
b b
Equation 5.65
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
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215
After simplification (see the endterms in Section 253), the expressions for the total
hydromechanical coefficients in the coupled yaw equation become:
0
0
0
66
'
22 2
2
2 '
22 66
'
22 2
'
22 2
2
'
22 2
2 '
22 66
64
'
22
'
22
'
24
'
24 64
'
22 2
'
24 2
'
22
'
24 64
62
'
22
'
22 62
'
22 2
'
22 62
+ +
+
+ + +
+ +
+ +
+
+ +
+ +
+ +
c
dx N
V
dx x N b
dx x N
V
dx M
V
dx x N
V
dx x M a
c
dx M OG V dx x N OG
dx M V dx x N b
dx N OG
V
dx N
V
dx x M OG dx x M a
c
dx M V dx x N b
dx N
V
dx x M a
L
b
e L
b b
L
b b
e
L
b
e L
b b
e L
b b
L
b
L
b b
L
b
L
b b
L
b
e L
b
e
L
b b
L
b b
L
b
L
b b
L
b
e L
b b
Equation 5.66
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216
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217
6 Exciting Wave Loads
6.1 Wave Potential
The first order wave potential in a fluid  with any arbitrary water depth h  is given by:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
b b e a
b
w
y k x k t
h k
z h k g
Equation 6.11
in an axes system with the centre of gravity in the waterline.
The velocities and accelerations in the direction j of the water particles have to be defined.
The local relative orbital velocities of the water particles in a certain direction follow from the
derivative in that direction of the wave potential. The orbital accelerations of the water
particles can be obtained from these velocities by:
{ }
' '
wj wj
Dt
D
& & &
with:
'
b
x
V
t Dt
D
for: 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 j
Equation 6.12
With this, the relative velocities and accelerations in the different directions can be found:
Surge direction:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
b b e a
b
w
b b e a
b
b
w
w
y k x k t
h k
z h k
g k
y k x k t
h k
z h k g k
x
& &
&
Equation 6.13
Sway direction:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
b b e a
b
w
b b e a
b
b
w
w
y k x k t
h k
z h k
g k
y k x k t
h k
z h k g k
y
& &
&
Equation 6.14
Heave direction:
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218
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
b b e a
b
w
b b e a
b
b
w
w
y k x k t
h k
z h k
g k
y k x k t
h k
z h k g k
z
& &
&
Equation 6.15
Roll direction:
0
0
'
4
'
3
'
2
'
4
w
b
w
b
w
w
y z
& &
& &
&
Equation 6.16
These zero solutions are obvious, because the potential fluid is free of rotation.
The pressure in the fluid follows from the linearised equation of Bernoulli:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
b
b
b
b
b
b
b b e a
b
b
dz
z
p
dy
y
p
dx
x
p
p
y k x k t
h k
z h k
g z g p
+
+
0
sin cos cos
cosh
cosh
Equation 6.17
with the following expressions for the pressure gradients:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
sin cos cos
cosh
cosh
sin cos sin
cosh
cosh
sin
sin cos sin
cosh
cosh
cos
+
+
+
+
+
+
b b e a
b
b
b b e a
b
b
b b e a
b
b
y k x k t
h k
z h k
k g g
z
p
y k x k t
h k
z h k
k g
y
p
y k x k t
h k
z h k
k g
x
p
Equation 6.18
These pressure gradients can be expressed in the orbital accelerations too:
( )
'
3
'
2
'
1
w
b
w
b
w
b
g
z
p
y
p
x
p
& &
& &
& &
+
Equation 6.19
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219
6.2 Classical Approach
First the classical approach to obtain the wave loads  according to the relative motion
principle  is given here.
6.2.1 Exciting Wave Forces for Surge
The exciting wave forces for surge on a ship are found by integration over the ship length of
the twodimensional values:
L
b w w
dx X X
'
1 1
Equation 6.21
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the exciting wave forces for surge on a restrained
cross section of a ship in waves are defined by:
{ }
'
1
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
'
1
*
1
'
11
*
1
'
11
'
1
FK w
b
w
FK w w w
X
dx
dM
V N M
X N M
Dt
D
X
+
,
_
+
+ +
& & &
& &
Equation 6.22
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' these forces become:
'
1
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
2
'
11
'
1
*
1
'
11
'
11
'
1
FK w
b
w
b e
FK w
e
w
X
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
X N
i
M
Dt
D
X
+
,
_
,
_
+
+
'
,
_
T
y
y
b b w
T
y
y
b b
b
FK
b
b
b
b
dz dy
dz dy
x
p
X
'
1
1
& &
Equation 6.24
After neglecting the second order terms, the FroudeKrilov force can be written as:
( ) ( ) cos sin cos
1
b e a ch FK
x k t g k A X
with:
( ) ( ) [ ]
[ ]
0
cosh
cosh
sin
sin sin
2
T
b b
b
b
b
ch
dz y
h k
z h k
y k
y k
A
Equation 6.25
When expanding the FroudeKrilov force in deep water with
w
y >> 2 and T >> 2
in series, it is found:
( ) ( ) cos sin cos ...
2
1
2
1
,
_
+ + +
b e a y y FK
x k t g k I k S k A X
with:
0
2
T
b b
dz y A
0
2
T
b b b y
dz z y S
0
2
2
T
b b b y
dz z y I
Equation 6.26
The acceleration term
a
g k cos in here is the amplitude of the longitudinal component
of the relative orbital acceleration in deep water at 0
b
z .
The dominating first term in this series consists of a mass and this acceleration. The mass
term A is used to obtain from the total FroudeKrilov force an equivalent longitudinal
component of the orbital acceleration of the water particles:
*
1 1 w FK
A X
& &
Equation 6.27
This holds that the equivalent longitudinal components of the orbital acceleration and velocity
are equal to the values at 0
b
z in a wave with reduced amplitude
*
1 a
:
( )
( )
cos cos
cos
cos sin cos
*
1
*
1
*
1
*
1
+
b e a w
b e a w
x k t
g k
x k t g k
&
& &
with:
a
ch
a
A
A
*
1
Equation 6.28
This equivalent acceleration and velocity will be used in the diffraction part of the wave force
for surge.
From the foregoing follows the total wave loads for surge:
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221
,
_
+ +
L
b FK
b w
L b e
L
b w
b e L
b w w
dx X
dx
dx
dM
V N
dx
dx
dN V
dx M X
'
1
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
*
1
'
11 1
&
& & & &
Equation 6.29
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
6.2.2 Exciting Wave Forces for Sway
The exciting wave forces for sway on a ship are found by integration over the ship length of
the twodimensional values:
L
b w w
dx X X
'
2 2
Equation 6.210
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the exciting wave forces for sway on a restrained
cross section of a ship in waves are defined by:
{ }
'
2
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
'
2
*
2
'
22
*
2
'
22
'
2
FK w
b
w
FK w w w
X
dx
dM
V N M
X N M
Dt
D
X
+
,
_
+
+ +
& & &
& &
Equation 6.211
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' these forces become:
'
2
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
2
'
22
'
2
*
2
'
22
'
22
'
2
FK w
b
w
b e
FK w
e
w
X
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
X N
i
M
Dt
D
X
+
,
_
,
_
+
+
'
,
_
T
y
y
b b w
T
y
y
b b
b
FK
b
b
b
b
dz dy
dz dy
y
p
X
'
2
2
& &
Equation 6.213
After neglecting the second order terms, the FroudeKrilov force can be written as:
( ) ( ) cos sin sin
2
b e a ch FK
x k t g k A X
with:
( ) ( ) [ ]
[ ]
0
cosh
cosh
sin
sin sin
2
T
b b
b
b
b
ch
dz y
h k
z h k
y k
y k
A
Equation 6.214
When expanding the FroudeKrilov force in deep water with
w
y >> 2 and T >> 2
in series, it is found:
( ) ( ) cos sin sin ...
2
1
2
2
,
_
+ + +
b e a y y FK
x k t g k I k S k A X
with:
0
2
T
b b
dz y A
0
2
T
b b b y
dz z y S
0
2
2
T
b b b y
dz z y I
Equation 6.215
The acceleration term
a
g k sin in here is the amplitude of the lateral component of the
relative orbital acceleration in deep water at 0
b
z .
The dominating first term in this series consists of a mass and this acceleration.
This mass term A is used to obtain from the total FroudeKrilov force an equivalent lateral
component of the orbital acceleration of the water particles:
*
2 2 w FK
A X
& &
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223
This holds that the equivalent lateral components of the orbital acceleration and velocity are
equal to the values at 0
b
z in a wave with reduced amplitude
*
2 a
:
( )
( )
cos cos
sin
cos sin sin
*
2
*
1
*
2
*
2
+
b e a w
b e a w
x k t
g k
x k t g k
&
& &
with:
a
ch
a
A
A
*
2
Equation 6.216
This equivalent acceleration and velocity will be used in the diffraction part of the wave force
for sway.
From the foregoing follows the total wave loads for sway:
,
_
+ +
L
b FK
b w
L b e
L
b w
b e L
b w w
dx X
dx
dx
dM
V N
dx
dx
dN V
dx M X
'
2
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
*
2
'
22 2
&
& & & &
Equation 6.217
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
6.2.3 Exciting Wave Forces for Heave
The exciting wave forces for heave on a ship are found by integration over the ship length of
the twodimensional values:
L
b w w
dx X X
'
3 3
Equation 6.218
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the exciting wave forces for heave on a restrained
cross section of a ship in waves are defined by:
{ }
'
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
'
33
'
3
*
3
'
33
*
3
'
33
'
3
FK w
b
w
FK w w w
X
dx
dM
V N M
X N M
Dt
D
X
+
,
_
+
+ +
& & &
& &
Equation 6.219
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' these forces become:
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224
'
3
*
3
'
33
'
22
*
3
'
33
2
'
33
'
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
'
3
FK w
b
w
b e
FK w
e
w
X
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
X N
i
M
Dt
D
X
+
,
_
,
_
+
+
'
,
_
T
y
y
b b w
T
y
y
b b
b
FK
b
b
b
b
dz dy g
dz dy
z
p
X
'
3
3
& &
Equation 6.221
After neglecting the second order terms, the FroudeKrilov force can be written as:
( )
( ) ( )
cos cos
sin
sin sin 2
3
,
_
b e a sh
b
b w
FK
x k t g k A
y k
y k
k
y
X
with:
( ) ( ) [ ]
[ ]
0
cosh
sinh
sin
sin sin
2
T
b b
b
b
b
sh
dz y
h k
z h k
y k
y k
A
Equation 6.222
When expanding the FroudeKrilov force in deep water with
w
y >> 2 and T >> 2
in series, it is found:
( ) ( ) cos cos ...
2
1 2
2
3
,
_
+ + + +
b e a y y
w
FK
x k t g k I k S k A
k
y
X
with:
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225
0
2
T
b b
dz y A
0
2
T
b b b y
dz z y S
0
2
2
T
b b b y
dz z y I
Equation 6.223
??????
*
3
T can be considered as the draft at which the pressure in the vertical direction is equal to the
average vertical pressure on the cross section in the fluid and can be obtained by.
???
*
3
T
This holds that the equivalent vertical components of the orbital acceleration and velocity are
equal to the values at
*
3
T z
b
:
???
When expanding the FroudeKrilov force in shallow water with 0 h k and in long waves
with ??? in series, it is found:
???
3
C
with:
???
So in shallow water,
*
3
T can be obtained by.
???
*
3
T
This holds that the equivalent vertical components of the orbital acceleration and velocity are
equal to the values at
*
3
T z
b
:
???
It may be noted that this shallow water definition for
*
3
T is valid in deep water too, because:
???
These equivalent accelerations and velocities will be used to determine the diffraction part of
the wave forces for heave.
From the foregoing follows the total wave loads for heave:
,
_
+ +
L
b FK
b w
L b e
L
b w
b e L
b w w
dx X
dx
dx
dM
V N
dx
dx
dN V
dx M X
'
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
'
33
*
3
'
33 3
&
& & & &
Equation 6.224
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
6.2.4 Exciting Wave Moments for Roll
The exciting wave moments for roll on a ship are found by integration over the ship length of
twodimensional values:
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226
L
b w w
dx X X
'
4 4
Equation 6.225
According to the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' the exciting wave moments for roll on a restrained
cross section of a ship in waves are defined by:
{ }
'
2
'
4
*
2
'
42
'
42
*
2
'
42
'
2
'
4
*
2
'
42
*
2
'
42
'
4
w FK w
b
w
w FK w w w
X OG X
dx
dM
V N M
X OG X N M
Dt
D
X
+ +
,
_
+
+ + +
& & &
& &
Equation 6.226
According to the ''Modified Strip Theory'' these moments become:
'
2
'
4
*
2
'
42
'
24
*
2
'
42
2
'
42
'
2
'
4
*
2
'
42
'
42
'
4
w FK w
b
w
b e
w FK w
e
w
X OG X
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M
X OG X N
i
M
Dt
D
X
+ +
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
'
,
_
+ +
,
_
T
y
y
b b b w b w
T
y
y
b b b
b
b
b
FK
b
b
b
b
dz dy y g z
dz dy y
z
p
z
y
p
X
'
3
'
2
4
& & & &
Equation 6.228
After neglecting the second order terms, the FroudeKrylov moment can be written as:
( ) ( ) cos sin sin
2
4
,
_
+ +
b e a zsh
ych yw
FK
x k t g k I
k
S
k
C
X
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with:
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
( )
( )
( ) [ ]
[ ]
0
3
2
0
3
2
cosh
cosh
sin
sin cos
sin
sin sin
2
cosh
cosh
sin
sin sin
2
sin
sin cos
sin
sin sin
2
T
b b
b
b
b
b
b
zsh
T
b b b
b
b
b
ych
w
b
w
w
w
yw
dz y
h k
z h k
y k
y k
y k
y k
I
dz z y
h k
z h k
y k
y k
S
y
y k
y k
y k
y k
C
Equation 6.229
For deep water, the cosinehyperbolic expressions in here reduce to exponential expressions.
From the foregoing follows the total wave loads for roll:
2
'
4
*
2
'
42
'
42
*
2
'
42
*
2
'
42 4
w
L
b FK
b w
L b e
L
b w
b e L
b w w
X OG dx X
dx
dx
dM
V N
dx
dx
dN V
dx M X
+ +
,
_
+ +
&
& & & &
Equation 6.230
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
6.2.5 Exciting Wave Moments for Pitch
The exciting wave moments for pitch are found by integration over the ship length of the two
dimensional contributions of surge and heave into the pitch moment:
L
b w w
dx X X
'
5 5
with:
b w w w
x X bG X X
'
3
'
1
'
5
Equation 6.231
In here, bG is the vertical distance of the centre of gravity of the ship G above the centroid
b of the local submerged sectional area.
From this follows the total wave loads for pitch:
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228
,
_
,
_
+
L
b b FK
b w b
L b e
L
b w b
b e L
b w b
L
b FK
b w
L b e
L
b w
b e L
b w w
dx x X
dx x
dx
dM
V N
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x M
dx bG X
dx bG
dx
dM
V N
dx bG
dx
dN V
dx bG M X
'
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
'
33
*
3
'
33
'
1
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
*
1
'
11 5
&
& & & &
&
& & & &
Equation 6.232
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
6.2.6 Exciting Wave Moments for Yaw
The exciting wave moments for yaw are found by integration over the ship length of the two
dimensional contributions of sway into the yaw moment:
L
b w w
dx X X
'
6 6
with:
b w w
x X X +
'
2
'
6
Equation 6.233
From this follows the total wave loads for yaw:
,
_
+ +
L
b b FK
b w b
L b e
L
b w b
b e L
b w b w
dx x X
dx x
dx
dM
V N
dx x
dx
dN V
dx x M X
'
2
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
'
22
*
2
'
22 6
&
& & & &
Equation 6.234
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
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229
6.3 Approximating 2D Diffraction Approach
In the classic relative motion theory, the average (or equivalent) motions of the water particles
around the cross section are calculated from the pressure distribution in the undisturbed waves
on this cross section. An alternative approach  based on diffraction of waves  to determine
the equivalent accelerations and velocities of the water particles around the cross section, as
given by Journee and van t Veer [1995], is described now.
6.3.1 Hydromechanical Loads
Suppose an infinite long cylinder in the still water surface of a fluid. The cylinder is forced to
carry out a simple harmonic oscillation about its initial position with frequency of oscillation
and small amplitude of displacement
ja
x :
( ) t x x
ja j
cos for: 4 , 3 , 2 j
Equation 6.31
The 2D hydrodynamic loads
'
hi
X in the sway, heave and roll directions i , exercised by the
fluid on a cross section of the cylinder, can be obtained from the 2D velocity potentials and
the linearised equations of Bernoulli. The velocity potentials have been obtained by using the
work of Ursell [1949] and N parameter conformal mapping. These hydrodynamic loads are:
( ) ( ) { }
j j
x ij x ij
ja
wl hi
t B t A
g
y g X
+ + +
sin cos 2
'
Equation 6.32
in where j is the mode of oscillation and i is the direction of the load. The phase lag
j
x
is
defined as the phase lag between the velocity potential of the fluid and the forced motion
j
x . The radiated damping waves have an amplitude
ja
and
wl
y is half the breadth of the
cross section at the waterline. The potential coefficients
ij
A and
ij
B and the phase lags
j
x
,
expressed in terms of conformal mapping coefficients, are given in a foregoing chapter.
These loads
'
hi
X can be expressed in terms of inphase and outphase components with the
harmonic oscillations:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } t Q B P A t P B Q A
g
x
a
X
j ij j ij j ij j ij
ja
ja
ij
hi
+ +
,
_
sin cos
0 0 0 0
2
2
'
with:
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230
j
j
x wl
ja
ja
j
x wl
ja
ja
j
wl
wl
y
g
x
Q
y
g
x
P
a
y a
a
y a
a
cos
sin
2
4
2
4
2
2
0
2
0
44
42
33
24
22
Equation 6.33
The phase lag
j
x
between he velocity potentials and the forced motion is incorporated in the
coefficients
j
P
0
and
j
Q
0
and can be obtained by using:
,
_
j
j
x
Q
P
j
0
0
arctan
Equation 6.34
This equation will be used further on for obtaining wave load phases.
Generally, these hydrodynamic loads are expressed in terms of potential mass and damping
coefficients:
( ) ( ) t x N t x M
x N x M X
ja ij ja ij
j ij j ij hi
+
sin cos
2
'
& & &
with:
4
44
3
42
2
33
3
24
2
22
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
wl
wl
wl
wl
wl
j j
oj ij oj ij
ij ij
j j
oj ij oj ij
ij ij
y b
y b
y b
y b
y b
Q P
P B Q A
b N
Q P
P B Q A
b M
+
+
+
Equation 6.35
Note that the phase lag information
j
x
is vanished here.
Tasai [1965] has used the following potential damping coupling coefficients in his formulation
of the hydrodynamic loads for roll:
'
'
44
'
42
w
l
N
N and
' '
22
'
24 w
l N N
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231
Equation 6.36
in which
'
w
l is the lever of the rolling moment.
Because
'
24
'
42
N N , one may write for the roll damping coefficient:
( ) ( )
'
22
2
'
42
'
22
2
'
24
'
44
N
N
N
N
N
Equation 6.37
This relation  which has been confirmed by numerical calculations with SEAWAY  will be
used further on for obtaining the wave loads for roll from those for sway.
6.3.2 Energy Considerations
The wave velocity,
wave
c , and the group velocity,
group
c , of regular waves are defined by:
k
c
wave
and
[ ] h k
h k c
c
wave
group
2 sinh
2
2
Equation 6.38
Consider a cross section which is harmonic oscillating with a frequency T 2 and an
amplitude
ja
x in the direction j in previously still water by an oscillatory force
'
hj
X in the
same direction j :
( )
( )
( ) ( ) t X t X
t X X
t x x
hj hja hj hja
hj hja hj
ja j
+
'
' '
sin
Equation 6.311
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232
From the second part of Equation 6.310 follows the amplitude ratio of the oscillatory
motions and the radiated waves:
'
2
1
jj
group
a
ja
N
c g x
Equation 6.312
Combining these last two equations provides for the outphase part  so the damping part  of
the oscillatory force:
'
' '
2
sin
jj group
a
hj hja
N c g
X
for: 4 , 3 , 2 j
In here,
' '
sin
hj hja
X is the inphase with the velocity part of the exciting force or moment.
6.3.3 Wave Loads
Consider now the opposite case: the cross section is restrained and is subject to regular
incoming beam waves with amplitude
a
. Let
wj
x represent the equivalent (or average)
oscillation of the water particles with respect to the restrained cross section. The resulting
wave force,
'
wj
X , is caused by these motions, which will be in phase with its velocity
(damping waves). Then the energy consumed by this oscillation is equal to the energy
supplied by the incoming waves.
( )
( )
' ;
'
cos
cos
wj wja wj
wj wja wj
t X X
t x x
+
+
for: 4 , 3 , 2 j
Equation 6.313
in which
'
wj
is the phase lag with respect to the wave surface elevation at the center of the
cross section.
This leads for the amplitude of the exciting wave force to:
'
'
2
jj group
a
wja
N c g
X
for: 4 , 3 , 2 j
Equation 6.314
which is in principle the same equation as the previous one for the outphase part of the
oscillatory force in still water.
However, for the phase lag of the wave force,
'
wj
, an approximation has to be found.
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233
Figure 6.31 Vector diagrams of wave components for sway and heave
6.3.3.1 Heave Mode
The vertical wave force on a restrained cross section in waves is:
( )
( ) ( ) t X t X
t X X
w a w w a w
w a w w
+
sin sin cos cos
cos
'
3
'
3
'
3
'
3
'
3
'
3
'
3
Equation 6.315
of which the amplitude is equal to:
'
33
'
3
2 N c g X
group a a w
Equation 6.316
For the phase lag of this wave force,
'
3 w
, an approximation has to be found.
The phase lag of a radiated wave,
'
3 wR
, at the intersection of the ship's hull with the waterline,
wl b
y y , is
wl wR
y k
'
3
. The phase lag of the wave force,
'
3 w
, has been approximated by
this phase:
wl wR w
y k
'
3
'
3
Equation 6.317
Then, the inphase and outphase parts of the wave loads are:
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234
'
3
'
33
'
3
'
3
'
32
'
3
'
33
'
3
'
3
'
31
'
3
sin 2
sin
cos 2
cos
w group a
w a w w
w group a
w a w w FK
N c g
X X
N c g
X X X
,
_
,
_
+
+ +
Equation 6.318
from which the diffraction terms,
'
31 w
X and
'
32 w
X follow.
These diffraction terms can also be written as:
'
3
'
33
'
32
'
3
'
33
'
31
v N X
a M X
w
w
Equation 6.319
in which
'
3 a and
'
3 v are the equivalent amplitudes of the acceleration and the velocity of the
water particles around the cross section.
Herewith, the equivalent acceleration and velocity amplitudes of the water particles are:
'
33
'
32
'
3
'
33
'
31
'
3
N
X
v
M
X
a
w
w
Equation 6.320
6.3.3.2 Sway Mode
The horizontal wave force on a restrained cross section in beam waves is:
( )
( ) ( ) t X t X
t X X
w a w w a w
w a w w
+
sin sin cos cos
cos
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
Equation 6.321
of which the amplitude is equal to:
'
22
'
2
2 N c g X
group a a w
Equation 6.322
For the phase lag of this wave force,
'
2 w
, an approximation has to be found.
The phase lag of an incoming undisturbed wave,
'
2 wI
, at the intersection of the ship's hull
with the waterline,
wl b
y y , is:
+ <
'
2
'
2
'
2
: then 0 sin if
sin
wI wI
wl wI
y k
Equation 6.323
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235
In very short waves  so at high wave frequencies  the ship's hull behaves like a
vertical wall and all waves will be diffracted. Then, the phase lag of the wave force,
'
2 w
, is
equal to:
( )
'
2
'
2 wI w
Equation 6.324
The acceleration and velocity amplitudes of the water particles in the undisturbed surface of
the incoming waves are:
( )
( )
sin
sin
'
2
surface water still
'
2
surface water still
'
2
g k a
v
g k a
Equation 6.325
In very long waves  so at low wave frequencies 0  the wave force is dominated by the
FroudeKrylov force and the amplitudes of the water particle motions do not change very
much over the draft of the section. Apparently, the phase lag of the wave force,
'
2 w
, can be
approximated by:
( )
( )
'
,
_
sin
sin
arctan 0
'
22
'
22
'
2
'
2
g k
N
g k M X
FK
w
Equation 6.326
When plotted against , the two curves ( ) 0
'
2
w
and ( )
'
2 w
will intersect each
other. The phase lag of the wave force,
'
2 w
, can now be approximated by the lowest of these
two values:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 : then 0 if
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
>
w w w w
w w
Equation 6.327
Because ( )
'
2 w
goes to zero in the low frequency region and ( ) 0
'
2
w
can have
values between 0 and 2 , one simple precaution has to be taken:
( ) ( ) ( ) > 2 0 : then 2 0 if
'
2
'
2
'
2 w w w
Equation 6.328
Now the inphase and outphase terms of the wave force in beam waves are:
'
2
'
22
'
2
'
2
'
22
'
2
'
22
'
2
'
2
'
21
'
2
cos 2
sin
sin 2
sin
w group a
w a w w
w group a
w a w w FK
N c g
X X
N c g
X X X
,
_
+
+
,
_
+
Equation 6.329
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236
from which the diffraction terms,
'
21 w
X and
'
22 w
X follow.
These terms can also be written as:
'
2
'
22
'
22
'
2
'
22
'
21
v N X
a M X
w
w
Equation 6.330
in which
'
2 a and
'
2 v are the equivalent amplitudes of the acceleration and the velocity of the
water particles around the cross section.
Then  when using an approximation for the influence of the wave direction  the equivalent
acceleration and velocity amplitudes of the water particles are:
sin
sin
'
22
'
22
'
2
'
22
'
21
'
2
N
X
v
M
X
a
w
w
Equation 6.331
6.3.3.3 Roll Mode
The fluid is free of rotation; so the wave moment for roll consists of sway contributions only.
However, the equivalent amplitudes of the acceleration and the velocity of the water particles
will differ from those of sway.
From a study on potential coefficients, the following relation between sway and roll damping
coefficients has been found:
( ) ( )
'
22
2
'
42
'
22
2
'
24
'
44
N
N
N
N
N
The horizontal wave moment on a restrained cross section in beam waves is:
( )
'
4
'
4
'
4
cos
w a w w
t X X +
Equation 6.332
of which the amplitude is equal to:
( )
'
22
'
24
'
2
'
22
'
24
'
22
'
22
2
'
24
'
44
'
4
2
2
2
N
N
X
N
N
N c g
N
N
c g
N c g X
a w
group a
group a
group a a w
Equation 6.333
The inphase and outphase parts of the wave moment in beam waves are:
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237
( )
'
22
'
24
'
22
'
42
'
22
'
24
'
21
'
2
'
41
'
4
N
N
X X
N
N
X X X X
w w
w FK w FK
+ +
Equation 6.334
from which the diffraction terms,
'
41 w
X and
'
42 w
X follow.
These terms can also be written as:
'
24
'
24
'
42
'
24
'
24
'
41
v N X
a M X
w
w
Equation 6.335
in which
'
24 a and
'
24 v are the equivalent amplitudes of the acceleration and the velocity of the
water particles around the cross section.
Then  when using an approximation for the influence of the wave direction  the equivalent
acceleration and velocity amplitudes of the water particles are:
sin
sin
'
24
'
42
'
24
'
24
'
41
'
24
N
X
v
M
X
a
w
w
Equation 6.336
6.3.3.4 Surge Mode
The equivalent acceleration and velocity amplitudes of the water particles around the cross
section for surge have been found from:
'
1 '
1
'
2 '
1
tan
a
v
a
a
Equation 6.337
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6.4 Numerical Comparisons
Figure 6.41 and Figure 6.42 give a comparison between these sway, heave and roll wave
loads on a crude oil carrier in oblique waves  obtained by the classic approach and the simple
diffraction approach, respectively  with the 3D zero speed ship motions program DELFRAC
of Pinkster; see Dimitrieva [1017].
Figure 6.41: Comparison of classic wave loads with DELFRAC data
Figure 6.42: Comparison of simple diffraction wave loads with DELFRAC data
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239
7 Transfer Functions of Motions
After dividing the left and right hand terms by the wave amplitude
a
, two sets of six coupled
equations of motion are available.
The 6 variables in the coupled equations for the vertical plane motions are:
a
a
y
a
a
z
a
a
a
a
a
a
The associated phase shifts of these motions relative to the wave elevation are:
The transfer functions of the translations are nondimensional. The transfer functions of the
rotations can be made nondimensional by dividing the amplitude of the rotations by the
amplitude of the wave slope
a
k in lieu of the wave amplitude
a
:
a
a
x
a
a
y
a
a
z
a
a
k
a
a
k
a
a
k
Some examples of calculated transfer functions of a crude oil carrier and a containership are
given in Figure 7.11, Figure 7.12 and Figure 7.13.
720
630
540
450
360
270
180
90
0
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
= 90
0
= 180
0
Wave Frequency (rad/s)
P
h
a
s
e
z
(
d
e
g
)
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
Crude Oil Carrier
V = 0 k n
Heave
= 90
0
= 180
0
W ave Frequency (rad/ s)
R
A
O
H
e
a
v
e
(

)
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0 0.25 0. 50 0.75 1. 00
Crude Oil Carrier
V = 0 kn
Pit ch
= 90
0
= 180
0
Wave Frequency (rad/s )
R
A
O
P
i
t
c
h
(

)
720
630
540
450
360
270
180
90
0
0 0.25 0. 50 0.75 1. 00
= 90
0
= 180
0
Wave Frequency (rad/s)
P
h
a
s
e
Figure 7.11: Heave and Pitch Motions of a Crude Oil Carrier, V = 0 kn
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0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
Crude Oil Carrier
V = 16 kn
Heave
= 90
0
= 180
0
W ave Frequency (rad/ s)
R
A
O
H
e
a
v
e
(

)
720
630
540
450
360
270
180
90
0
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
= 90
0
= 180
0
Wave Frequency (rad/s)
P
h
a
s
e
z
(
d
e
g
)
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0 0.25 0. 50 0.75 1. 00
Crude Oil Carrier
V = 16 kn
Pit ch
= 90
0
= 180
0
Wave Frequency (rad/s )
R
A
O
P
i
t
c
h
(

)
720
630
540
450
360
270
180
90
0
0 0.25 0. 50 0.75 1. 00
= 90
0
= 180
0
Wave Frequency (rad/s)
P
h
a
s
e
Figure 7.12: Heave and Pitch Motions of a Crude Oil Carrier, V = 16 kn
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
0 0.2 0.4 0. 6 0. 8 1.0
RAO of pit ch
Head waves
Containership
L
pp
= 175 metre
V = 0 knots
V = 10 knots
V = 20 knot s
wave frequency (rad/s)
N
o
n

d
i
m
.
R
A
O
o
f
p
i
t
c
h
(

)
0
5
10
15
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1. 0
RAO of roll
Beam waves
Cont ainership
L
pp
= 175 metre
V = 20 knots
V = 10 knots
V = 0 knot s
wave f requency (rad/s)
N
o
n

d
i
m
.
R
A
O
o
f
r
o
ll
(

)
Figure 7.13: Roll and Pitch Motions of a Containership
Notice the different speed effects on the motions in these figures.
For motions with a spring term in the equation of motion, three frequency regions can be
distinguished:
the low frequency region ( ( ) a m c + <<
2
), with motions dominated by the restoring
spring term,
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242
the natural frequency region ( ( ) a m c +
2
), with motions dominated by the damping
term and
the high frequency region ( a c >>
2
), with motions dominated by the mass term.
An example for heave motions is given in Figure 7.14.
Figure 7.14: Frequency Regions and Motional Behaviour
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243
7.2 Local Absolute Displacements
Consider a point ( )
b b b
z y x P , , on the ship in the ( )
b b b
z y x G , , shipbound axes system. The
harmonic displacements in the shipbound
b
x ,
b
y and
b
z directions  or in the earth bound x ,
y and z directions  in any point ( )
b b b
z y x P , , on the ship can be obtained from the six centre
of gravity motions as presented below.
The harmonic longitudinal displacement is given by:
( )
P
x e Pa
b b P
t x
z y x x
+
+
cos
The harmonic lateral displacement is given by:
( )
P
y e Pa
b b P
t y
z x y y
+
+
cos
The harmonic vertical displacement is given by:
( )
P
z e Pa
b b P
t z
y x z z
+
cos
With the six motions of the centre of gravity, the harmonic motions of any point ( )
b b b
z y x P , ,
on the ship in the shipbound
b
x ,
b
y and
b
z directions  or in the earth bound system in x , y
and z directions  can be calculated by using the previous equations.
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7.3 Local Absolute Velocities
The harmonic velocities in the shipbound
b
x ,
b
y and
b
z directions  or in the earth bound x ,
y and z directions  in any point ( )
b b b
z y x P , , on the ship can be obtained by taking the
derivative of the three harmonic displacements.
The harmonic longitudinal velocity is given by:
( )
( )
( )
P
P
P
x e Pa
x e Pa e
x e Pa e
b b P
t x
t x
t x
z y x x
&
&
&
& & &
+
+
+
+
cos
2 cos
sin
The harmonic lateral velocity is given by:
( )
( )
( )
P
P
P
y e Pa
y e Pa e
y e Pa e
b b P
t y
t y
t y
z x y y
&
&
&
& & &
+
+
+
+
cos
2 cos
sin
The harmonic vertical velocity is given by:
( )
( )
( )
P
P
P
z e Pa
z e Pa e
z e Pa e
b b P
t z
t z
t z
y x z z
&
&
& &
& &
+
+
+
cos
2 cos
sin
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7.4 Local Absolute Accelerations
In the earthbound axes system, the harmonic accelerations on the ship are obtained by taking
the second derivative of the displacements. In the shipbound axes system, a component of the
acceleration of gravity has to be added to the accelerations in the horizontal plane direction.
7.4.1 Accelerations in the EarthBound Axes System
In the earthbound axes system, ( ) z y x O , , , the harmonic accelerations in a point ( )
b b b
z y x P , ,
on the ship in the x , y and z directions can be obtained by taking the second derivative of
the three harmonic displacements.
Thus:
Longitudinal acceleration:
( )
( )
( )
P
P
P
x e Pa
x e Pa e
x e Pa e
b b P
t x
t x
t x
z y x x
& &
& &
& &
& & & & & &
+
+
+
+
cos
cos
cos
2
2
Lateral acceleration:
( )
( )
( )
P
P
P
y e Pa
y e Pa e
y e Pa e
b b P
t y
t y
t y
z x y y
& &
& &
& &
& & & & & &
+
+
+
+
cos
cos
cos
2
Vertical acceleration:
( )
( )
( )
P
P
P
z e Pa
z e Pa e
z e Pa e
b b P
t z
t z
t z
y x z z
& &
& &
& & & &
& & & &
+
+
+
cos
cos
cos
2
2
7.4.2 Accelerations in the ShipBound Axes System
In the shipbound axes system, ( )
b b b
z y x G , , , a component of the acceleration of gravity g
has to be added to the accelerations in the longitudinal and lateral direction in the earthbound
axes system. The vertical acceleration does not change.
These accelerations are the accelerations that will be ''felt'' by for instance the cargo or sea
fastenings on the ship.
Thus:
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Longitudinal acceleration:
( ) ( )
( )
P
P
x e Pa
e a x e Pa e
b b P
t x
t g t x
g z y x x
& &
& &
& &
& & & & & &
+
+ +
+
cos
cos cos
2
Lateral acceleration:
( ) ( )
( )
P
P
y e Pa
e a y e Pa e
b b P
t y
t g t y
g z x y y
& &
& &
& &
& & & & & &
+
+ + +
+ +
cos
cos cos
2
Vertical acceleration:
( )
( )
P
P
z e Pa
z e Pa e
b b P
t z
t z
y x z z
& &
& &
& & & &
& & & &
+
+
cos
cos
2
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7.5 Local Vertical Relative Displacements
The harmonic vertical relative displacement with respect to the wave surface of a point
( )
b b b
z y x P , , connected to the ship can be obtained too:
( )
P
s e Pa
b b P P
t s
y x z s
+
+ +
cos
with:
( ) sin cos cos
b b e a P
y k x k t
It may be noted that the sign of the relative motion is chosen here in such a way that a positive
relative displacement implies a decrease of the freeboard.
An oscillating ship will produce waves and these phenomena will change the relative motion.
A dynamical swell up should be taken into account, which is not included in the previous
formulation.
Notice the different behaviours of the absolute and relative vertical motions, as given in
Figure 7.51.
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 0. 5 1 .0 1 . 5
RA O t e nd s
t o 0 . 0
RA O te nd s
t o 1 . 0
Co nt a ine rsh ip
He ad wave s
V = 20 kno ts
V = 10 kno t s
V = 0 kn ot s
wa ve f re qu en cy (ra d/ s)
R
A
O
o
f
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
a
b
s
o
l
u
t
e
b
o
w
m
o
t
i
o
n
s
(
m
/
m
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 0 . 5 1. 0 1 .5
RA O t e nd s
to 1 .0
R AO t en d s
t o 0. 0
Con t ai ne rsh ip
Hea d w ave s
V = 0 kn ot s
V = 1 0 kn ot s
V = 2 0 kn o ts
wa ve f re q ue ncy (r ad / s)
R
A
O
o
f
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
b
o
w
m
o
t
i
o
n
s
(
m
/
m
)
Figure 7.51: Absolute and Relative Vertical Motions at the Bow
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7.6 Local Vertical Relative Velocities
The harmonic vertical relative velocity with respect to the wave surface of a certain point
( )
b b b
z y x P , , , connected to the ship, can be obtained by:
{ }
( )
P
s e Pa
b b P
b b P P
t s
y V x z
y x z
Dt
D
s
&
&
& &
&
&
&
+
+ +
+ +
cos
in which for the vertical velocity of the water surface itself:
( ) sin cos sin
b b e a P
y k x k t
&
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8 AntiRolling Devices
Since the disappearance of sails on oceangoing ships, with their stabilising wind effect on the
rolling motions, naval architects have been concerned in reducing the rolling of ships among
waves. With bilge keels they performed a first successful attack on the problem of rolling, but
in several cases these bilge keels did not prove to be sufficient. Since 1880, numerous other
more or less successful ideas have been tested and used.
Four types of antirolling devices and its contribution to the equations of motion are described
here:
bilge keels
passive freesurface tanks
active fin stabilisers
active rudder stabilisers.
The active fin and rudder stabilisers are not built into the program SEAWAY yet.
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8.1 Bilge Keels
Bilge keels can deliver an important contribution to an increase the damping of the rolling
motions of ships. A reliable method to determine this contribution is given by Ikeda, Himeno
and Tanaka [1978], as described before.
Ikeda divides the twodimensional quadratic bilge keel roll damping into a component due to
the normal force on the bilge keels and a component due to the pressure on the hull surface,
created by the bilge keels.
The normal force component of the bilge keel damping has been deduced from experimental
results of oscillating flat plates. The drag coefficient
D
C depends on the period parameter or
the KeuleganCarpenter number. Ikeda measured the quadratic twodimensional drag by
carrying out free rolling experiments with an ellipsoid with and without bilge keels.
Assuming a pressure distribution on the hull caused by the bilge keels, a quadratic two
dimensional roll damping can be defined. Ikeda carried out experiments to measure the
pressure on the hull surface created by bilge keels. He found that the coefficient
+
p
C of the
pressure on the front face of the bilge keel does not depend on the period parameter, while the
coefficient
p
C of the pressure on the back face of the bilge keel and the length of the
negative pressure region depend on the period parameter. Ikeda defines an equivalent length
of a constant negative pressure region
0
S over the height of the bilge keels and a two
dimensional rolldamping component can be found.
The total bilge keel damping has been obtained by integrating these two twodimensional roll
damping components over the length of the bilge keels.
Experiments of Ikeda showed that the effect of forward speed on the roll damping due to the
bilge keels could be ignored.
The equivalent linear total bilge keel damping has been obtained by linearising the result, as
has been shown in a separate Chapter.
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8.2 Passive FreeSurface Tanks
The roll damping, caused by a passive freesurface tank, is essentially based on the existence
of a hydraulic jump or bore in the tank. Verhagen and van Wijngaarden [1965] give a
theoretical approach to determine the counteracting moments by freesurface antirolling
tanks. Van den Bosch and Vughts [1966] give extended quantitative information on these
moments.
8.2.1 Theoretical Approach
When a tank that contains a fluid with a free surface is forced to carry out roll oscillations,
resonance frequencies can be obtained with high wave amplitudes at lower water depths.
Under these circumstances a hydraulic jump or bore is formed, which travels periodically
back and forth between the walls of the tank. This hydraulic jump can be a strongly nonlinear
phenomenon. A theory, based on gasdynamics for the shock wave in a gas flow under similar
resonance circumstances, as given by Verhagen and van Wijngaarden [1965], has been
adapted and used to describe the motions of the fluid. For low and high frequencies and the
frequencies near to the natural frequency, different approaches have been used.
Observe a rectangular tank with a length l and a breadth b , which has been filled until a
water level h with a fluid with a mass density . The distance of the tank bottom above the
centre of gravity of the vessel is s . Figure 8.21 shows a 2D sketch of this tank with the axis
system and notations.
Figure 8.21: Axes System and Notations of an Oscillating Tank
The natural frequency of the surface waves in a harmonic rolling tank appears as the wave
length in the tank equals twice the breadth b , so: b 2
0
.
With the wave number and the dispersion relation:
2
k and [ ] h k g k tanh
it follows for the natural frequency of surface waves in the tank:
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252
1
]
1
b
h
b
g
tanh
0
Verhagen and van Wijngaarden [1965] have investigated the shallow water wave loads in a
rolling rectangular container, with the centre of rotation at the bottom of the container. Their
expressions for the internal wave loads are rewritten and modified to be useful for any
arbitrary vertical position of the centre of rotation by Journe [1997]. For low and high
frequencies and the frequencies close to the natural frequency, different approaches have been
used. A calculation routine has been made to connect these regions.
8.2.1.1 Low and High Frequencies
The harmonic roll motion of the tank is defined by:
( ) t
a
sin
In the axissystem of Figure 8.21 and after linearisation, the vertical displacement of the tank
bottom is described by:
+ y s z
and the surface elevation of the fluid is described by:
+ + h s z
Relative to the bottom of the tank, the linearised surface elevation of the fluid is described by:
+ y h
Using the shallow water theory, the continuity and momentum equations are:
0
0
+
g
y
g
y
v
v
t
v
y
v
y
v
t
In these formulations, $v$ denotes the velocity of the fluid in the y direction and the vertical
pressure distribution is assumed to be hydrostatic. Therefore, the acceleration in the z 
direction, introduced by the excitation, must be small with respect to the acceleration of
gravity g , so:
g b
a
<<
2
The boundary conditions for v have been determined by the velocity produced in the
horizontal direction by the excitation. Between the surface of the fluid and the bottom of the
tank, the velocity of the fluid v varies between
s
v and [ ] h k v
s
cosh with a mean velocity:
( ) h k v
s
. However, in very shallow water v does not vary between the bottom and the
surface. When taking the value at the surface, it is required that:
( )
&
+ h s v at:
2
b
y t
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For small values of
a
, the continuity equation and the momentum equation can be given in a
linearised form:
0
0
+
g
y
g
t
v
y
h
t
The solution of the surface elevation in these equations, satisfying the boundary values for
v , is:
( )
,
_
,
_
,
_
+
+
0
0
2
0
sin
2
cos
1
b
y g
h s
b
h
Now, the roll moment follows from the quasistatic moment of the mass of the frozen liquid
h b l and an integration of over the breadth of the tank:
,
_
+
2
2
2
b
b
dy y l g
h
s h b l g M
This delivers the roll moment amplitude for low and high frequencies at small water depths:
( )
a
a a
g
h s
b l g
h
s h b l g M
'
,
_
1
]
1
,
_
'
+
+
+
,
_
+
2
0
0
3
0
2
3
2
tanh 2 1
2
For very low frequencies, so for the limit value 0 , this will result into the static moment:
a
b h
s h b l g M
'
+
,
_
+
12 2
3
The phase lags between the roll moments and the roll motions have not been obtained here.
However, they can be set to zero for low frequencies and to for high frequencies:
M
M
0
for:
0
0
>>
<<
8.2.1.2 Natural Frequency Region
For frequencies near to the natural frequency
0
, the expression for the surface elevation of
the fluid goes to infinity. Experiments showed the appearance of a hydraulic jump or a bore
at these frequencies. Obviously, then the linearised equations are not valid anymore.
Verhagen and van Wijngaarden [1965] solved the problem by using the approach in gas
dynamics, when a column of gas has been oscillated at small amplitude, e.g. by a piston. At
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254
frequencies near to the natural frequency at small water depths, they found a roll moment
amplitude, defined by:
( )
,
_
,
_
a
a
a
g
b
b
h b l
g M
32
1
3
2 4
12
2
0
2
4
3
The phase shifs between the roll moment and the roll motion at small water depths are given
by:
+
2
2
M
M
for:
0
0
>>
<<
with:
( )
( )
( )
'
'
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
3 96
arcsin
24
arcsin 2
b g
b
g
b
a
a
Because that the arguments of the square roots in the expression for
M
have to be positive,
the limits for the frequency are at least:
2 0 2 0
24 24
+ < <
b
g
b
g
a a
8.2.1.3 Comparison with Experimental Data
An example of the results of this theory with experimental data of an oscillating freesurface
tank by Verhagen and van Wijngaarden [1965] is given in Figure 8.22.
Figure 8.22: Comparison between Theoretical and Experimental Data
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The roll moments have been calculated here for low and high frequencies and for frequencies
near to the natural frequency of the tank. A calculation routine connects these three regions.
8.2.2 Experimental Approach
Van den Bosch and Vugts [1966] have described the physical behaviour of passive free
surface tanks, used as an antirolling device. Extended quantitative information on the
counteracting moments, caused by the water transfer in the tank, has been provided.
With their symbols, the roll motions and the exciting moments of an oscillating rectangular
freesurface tank, are defined by:
( )
( )
t ta t
a
t K K
t
+
cos
cos
and the dimensions of the rectangular freesurface tank are given by:
l length of the tank
b breadth of the tank
s distance of tank bottom above rotation point
h water depth in the tank at rest
*
In this frequency range, van den Bosch and Vugts have presented extended experimental data
of:
3 *
b l g
K
ta
a
and
t
for:
a
0.0333, 0.0667 and 0.1000 radians
b s 0.40, 0.20, 0.00 and +0.20
b h 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10
An example of a part of these experimental data has been shown for 40 . 0 b s and
1000 . 0
a
radians in Figure 8.23, taken from the report of van den Bosch and Vugts
[1966].
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Figure 8.23: Experimental Data on AntiRolling FreeSurface Tanks
When using these experimental data, the external roll moment due to an, with a frequency ,
oscillating free surface tank can be written as:
+ +
4 4 4
c b a K
t
& & &
with:
t
a
ta
t
a
ta
K
c
K
b
a
cos
sin
0
4
4
4
It is obvious that for an antirolling freesurface tank, built into a ship, it holds:
a a
and
e
So it can be written:
( )
( )
t ta t
a
t K K
t
+ +
+
cos
cos
Then, an additional moment has to be added to the righthand side of the equations of motion
for roll:
+ +
tank 44 tank 44 tank 44 tank 4
c b a X
& & &
with:
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t
a
ta
t
a
ta
K
c
K
b
a
cos
sin
0
tank 44
tank 44
tank 44
+ t
a
cos
The exciting forces and moments, caused by an oscillating fin pair are given by:
+ +
+ +
+ +
6 6 6 fin 6
4 4 4 fin 4
2 2 2 fin 2
c b a X
c b a X
c b a X
& & &
& & &
& & &
with:
( )
( )
( )
c x c
b x b
a x a
c z y b
b z y b
a z y a
c c
b b
a a
b
b
b
b b
b b
b b
+ +
+ +
+ +
sin 2
sin 2
sin 2
sin cos 2
sin cos 2
sin cos 2
sin 2
sin 2
sin 2
fin 6
fin 6
fin 6
fin fin 4
fin fin 4
fin fin 4
2
2
2
and:
( )
( ) k C
C
A V c
k C
C
c
A V b
c
s a
fin
L
fin
fin
L
fin
fin
fin
fin
,
_
'
,
_
,
_
2
3
2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
In here:
angle of port fin
fin
L
C
,
_
reduced frequency
fin
A projected fin area
fin
s span of fin
fin
c mean chord of fin
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fin b
x
b
x coordinate of the centroid of fin forces
fin b
y
b
y coordinate of the centroid of fin forces
fin b
z
b
z coordinate of the centroid of fin forces
The nominal lift curve slope of a fin profile in a uniform flow is approximated by:
( )
( )
0 . 4
cos
cos 80 . 1
80 . 1
4
2
+
E
E L
AR
AR C
with:
sweep angle of fin profile
( )
E
AR effective aspect ratio of fin profile
Of normal fins, the sweep angle of the fin profile is zero, so 0 or 1 cos .
The fin acts in the boundary layer of the ship, which will reduce the lift. This effect is
translated into a reduced lift curve slope of the fin.
The velocity distribution in the hull boundary layer is estimated by the following two
equations:
( )
BL
V V with:
BL
<
2 . 0
377 . 0
x fin BL
R x with:
x V
R
x
in which:
( ) V flow velocity inside boundary layer
V forward ship speed
normal distance from hull
BL
thickness of boundary layer
fin
x distance aft of forward perpendicular of fin
x
R local Reynolds number
kinematic density of fluid
The kinematic viscosity of seawater can be found from the water temperature T in degrees
centigrade by:
2
6
000221 . 0 0336 . 0 0 . 1
78 . 1
10
T T + +
m
2
/s
It is assumed here that the total lift of the fin can be found from:
( ) ( )
fin Lfin
s
L
A V C d c V C
fin
2
0
2
2
1
2
1
where ( ) c is the chord at spanwise location .
For rectangular fins, this is simply an assumption of a uniform loading.
Because:
( ) ( )
fin
tfin rfin rfin
s
c c c c
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in which:
rfin
c root chord of fin
tfin
c tip chord of fin
2
tfin rfin
fin
c c
c
+
mean chord of fin
the correction to the lift curve slope is:
,
_
,
_
fin
BL
tfin rfin
BL
fin
rfin
BL
s
c c
s c
c
E
fin
8
1
2 9
2
1
2
Then the corrected lift curve slope of the fin is:
( )
( ) 0 . 4 80 . 1
80 . 1
2
+ +
,
_
fin E
fin E
BL
fin
L
AR
AR
E
C
Generally a fin is mounted close to the hull, so the effective aspect ratio is about twice the
geometric aspect ratio:
( ) ( )
fin
fin
fin fin E
c
s
AR AR 2 2
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261
8.4 Active Rudder Stabilisers
To determine the effect of rudder stabilisers on ship motions, use has been made of reports
published by Lloyd [1989] and Schmitke [1978].
The oscillatory rudder angle is given by:
( )
+ t
e a
cos
with is positive in a counterclockwise rotation of the rudder.
So, a positive results in a positive side force, a positive roll moment and a negative yaw
moment.
The exciting forces and moments, caused by this oscillating rudder are given by:
+ +
+ +
+ +
6 6 6 rud 6
4 4 4 rud 4
2 2 2 rud 2
c b a X
c b a X
c b a X
& & &
& & &
& & &
with:
c x c
b x b
a x a
c z b
b z b
a z a
c c
b b
a a
b
b
b
b
b
b
+
+
+
+
+
+
rud 6
rud 6
rud 6
rud 4
rud 4
rud 4
2
2
2
and:
( )
( ) k C
C
A V c
k C
C c
A V b
c
s a
rud
L
rud
rud
L rud
rud
rud
rud
,
_
'
,
_
,
_
2
3
2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
In here:
V V
rud
125 . 1 equivalent flow velocity at rudder
rud
L
C
,
_
rud E
rud E
rud
L
AR
AR C
Generally a rudder is not mounted close to the hull, so the effective aspect ratio is equal to the
geometric aspect ratio:
( ) ( )
rud
rud
rud rud E
c
s
AR AR
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9 External Linear Springs
Suppose a linear spring connected to point P on the ship, see Figure 8.41.
Figure 8.41: Coordinate System of Springs
The harmonic longitudinal, lateral and vertical displacements of a certain point P on the ship
are given by:
( )
( )
( )
+
+
+
p p
p p
p p
y x z P z
z x y P y
z y x P x
The linear spring coefficients in the three directions in a certain point P are defined by
( )
pz py px
C C C , , . The units of these coefficients are N/m or kN/m.
9.1 External Loads
The external forces and moments, caused by these linear springs, acting on the ship are given
by:
( )
( )
( )
p s p s s
p s p s s
p s p s s
p p pz s
p p py s
p p px s
x X y X X
x X z X X
y X z X X
y x z C X
z x y C X
z y x C X
+
+
+
+
+
+
2 1 6
3 1 5
3 2 4
3
2
1
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9.2 Additional Coefficients
After a change of sign, this results into the following coefficients
ij
c , which have to be
added to the restoring spring coefficients
ij
c of the hydromechanical loads in the lefthand
side of the equations of motions:
Surge:
p px
p px
px
y C c
z C c
c
c
c
C c
+
+
16
15
14
13
12
11
0
0
0
Sway:
p py
p py
py
x C c
c
z C c
c
C c
c
+
+
26
25
24
23
22
21
0
0
0
Heave:
0
0
0
36
35
34
33
32
31
+
+
c
x C c
y C c
C c
c
c
p pz
p pz
pz
Roll:
p p py
p p pz
p pz p py
p pz
p py
z x C c
y x C c
y C z C c
y C c
z C c
c
+ +
+
46
45
2 2
44
43
42
41
0
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Pitch:
p p px
p pz p px
p p pz
p pz
p px
z y C c
x C z C c
y x C c
x C c
c
z C c
+ +
+
56
2 2
55
54
53
52
51
0
Yaw:
2 2
66
65
64
63
62
61
0
p py p px
p p px
p p py
p py
p px
x C y C c
z y C c
z x C c
c
x C c
y C c
+ +
+
It is obvious that in case of several springs, a linear superposition of the coefficients can be
used.
When using linear springs, generally 12 sets of coupled equations with the in and out of phase
terms of the motions have to be solved. Because of these springs, the surge, heave and pitch
motions will be coupled then with the sway, roll and yaw motions.
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9.3 Linearised Mooring Coefficients
Figure Figure 9.31 shows an example of results of static catenary line calculations, see for
instance Korkut and Hebert [1970], for an anchored platform.
Figure 9.31: Horizontal Forces on a Floating Structure as Function of Surge Displacements
Figure 9.31a shows the platform anchored by two anchor lines of chain at 100 m water
depth. Figure 9.31b shows the horizontal forces at the suspension points of both anchor
lines as a function of the horizontal displacement of the platform. Finally, Figure 9.31c
shows the relation between the total horizontal force on the platform and its horizontal
displacement.
This figure shows clearly the nonlinear relation between the horizontal force on the platform
and its horizontal displacement.
A linearised spring coefficient, to be used in frequency domain computations, can be obtained
from Figure 9.31c by determining an average restoring spring coefficient,
px
C , in the surge
displacement region:
'
nt Displaceme
Force Total
MEAN C
px
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10 Added Resistance due to Waves
A ship moving forward in a wave field will generate ''two sets of waves'': waves associated
with forward speed through still water and waves associated with its vertical relative motion
response to waves. Since both wave patterns dissipate energy, it is logical to conclude that a
ship moving through still water will dissipate less energy than one moving through waves.
The extra waveinduced loss of energy can be treated as an added propulsion resistance.
Figure 9.31 shows the resistance in regular waves as a function of the time: a constant part
due the calm water resistance and an oscillating part due to the motions of the ship, relative to
the incoming regular waves. The timeaveraged part of the increase of resistance is called: the
added resistance due to waves,
aw
R .
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 10 20 30
Resist ance
Sti l l wat er resistance R
SW
+
Mean added resi stance R
AW
Sti l l wat er resistance R
SW
T ime (s)
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
(
k
N
)
Figure 9.31: Increase of Resistance in Regular Waves
Two theoretical methods have been used for the estimation of the timeaveraged added
resistance of a ship due to the waves and the resulting ship motions:
a radiated wave energy method, as introduced by Gerritsma and Beukelman [1972],
suitable for head to beam waves.
an integrated pressure method, as introduced by Boese [1970], suitable for all wave
directions.
Because of the added resistance of a ship due to the waves is proportional to the relative
motions squared, its inaccuracy will be gained strongly by inaccuracies in the predicted
motions.
The transfer function of the mean added resistance is presented as:
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2
"
a
aw
aw
R
R
In a nondimensional way the transfer function of the mean added resistance is presented as:
L B g
R
R
a
aw
aw
2 2
"
in which:
L lengt h between perpendiculars
B maximum breadth of the waterline
Both methods will be described here.
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10.1 Radiated Energy Method
The wave energy  radiated during one period of oscillation of a ship in regular waves  has
been defined by Gerritsma and Beukelman [1972] as:
e
T
L
b z
dt dx V b P
0
2
* '
33
in which:
'
33
b hydrodynamic damping coefficient of the vertical motion of the cross section
*
z
V vertical average velocity of the water particles, relative to the cross sections
e
T period of vertical oscillation of the cross section
The speed dependent hydrodynamic damping coefficient for the vertical motion of a cross
section is defined here as showed before:
b
dx
dM
V N b
'
33
'
33
'
33
The harmonic vertical relative velocity of a point on the ship with respect to the water
particles is defined by:
( )
( )
& &
&
&
&
+ +
+
b b w
b b w z
y V x z
y x z
Dt
D
V
'
3
'
3
For a cross section of the ship, an equivalent harmonic vertical relative velocity has to be
found, defined here by:
( )
( )
*
cos
*
*
3
*
z
V
e za
b w z
t V
V x z V
+
+
&
&
&
With this the radiated energy during one period of oscillation is given by:
,
_
L
b za
b e
dx V
dx
dM
V N P
2
*
'
33
'
33
To maintain a constant forward ship speed, this energy should be delivered by the ship's
propulsion plant. A mean added resistance
aw
R has to be gained.
The energy delivered to the surrounding water is given by:
cos
2
cos
,
_
k
R
T
c
V R P
aw
e aw
From this the transfer function of the mean added resistance according to Gerritsma and
Beukelman can be found:
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,
_
,
_
L
b
a
za
b e a
aw
dx
V
dx
dM
V N
k R
2
* '
33
'
33 2
2
cos
Equation 10.11
This method gives good results in head to beam waves. However, in following waves this
method could fail.
When the wave speed in following waves approaches the ship speed the frequency of
encounter in the denominator tends to zero, 0
e
. At these low frequencies, the potential
sectional mass is very high and the potential sectional damping is almost zero. The damping
multiplied with the relative velocity squared in the nominator does not tend to zero, as fast as
the frequency of encounter. This is caused by the presence of a natural frequency for heave
and pitch at this low
e
, so a high motion peak can be expected. This results into an extreme
positive or negative added resistance.
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10.2 Integrated Pressure Method
Boese [1970] calculates the added resistance by integrating the longitudinal components of
the oscillating pressures on the wetted surface of the hull. A second small contribution of the
longitudinal component of the vertical hydrodynamic and wave forces has been added.
The wave elevation is given by:
( ) sin cos cos
b b e a
y k x k t
The pressure in the undisturbed waves is given by:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
sin cos cos
cosh
cosh
cosh
cosh
+
+
+
+
b b e a
b
b
y k x k t
h k
z h k
g z g
h k
z h k
g z g p
The horizontal force on an oscillating cross section is given by:
( )
( )
[ ]
( )
,
_
+
+ +
+
x s
x s
z D
b b
z D
h k
z D
g
dz p t x f
x s
tanh 2
,
2
2
with:
b x
x z z .
As the mean added resistance during one period will be calculated, the constant term and the
first harmonic term can be ignored. So:
( )
( )
[ ]
,
_
+
+
h k
z z
g t x f
x x
b
tanh 2
,
2 2
*
,
_
+
+
h k
s z
g t x f
x
b
tanh 2
,
2
2
*
,
_
+ +
h k
x k s
z g
dt t x f x f
a
s b a
a
xa a
T
b b
e
tanh
cos cos 2
1
2
,
2
2 2
0
* *
The added resistance due to this force is:
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( )
( )
[ ]
b
b
w
L a
s b a
a
xa a
b
L b
w
b aw
dx
dx
dy
h k
x k s
z g
dx
dx
dy
x f R
,
_
,
_
,
_
tanh
cos cos 2
1
2
2
2
2 2
*
1
where
w
y is the still water line.
For deep water, this part of the mean added resistance reduces to:
L
b
b
w
a aw
dx
dx
dy
s
g
R
2
1
2
0
0
2
1
1
& &
For this second contribution can be written:
( )
z a a e aw
z R cos
2
1
2
2
So the transfer function of the total mean added resistance according to Boese is given by:
( )
[ ]
( )
,
_
,
_
z a a e
b
b
w
L a
s b a
a
xa
a
aw
z
dx
dx
dy
h k
x k s z
g
R
cos
2
1
tanh
cos cos 2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
Equation 10.21
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10.3 Comparison of Results
Figure 10.31 shows an example of a comparison between computed and experimental data.
Figure 10.31: Added Resistance of the S175 Containership Design
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11 Bending and Torsion Moments
The axes system (of which the hydrodynamic sign convention differs from that commonly
used in structural engineering) and the internal load definitions are given in Figure 10.31.
Figure 10.31: Axis System and Internal Load Definitions
To obtain the vertical and lateral shear forces and bending moments and the torsion moments
the following information over a length
m
L on the solid mass distribution of the ship
including its cargo is required:
( )
b
x m
'
distribution over the ship length of the solid mass of the ship per unit
length, see Figure 10.32
( )
b m
x z
'
distribution over the ship length of the vertical
b
z values of the centre
of gravity of the solid mass of the ship per unit length
( )
b xx
x k
'
distribution over the ship length of the radius of inertia of the solid
mass of the ship per unit length, about a horizontal longitudinal axis
through the centre of gravity
Figure 10.32: Distribution of Solid Mass
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The input values for the calculation of shear forces and bending and torsion moments are
often more or less inaccurate. Mostly small adaptations are necessary, for instance to avoid a
remaining calculated bending moment at the forward end of the ship.
The total mass of the ship is found by an integration of the mass per unit length:
( )
m
L
b b
dx x m m
'
It is obvious that this integrated mass should be equal to the mass of displacement, calculated
from the underwater hull form:
m
Both terms will be calculated from independently derived data, so small deviations are
possible. A proportional correction of the masses per unit length ( )
b
x m
'
can be used, see
Figure 10.33.
Then ( )
b
x m
'
will be replaced by:
( )
m
x m
b
'
Figure 10.33: Mass Correction for Buoyancy
The longitudinal position of the centre of gravity is found from the distribution of the mass
per unit length:
( )
m
L
b b b G
dx x x m
m
x
'
1
An equal longitudinal position of the ship's centre of buoyancy
B
x is required, so:
B G
x x
Again, because of independently derived data, a small deviation is possible.
Then, for instance, ( )
b
x m
'
can be replaced by ( ) ( )
b b
x c x m +
'
, with:
( ) ( ) 0
1
A b b
x x c x c for: 4 0
m A b
L x x < <
( ) ( ) 2
1 m A b b
L x x c x c + for: 4 3 4
m A b m
L x x L < <
( ) ( )
m A b b
L x x c x c
1
for:
m A b m
L x x L < < 4 3
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with:
( )
3 1
32
m
G B
L
x x
c
In here:
A
x
b
x coordinate of hindmost part of mass distribution
m
L total length of mass distribution
Figure 10.34: Mass Correction for Cent re of Buoyancy
For relative slender bodies, the longitudinal radius of inertia of the mass can be found from
the distribution of the mass per unit length:
( )
m
L
b b b yy
dx x x m
m
k
2 ' 2
1
It can be desirable to change the mass distribution in such a way that a certain required
longitudinal radius of inertia ( ) new k
yy
or ( ) new k
zz
will be achieved, without changing the
total mass or the position of its centre of gravity.
Then, for instance, ( )
b
x m
'
can be replaced by ( ) ( )
b b
x c x m +
'
, see Figure 10.35, with:
( ) ( ) 0
2
+
A b b
x x c x c for: 8 0
m A b
L x x < <
( ) ( ) 8 2
2 m A b b
L x x c x c for: 8 3 8
m A b m
L x x L < <
( ) ( ) 8 4
2 m A b b
L x x c x c + for: 8 4 8 3
m A b m
L x x L < <
( ) ( ) 8 4
2 m A b b
L x x c x c for: 8 5 8 4
m A b m
L x x L < <
( ) ( ) 8 6
2 m A b b
L x x c x c + for: 8 7 8 5
m A b m
L x x L < <
( ) ( )
m A b b
L x x c x c
2
for:
m A b m
L x x L < < 8 7
with:
( ) ( ) { }
3
2 2
2
9
3204
m
yy yy
L
old k new k
c
In here:
A
x
b
x coordinate of hindmost part of mass distribution
m
L total length of mass distribution
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278
Figure 10.35: Mass Correction for Radius of Inertia
The position in height of the centre of gravity is found from the distribution of the heights of
the centre of gravity of the masses per unit length:
( ) ( )
m
L
b b m b G
dx x z x m
m
z
' '
1
It is obvious that this value should be zero. If not so, this value has to be subtracted from
( )
b m
x z
'
.
So, ( )
b m
x z
'
will be replaced by ( )
G b m
z x z
'
.
The transverse radius of inertia
xx
k is found from the distribution of the radii of inertia of the
masses per unit length:
( )
m
L
b xx b yy
dx k x m
m
k
2
' ' 2
1
If this value of
xx
k differs from a required value ( ) new k
xx
of the radius of inertia, a
proportional correction of the longitudinal distribution of the radii of inertia can be used:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) old k
new k
old x k new x k
xx
xx
b xx b xx '
'
' '
, ,
Consider a section of the ship with a length
b
dx to calculate the shear forces and the bending
and the torsion moments.
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279
Figure 10.36: Loads on a Cross Section
When a load ( )
b
x q loads the disk, this implies for the disk:
( ) ( )
b b b
x dQ dx x q so:
( )
( )
b
b
b
x q
dx
x dQ
( ) ( )
b b b
x dM dx x Q + so:
( )
( )
b
b
b
x Q
dx
x dM
+
in which:
( )
b
x Q shear force
( )
b
x M bending moment
The shear force and the bending moment in a cross section
1
x follows from an integration of
the loads from the hindmost part of the ship
0
x to this cross section
1
x :
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
b
x
x
x
x
b
b
b
x
x
b b
x
x
b
b
b
dx dx
dx
x dQ
dx x Q x M
dx
dx
x dQ
x Q
b
,
_
1
0 0
1
0
1
0
1
1
So, the shear force ( )
1
x Q and the bending moment ( )
1
x M in a cross section can be expressed
in the load ( )
b
x q by the following integrals:
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280
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+
+
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1 1
1
x
x
b b
x
x
b b b
x
x
b b b
x
x
b b
dx x q x dx x x q
dx x x x q x M
dx x q x Q
For the torsion moment an approach similar to the approach for the shear force can be used.
The load ( )
b
x q consists of solid mass and hydromechanical terms. The ordinates of these
terms will differ generally, so numerical integrations of these two terms have to be carried out
separately.
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281
11.1 Still Water Loads
Consider the forces acting on a section of the ship with a length
b
dx .
Figure 11.11: Still Water Loads on a Cross Section
According to Newton's second law of dynamics, the vertical forces on the unfastened disk of a
ship in still water are given by:
( ) ( ) ( )
b b sw b
dx x q g dx m
3
'
with:
g m g A q
s sw
'
3
So, the vertical shear force ( )
1 3
x Q
sw
and the bending moment ( )
1 5
x Q
sw
in still water in a cross
section can be obtained from the vertical load ( )
1 3
x q
sw
by the following integrals:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
+
1
0
1
0
1
0
3 1 3 1 5
3 1 3
x
x
b b sw
x
x
b b b sw sw
x
x
b b sw sw
dx x q x dx x x q x Q
dx x q x Q
For obtaining the dynamic parts of the vertical shear forces and the vertical bending moments
in regular waves, reference is given to Fukuda [1962]. For the lateral mode and the roll mode
a similar procedure can be followed. This will be showed in the following Sections.
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282
11.2 Dynamical Lateral Loads
Consider the forces acting on a section of the ship with a length
b
dx .
Figure 11.21: Lateral Loads on a Cross Section in Waves
According to Newton's second law of dynamics, the harmonic lateral dynamic load per unit
length on the unfastened disk is given by:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) + + +
+ +
g z x y x m A g
x X x X x q
m b b s
b w b h b
& &
& & & &
' '
'
2
'
2 2
The sectional hydromechanical loads for sway are given by:
'
26
'
26
'
26
'
24
'
24
'
24
'
22
'
22
'
22
'
2
c b a
c b a
y c y b y a X
h
& & &
& & &
& & &
with:
0
2
0
0
'
26
'
22
2
2
'
22
'
22
'
22
'
26
'
22
2
'
22 2
'
22
'
22 2
'
22
'
26
'
24
'
22
'
22
'
24
'
24
'
24
'
22
2
'
24
2
'
22
'
24
'
24
'
22
'
22
'
22
'
22
'
22
2
'
22
'
22
,
_
+
+ +
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
+ + + +
+
+ +
c
dx
dN V
M V x
dx
dM
V N b
x
dx
dN V
N
V
dx
dM
V N
V
x M a
c
dx
dM
V N OG
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dN
OG
V
dx
dN V
M OG M a
c
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dN V
M a
b e
b
b
b
b e e b e
b
b b
b e b e
b
b e
,
_
+ +
&
& & & &
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
Then the harmonic lateral shear forces ( )
1 2
x Q and the bending moments ( )
1 6
x Q in waves in
cross section
1
x can be obtained from the horizontal load ( )
b
x q
2
by the following integrals:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+
+
+
1
0
1
0
6
1
0
2
2 1 2
6 1 6
2
2 1 2
cos
cos
x
x
b b
x
x
b b b
Q e a
x
x
b b
Q e a
dx x q x dx x x q
t Q x Q
dx x q
t Q x Q
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284
11.3 Dynamical Vertical Loads
Consider the forces acting on a section of the ship with a length
b
dx .
Figure 11.31: Vertical Loads on a Cross Section in Waves
According to Newton's second law of dynamics, the harmonic longitudinal and vertical
dynamic loads per unit length on the unfastened disk are given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
& &
& &
& &
& &
+ +
+ +
b b b w b h b
b b w b h b
x z x m x X x X x q
bG x x m x X x X x q
' '
3
'
3 3
' '
1
'
1 1
The sectional hydromechanical loads for surge are given by:
'
15
'
15
'
15
'
13
'
13
'
13
'
11
'
11
'
11
'
1
c b a
z c z b z a
x c x b x a X
h
& & &
& & &
& & &
with:
0
0
0
0
0
'
15
11
'
11
'
11
'
15
'
11
2
'
11
'
15
'
13
'
13
'
13
'
11
11
'
11
'
11
'
11
'
11
2
'
11
'
11
,
_
+ +
+ +
c
bG b bG
dx
dM
V N b
bG
dx
dN V
bG M a
c
b
a
c
b
dx
dM
N b
dx
dN V
M a
V
b
b e
V
b
b e
,
_
,
_
+
+
+ +
2
2
2
0
0
0
'
35
'
33
2
2
'
33
'
33
'
33
'
35
'
33
2
'
33 2
'
33
'
33 2
'
33
'
35
'
33
'
33
'
33
'
33
'
33
2
'
33
'
33
'
31
'
31
'
31
The sectional wave loads for surge and heave are given by:
'
1
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
'
11
*
1
'
11
'
1
FK
w
b e
w
b e
w w
X
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M X
+
,
_
+ +
&
& & & &
'
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
'
33
*
3
'
33
'
3
FK
w
b e
w
b e
w w
X
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M X
+
,
_
+ +
&
& & & &
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
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286
Then the harmonic vertical shear forces ( )
1 3
x Q and the bending moments ( )
1 5
x Q in waves in
cross section
1
x can be obtained from the longitudinal and vertical load ( )
b
x q
1
and ( )
b
x q
3
by
the following integrals:
Figure 11.32 shows a comparison between measured and calculated distributions of the
vertical wave bending moment amplitudes over the length of the ship.
Figure 11.32: Distribution of Vertical Bending Moment Amplitudes
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287
11.4 Dynamical Torsion Loads
Consider the forces acting on a section of the ship with a length
b
dx .
Figure 11.41: Torsion Loads on a Cross Section in Waves
According to Newton's second law of dynamics, the harmonic torsion dynamic load per unit
length on the unfastened disk about a longitudinal axis at a distance
1
z above the ship's centre
of gravity is given by:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }
( )
b
b m xx b
b w b h b
x q z
g x y z k x m
x X x X z x q
2 1
'
2
' '
'
4
'
4 1 4
,
+
+ +
+ +
& & & &
& &
The sectional hydromechanical load for roll is given by:
'
46
'
46
'
46
'
44
'
44
'
44
'
42
'
42
'
42
'
4
c b a
c b a
y c y b y a X
h
& & &
& & &
& & &
with:
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288
'
26
'
46
'
42
2
2
'
26
'
42
'
42
'
42
'
46
'
42
2
'
42
2
'
26
'
42
'
42
2
'
42
'
46
3
'
44
'
24
'
44
'
42
'
42
'
44
'
44
'
44
'
42
2
'
44
2
'
24
'
42
'
44
'
44
'
24
'
22
'
42
'
42
'
42
'
24
2
'
22
'
42
'
42
2
2 3
2
0
c OG c
dx
dN V
b OG M V x
dx
dM
V N b
x
dx
dN V
N
V
a OG
dx
dM
V N
V
x M a
bG
A y
g c
b OG b
dx
dM
V N OG
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dN
OG
V
dx
dN V
a OG M OG M a
c
b OG
dx
dM
V N b
dx
dN V
a OG M a
b e
b
b
b
b e e b e
b
s w
V
b b
b e b e
b
b e
+
+ +
,
_
+
+ + +
,
_
+ +
,
_
+ +
+ +
,
_
+ +
+ + + + +
+ +
+ + +
In here, bG is the vertical distance of the centre of gravity of the ship G above the centroid
b of the local submerged sectional area.
The sectional wave load for roll is given by:
'
2
'
4
*
2
'
42
'
42
*
2
'
42
*
2
'
42
'
4
w FK
w
b e
w
b e
w w
X OG X
dx
dM
V N
dx
dN V
M X
+ +
,
_
+ +
&
& & & &
The ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring the outlined terms
the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
Then the harmonic torsion moments ( )
1 1 4
, z x Q in waves in cross section
1
x at a distance
1
z
above the centre of gravity can be obtained from the torsion load ( )
1 4
, z x q
b
by the following
integral:
( ) ( )
( )
b
x
x
b
Q e a
dx z x q
t Q z x Q
+
1
0
4
1 4
4 1 1 4
,
cos ,
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12 Statistics in Irregular Waves
To compare the calculated behaviour of different ship designs or to get an impression of the
behaviour of a specific ship design in a seaway, standard representations of the wave energy
distributions are necessary.
Three wellknown types of normalised wave energy spectra are described here:
the Neumann wave spectrum, a somewhat wide wave spectrum, which is sometimes used
for open sea areas
the Bretschneider wave spectrum, an average wave spectrum, frequently used in open sea
areas
the Mean JONSWAP wave spectrum, a narrow wave spectrum, frequently used in North
Sea areas.
The mathematical formulations of these normalised unidirectional wave energy spectra are
based on two parameters:
the significant wave height
3 / 1
H
the average wave period
1
T , based on the centroid of the spectral area curve.
To obtain the average zerocrossing period
2
T or the spectral peak period
p
T , a fixed relation
with
1
T can be used nottruncated spectra.
From these wave energy spectra and the transfer functions of the responses, the response
energy spectra can be obtained.
Generally the frequency ranges of the energy spectra of the waves and the responses of the
ship on these waves are not very wide. Then the Rayleigh distribution can be used to obtain a
probability density function of the maximum and minimum values of the waves and the
responses. With this function, the probabilities on exceeding threshold values by the ship
motions can be calculated.
Bow slamming phenomena are defined by a relative bow velocity criterion and a peak bottom
impact pressure criterion.
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290
12.1 Normalised Wave Energy Spectra
Three mathematical definitions with two parameters of normalized spectra of irregular uni
directional waves have been described:
the Neumann wave spectrum, a somewhat wide spectrum
the Bretschneider wave spectrum, an average spectrum
the mean JONSWAP wave spectrum, a narrow spectrum
A comparison of the Neumann, the Bretschneider and the mean JONSWAP wave spectra is
given here for a sea state with a significant wave height of 4 meters and an average wave
period of 8 seconds.
Figure 12.11: Comparison of Three Spectral Formulations
12.1.1 Neumann Wave Spectrum
In some cases in literature the Neumann definition of a wave spectrum for open sea areas is
used:
( )
'
2
2
1
6
5
1
2
3 / 1
8 . 69
exp
3832
T T
H
S
12.1.2 Bretschneider Wave Spectrum
A very well known twoparameter wave spectrum of open seas is defined by Bretschneider as:
( )
'
4
2
1
5
4
1
2
3 / 1
2 . 691
exp
8 . 172
T T
H
S
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Another name of this wave spectrum is the Modified TwoParameter PiersonMoskowitz
Wave Spectrum.
This formulation is accepted by the 2nd International Ship Structures Congress in 1967 and
the 12th International Towing Tank Conference in 1969 as a standard for seakeeping
calculations and model experiments. This is reason why this spectrum is also called I.S.S.C.
or I.T.T.C. Wave Spectrum.
The original OneParameter PiersonMoskowitz Wave Spectrum for fully developed seas can
be obtained from this definition by using a fixed relation between the significant wave height
and the average wave period in this Bretschneider definition:
3 / 1 1
861 . 3 H T .
12.1.3 Mean JONSWAP Wave Spectrum
In 1968 and 1969 an extensive wave measurement program, known as the Joint North Sea
Wave Project (JONSWAP) was carried out along a line extending over 100 miles into the
North Sea from Sylt Island. From analysis of the measured spectra, a spectral formulation of
wind generated seas with a fetch limitation was found.
The following definition of a Mean JONSWAP wave spectrum is advised by the 15th ITTC in
1978 for fetch limited situations:
( )
B
A
T T
H
S
'
4
2
1
5
4
1
2
3 / 1
2 . 691
exp
8 . 172
with:
658 . 0 A
'
,
_
2
2
0 . 1
exp
p
B
3 . 3 (peakedness factor)
p
p
T
2
(circular frequency at spectral peak)
a step function of : if
p
< then: 07 . 0
if
p
> then: 09 . 0
The JONSWAP expression is equal to the Bretschneider definition multiplied by the
frequency function
B
A .
Sometimes, a third free parameter is introduced in the JONSWAP wave spectrum by varying
the peakedness factor .
12.1.4 Definition of Parameters
The n
th
order spectral moments of the wave spectrum, defined as a function of the circular
wave frequency , are:
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( )
0
d S m
n
n
The breadth of a wave spectrum is defined by:
4 0
2
2
1
m m
m
The significant wave height is defined by:
0 3 / 1
4 m H
The several definitions of the average wave period are:
p
T peak or modal wave period, corresponding to peak of spectral
curve
1
0
1
2
m
m
T average wave period, corresponding to centroid of spectral
curve
2
0
2
2
m
m
T average zerocrossing wave period, corresponding to radius of
inertia of spectral curve
For nottruncated mathematically defined spectra, the theoretical relations between the periods
are tabled below:
p
p
p
T T T
T T T
T T T
2 1
2 1
2 1
407 . 1 296 . 1
711 . 0 921 . 0
772 . 0 086 . 1
for Bretschneider wave spectra
p
p
p
T T T
T T T
T T T
2 1
2 1
2 1
287 . 1 199 . 1
777 . 0 932 . 0
834 . 0 073 . 1
for JONSWAP wave spectra
Truncation of wave spectra during numerical calculations can cause differences between input
and calculated wave periods. Generally, the wave heights will not differ much.
In Figure 12.12 and Table 12.11  for ''Open Ocean Areas'' and ''North Sea Areas''  an
indication is given of a possible average relation between the scale of Beaufort or the wind
velocity at 19.5 meters above the sea level and the significant wave height
3 / 1
H and the
average wave periods
1
T or
2
T .
Notice that these data are an indication only. A generally applicable fixed relation between
wave heights and wave periods does not exist.
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Figure 12.12: Wave Spectra Parameter Indications
Table 12.11: Wave Spectra Parameter Indications
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Other open ocean definitions for the North Atlantic and the North Pacific, obtained from
Bales [1983] and adopted by the 17th ITTC (1984), are given in Table 12.12. The modal or
central periods in these tables correspond with the peak period
p
T . For nottruncated spectra,
the relations with
1
T and
2
T are defined before.
Table 12.12: Sea State Parameters
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12.2 Response Spectra and Statistics
The energy spectrum of the responses ( ) t r of a sailing ship in the irregular waves follows
from the transfer function of the response and the wave energy spectrum by:
( ) ( )
S
r
S
a
a
r
,
_
2
or ( ) ( )
e
a
a
e r
S
r
S
,
_
2
This has been visualized for a heave motion in Figure 12.21and Figure 12.22.
Figure 12.21: Principle of Transfer of Waves into Responses
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0
0 .5
1 .0
1 .5
2 .0
0 0. 5 1. 0 1. 5 2. 0
Con t ain ersh ip
L = 1 75 m et re
H ea d wave s
V = 2 0 kn ot s
Tran sf er
fu nct io n
he ave
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 0. 5 1. 0 1. 5 2. 0
W ave
sp ect rum
H
1/3
= 5. 00 m
T
2
= 8 .0 0 s
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 0. 5 1. 0 1 .5 2 .0
W ave
spe ctru m
H
1/3
= 5 .0 0 m
T
2
= 8. 00 s
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
w
a
v
e
(
m
2
s
)
0
0. 5
1. 0
1. 5
2. 0
0 0. 5 1. 0 1 .5 2 .0
C ont a ine rshi p
L = 17 5 me t re
H ead wave s
V = 20 kno ts
Tra nsf er
f un cti on
h eave
T
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
h
e
a
v
e
(
m
/
m
)
0
2
4
6
8
0 0. 5 1. 0 1 .5 2 .0
He ave
sp ect ru m
z
a
1 /3
= 1. 92 m
T
z
2
= 7. 74 s
wa ve f re qu en cy (ra d/ s)
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
h
e
a
v
e
(
m
2
s
)
0
2
4
6
8
0 0. 5 1 . 0 1. 5 2 . 0
z
a
1/3
= 1 . 92 m
T
z
2
= 7 . 74 s
fr eq ue ncy of en cou nt er ( rad / s)
Figure 12.22: Heave Spectra in the Wave and Encounter Frequency Domain
The moments of the response spectrum are given by:
( )
0
e
n
e e r nr
d S m with: ,... 2 , 1 , 0 n
From the spectral density function of a response the significant amplitude can be calculated.
The significant amplitude is defined to be the mean value of the highest onethird part of the
highest wave heights, so:
r a
m r
0 3 / 1
2
A mean period can be found from the centroid of the spectrum by:
r
r
r
m
m
T
1
0
1
2
Another definition, which is equivalent to the average zerocrossing period, is found from the
spectral radius of inertia by:
r
r
r
m
m
T
2
0
2
2
The probability density function of the maximum and minimum values, in case of a spectrum
with a frequency range that is not too wide, is given by the Rayleigh distribution:
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( )
'
r
a
r
a
a
m
r
m
r
r f
0
2
0
2
exp
This implies that the probability of exceeding a threshold value a by the response amplitude
a
r becomes:
{ }
'
'
>
r
a
a r
a
r
a
a
m
a
dr
m
r
m
r
a r P
0
2
0
2
0
2
exp
2
exp
The number of times per hour that this happens follows from:
{ } a r P
T
N
a
r
hour
>
2
3600
The spectral value of the waves ( )
e
S
, based on
e
, is not equal to the spectral value
( )
d d
S
S
e
e
The relation between the frequency of encounter and the wave frequency, of which an
example is illustrated in Figure 12.23, is given by:
cos V k
e
Figure 12.23: Example of Relation Between
e
and
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298
From the relation between
e
and follows:
dk d
V
d
d
e
cos
0 . 1
The derivative dk d follows from the relation between and k :
[ ] h k g k tanh
So:
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] h k g k
h k h
g k
h k g
dk
d
tanh 2
cosh
tanh
2
S
r
S
a
a
r
,
_
2
If ( )
e r
S has to be known, for instance for a comparison of the calculated response spectra
with measured response spectra, these values can be obtained from this ( )
r
S and the
derivative d d
e
. So an integration of ( )
e r
S over
e
has to be avoided.
Because of the linearities, the calculated significant values can be presented by:
3 / 1
3 / 1
H
r
a
versus
1
T or
2
T
with:
3 / 1
H significant wave height
2 1
,T T average wave periods
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The mean added resistance in a seaway follows from:
( )
d S
R
R
a
aw
AW
0
2
2
Because of the linearities of the motions, the calculated mean added resistance values can be
presented by:
2
3 / 1
H
R
AW
versus
1
T or
2
T
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12.3 Shipping Green Water
The effective dynamic freeboard will differ from the results obtained from the geometric
freeboard at zero forward speed in still water and the calculated vertical relative motions of a
sailing ship in waves.
When sailing in still water, sinkage, trim and the ship's wave system will effect the local
geometric freeboard. A static swell up should be taken into account.
An empirical formula, based on model experiments, for the static swell up at the forward
perpendicular is given by Tasaki [1963]:
2
75 . 0 Fn
L
L
B f f
E
e
with:
e
f effective freeboard at the forward perpendicular
f geometric freeboard at the forward perpendicular
L length of the ship
B breadth of the ship
E
L length of entrance of the waterline
Fn Froude number
An oscillating ship will produce waves and these dynamic phenomena will influence the
amplitude of the relative motion. A dynamic swell up should be taken into account.
Tasaki [1963] carried out forced oscillation tests with ship models in still water and obtained
an empirical formula for the dynamic swellup at the forward perpendicular in head waves:
g
L C
s
s
e B
a
a
2
3
45 . 0
with the restrictions:
block coefficient: 80 . 0 60 . 0 < <
B
C
Froude number: 29 . 0 16 . 0 < < Fn
In this formula
a
s is the amplitude of the relative motion at the forward perpendicular as
obtained in head waves, calculated from the heave, the pitch and the wave motions.
Then the actual amplitude of the relative motions becomes:
a a a
s s s +
*
Then, shipping green water is defined by:
e a
f s >
*
at the forward perpendicular
The spectral density of the vertical relative motion at the forward perpendicular is given by:
( ) ( )
S
s
S
a
a
s
,
_
2
*
*
The spectral moments are given by:
( )
0
* *
d S m
n
e
s ns
with: ,... 2 , 1 , 0 n
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When using the Rayleigh distribution the probability of shipping green water is given by:
{ }
'
>
*
0
2
*
2
exp
s
e
e a
m
f
f s P
The average zerocrossing period of the relative motion is found from the spectral radius of
inertia by:
*
*
*
2
0
2
2
s
s
s
m
m
T
The number of times per hour that green water will be shipped follows from:
{ }
e a
s
hour
f s P
T
N >
*
2
*
3600
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12.4 Bow Slamming
Slamming is a twonode vibration of the ship caused by suddenly pushing the ship by the
waves. A complete prediction of slamming phenomena is a complex task, which is beyond the
scope of any existing theory.
Slamming impact pressures are affected by the local hull section shape, the relative velocity
between ship and waves at impact, the relative angle between the keel and the water surface,
the local flexibility of the ship's bottom plating and the overall flexibility of the ship's
structure.
12.4.1 Criterium of Ochi
Ochi [1964] translated slamming phenomena into requirements for the vertical relative
motions of the ship.
He defined slamming by:
an emergence of the bow of the ship at 10 percentile of the length aft of the forward
perpendiculars
an exceeding of a certain critical value at the instance of impact by the vertical relative
velocity, without forward speed effect, between the wave surface and the bow of the ship
Ochi defines the vertical relative displacement and velocity of the water particles with respect
to the keel point of the ship by:
&
&
&
& +
+
b x
b x
x z s
x z s
b
b
with:
( )
( )
cos sin
cos cos
b e a e x
b e a x
x k t
x k t
b
b
&
So a forward speed effect ( V term) is not included in this vertical relative velocity. The
spectral moments of the vertical relative displacements and velocities are defined by
s
m
0
and
s
m
& 0
.
Emergence of the bow of the ship happens when the vertical relative displacement amplitude
a
s at L 90 . 0 is larger than the ship's draft
s
D at this location.
The probability of emergence of the bow follows from:
{ }
'
>
s
s
s a
m
D
D s P
0
2
2
exp
The second requirement states that the vertical relative velocity exceeds a threshold value.
According to Ochi, 12 feet per second can be taken as a threshold value for a ship with a
length of 520 feet.
Scaling results into:
L g s
cr
0928 . 0 &
The probability of exceeding this threshold value is:
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303
{ }
'
>
s
cr
cr a
m
s
s s P
&
&
& &
0
2
2
exp
Both occurrences, emergence of the bow and exceeding the threshold velocity, are statistically
independent. In case of slamming both occurrences have to appear at the same time.
So the probability on a slam is the product of the both independent probabilities:
{ } { } { }
'
> >
s
cr
s
s
cr a s a
m
s
m
D
s s P D s P slam P
&
&
& &
0
2
0
2
2 2
exp
12.4.2 Criterium of Conolly
Conolly [1974] translated slamming phenomena into requirements for the peak impact
pressure of the ship.
He defined slamming by:
an emergence of the bow of the ship
an exceeding of a certain critical value by the peak impact pressure at this location.
The peak impact pressure is defined by:
2
2
1
cr p
s C p &
The coefficient
p
C has been taken from experimental data of slamming drop tests with
wedges and cones, as given in literature.
Some of these data, as for instance presented by Lloyd [1989] as a function of the deadrise
angle , are illustrated in Figure 12.41.
Figure 12.41: Peak Impact Pressure Coefficients
An equivalent deadrise angle is defined here by the determination of an equivalent wedge.
The contour of the cross section inside 10 percentile of the half breadth 2 B of the ship has
been used to define an equivalent wedge with a half breadth: 2 10 . 0 B b .
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The accessory draught t of the wedge follows from the section contour. In the fore body of
the ship, this draught can be larger than 10 percentile of the amidships draught T . If so, the
section contour below T 10 . 0 has been used to define an equivalent wedge: T t 10 . 0 . If
this draught is larger than the local draught, the local draught has been used.
The accessory half breadth b of the wedge follows from the section contour.
Figure 12.42: Definition of an Equivalent Wedge
Then the sectional area
s
A below local draught t has to be calculated.
Now the equivalent deadrise angle follows from:
,
_
b
a
arctan 2 0
( )
b
A t b
a
s
2
Critical peak impact pressures
cr
p have been taken from Conolly [1974]. He gives measured
impact pressures at a ship with a length of 112 meter over 30 per cent of the ship length from
forward. From this, a lower limit of
cr
p has been assumed. This lower limit is presented in
Figure 12.43.
Figure 12.43: Measured Impact Pressures of a 112 Meter Ship
These values have to be scaled to the actual ship size. Bow emergence and exceeding of this
limit is supposed to cause slamming.
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This approach can be translated into local hullshapedepending threshold values of the
vertical relative velocity too:
p
cr
cr
C
p
s
2
&
The vertical relative velocity, including a forward speed effect, of the water particles with
respect to the keel point of the ship is defined by:
{ }
+
+
V x z
x z
Dt
D
s
b x
b x
b
b
&
&
&
&
with:
( )
( )
cos sin
cos cos
b e a e x
b e a x
x k t
x k t
b
b
&
Then:
{ }
'
s
cr
s
s
m
s
m
D
slam P
&
&
0
2
0
2
2 2
exp
Notice that, because of including the forward speed effect, the spectral moment of the
velocities does not follow from the spectral density of the relative displacement as showed in
the definition of Ochi.
The average period of the relative displacement is found by:
s
s
s
s
s
m
m
m
m
T
& 0
0
2
0
2
2 2
Then the number of times per hour that a slam will occur follows from:
{ } slam P
T
N
s
hour
2
3600
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307
13 TwinHull Ships
When not taking into account the interaction effects between the two individual hulls, the
wave loads and motions of twinhull ships can be calculated easily. Each individual hull has to
be symmetric with respect to its centre plane. The distance between the two centre planes of
the single hulls (
T
y 2 ) should be constant. The coordinate system for the equations of
motion of a twinhull ship is given in Figure 12.41.
Figure 12.41: Coordinate System of TwinHull Ships
13.1 Hydromechanical Coefficients
The hydromechanical coefficients
ij
a ,
ij
b and
ij
c in this section are those of one individual
hull, defined in the coordinate system of the single hull, as given and discussed before.
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13.2 Equations of Motion
The equations of motion for six degrees of freedom of a twinhull ship are defined by:
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
: Yaw
: Pitch
: Roll
Heave
: Sway
: Surge
Tw Th Tzx Tzz
Tw Th Tyy
Tw Th Txz Txx
Tw Th T
Tw Th T
Tw Th T
X X I I
X X I
X X I I
X X z
X X y
X X x
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
in which:
T
volume of displacement of the twinhull ship
Tij
I solid mass moment of inertia of the twinhull ship
3 2 1
, ,
Th Th Th
X X X hydromechanical forces in the x , y  and z directions
6 5 4
, ,
Th Th Th
X X X hydromechanical moments about the x , y  and z axes
3 2 1
, ,
Tw Tw Tw
X X X exciting wave forces in the x , y  and z directions
6 5 4
, ,
Tw Tw Tw
X X X exciting wave moments about the x , y  and z axes
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13.3 Hydromechanical Forces and Moments
The equations of motion for six degrees of freedom and the hydromechanical forces and
moments in here, are defined by:
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
15 15 15
13 13 13
11 11 11 1
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c b a
z c z b z a
x c x b x a X
Th
& & &
& & &
& & &
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
26 26 26
24 24 24
22 22 22 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c b a
c b a
y c y b y a X
Th
& & &
& & &
& & &
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
35 35 35
33 33 33
31 31 31 3
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c b a
z c z b z a
x c x b x a X
Th
& & &
& & &
& & &
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
46 46 46
33
2
33
2
33
2
44 44 44
42 42 42 4
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c b a
c y b y a y
c b a
y c y b y a X
T T T
Th
& & &
& & &
& & &
& & &
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
55 55 55
53 53 53
51 51 51 5
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c b a
z c z b z a
x c x b x a X
Th
& & &
& & &
& & &
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
11
2
11
2
11
2
66 66 66
64 64 64
62 62 62 6
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c y b y a y
c b a
c b a
y c y b y a X
T T T
Th
& & &
& & &
& & &
& & &
In here,
T
y is half the distance between the centre planes.
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13.4 Exciting Wave Forces and Moments
The first order wave potential for an arbitrary water depth h is defined in the new coordinate
system by:
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( )
b b e a
b
w
y k x k t
h k
z h k g
This holds that for the port side ( ) ps and starboard ( ) sb hulls the equivalent components of
the orbital accelerations and velocities in the surge, sway, heave and roll directions are equal
to:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin cos cos
cos
sin cos cos
cos
sin cos sin cos
sin cos sin cos
*
1
*
1
*
1
*
1
*
1
*
1
*
1
*
1
+
+
+
T b e a w
T b e a w
T b e a w
T b e a w
y k x k t
g k
sb
y k x k t
g k
ps
y k x k t g k sb
y k x k t g k ps
&
&
& &
& &
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin cos cos
sin
sin cos cos
sin
sin cos sin sin
sin cos sin sin
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
+
+
+
T b e a w
T b e a w
T b e a w
T b e a w
y k x k t
g k
sb
y k x k t
g k
ps
y k x k t g k sb
y k x k t g k ps
&
&
& &
& &
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin cos sin
sin cos sin
sin cos cos
sin cos cos
*
3
*
3
*
3
*
3
*
3
*
3
*
3
*
3
+
+
+
T b e a w
T b e a w
T b e a w
T b e a w
y k x k t
g k
sb
y k x k t
g k
ps
y k x k t g k sb
y k x k t g k ps
&
&
& &
& &
From this follows the total wave loads for the degrees of freedom. In these loads on the
following pages, the ''Modified Strip Theory'' includes the outlined terms. When ignoring
these outlined terms the ''Ordinary Strip Theory'' is presented.
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The exciting wave forces for surge are:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
+ +
+
,
_
+
+
+
+ +
L
b FK FK
b w w
L b e
L
b w w
b e
L
b w w Tw
dx sb X ps X
dx sb ps
dx
dM
V N
dx sb ps
dx
dN V
dx sb ps M X
'
1
'
1
*
1
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
*
1
'
11
*
1
*
1
'
11 1
& &
& & & &
& & & &
The exciting wave forces for sway are:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
+ +
+
,
_
+
+
+
+ +
L
b FK FK
b w w
L b e
L
b w w
b e
L
b w w Tw
dx sb X ps X
dx sb ps
dx
dM
V N
dx sb ps
dx
dN V
dx sb ps M X
'
2
'
2
*
2
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
*
2
'
22
*
2
*
2
'
22 2
& &
& & & &
& & & &
The exciting wave forces for heave are:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
+ +
+
,
_
+
+
+
+ +
L
b FK FK
b w w
L b e
L
b w w
b e
L
b w w Tw
dx sb X ps X
dx sb ps
dx
dM
V N
dx sb ps
dx
dN V
dx sb ps M X
'
3
'
3
*
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
*
3
'
33
*
3
*
3
'
33 3
& &
& & & &
& & & &
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The exciting wave moments for roll are:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
3 2
'
4
'
4
*
2
*
2
'
42
'
42
*
2
*
2
'
42
*
2
*
2
'
42 4
Tw T Tw
L
b FK FK
b w w
L b e
L
b w w
b e
L
b w w Tw
X y X OG
dx sb X ps X
dx sb ps
dx
dM
V N
dx sb ps
dx
dN V
dx sb ps M X
+ +
+ +
+
,
_
+
+
+
+ +
& &
& & & &
& & & &
The exciting wave moments for pitch are:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
+
+
,
_
+
+
+
+
,
_
+
+
L
b b FK FK
b w w b
L b e
L
b w w b
b e
L
b w w b
L
b FK FK
b w w
L b e
L
b w w
b e
L
b w w w
dx x sb X ps X
dx sb ps x
dx
dM
V N
dx sb ps x
dx
dN V
dx sb ps x M
dx bG sb X ps X
dx sb ps bG
dx
dM
V N
dx sb ps bG
dx
dN V
dx sb ps bG M X
'
3
'
3
*
3
*
3
'
33
'
33
*
3
*
3
'
33
*
3
*
3
'
33
'
1
'
1
*
1
*
1
'
11
'
11
*
1
*
1
'
11
*
1
*
1
'
11 5
& &
& & & &
& & & &
& &
& & & &
& & & &
Theoretical Manual of SEAWAY for Windows TUD Report No. 1370
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The exciting wave moments for yaw are:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
1
'
2
'
2
*
2
*
2
'
22
'
22
*
2
*
2
'
22
*
2
*
2
'
22 6
Tw T
L
b b FK FK
b w w b
L b e
L
b w w b
b e
L
b w w b Tw
X y
dx x sb X ps X
dx sb ps x
dx
dM
V N
dx sb ps x
dx
dN V
dx sb ps x M X
+
+ +
+
,
_
+
+
+
+ +
& &
& & & &
& & & &
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13.5 Added Resistance due to Waves
The added resistance can be found easily from the definitions of the monohull ship by using
the wave elevation at each individual centre line and replacing the heave motion z by:
( ) +
T
y z ps z and ( )
T
y z sb z
13.5.1 Radiated Energy Method
The transfer function of the mean added resistance of twinhull ships according to the method
of Gerritsma and Beukelman [1972] becomes:
( ) ( )
'
,
_
,
_
,
_
L
b
a
za
a
za
b e a
aw
dx
sb V ps V
dx
dM
V N
k R
2
*
2
* '
33
'
33 2
2
cos
with:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin cos sin
sin cos sin
*
3
*
3
*
3
*
3
*
3
*
*
3
*
+
+
+ +
+
T b e a w
T b e a w
T b w z
T b w z
y k x k t
g k
sb
y k x k t
g k
ps
y V x z sb sb V
y V x z ps ps V
&
&
& &
&
&
& &
&
&
13.5.2 Integrated Pressure Method
The transfer function of the mean added resistance of twinhull ships according to the method
of Boese [1970] becomes:
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
( )
( )
sb
z a a e
ps
z a a e
b
b
w
sb
L a
s b a
a
xa
b
b
w
ps
L a
s b a
a
xa
a
aw
z
z
dx
dx
dy
h k
x k s
z
g
dx
dx
dy
h k
x k s z
g
R
+
+
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
cos
2
1
cos
2
1
tanh
cos cos 2
1
2
1
tanh
cos cos 2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
with:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+ +
+
+
+
T b
T b
T b x
T b x
T b e a
T b e a
y x z sb sb s
y x z ps ps s
y x z sb z
y x z ps z
y k x k t sb
y k x k t ps
sin cos cos
sin cos cos
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13.6 Bending and Torsion Moments
According to Newton's second law of dynamics, the harmonic lateral, vertical and torsion
dynamic loads per unit length on the unfastened disk of a twinhull ship are given by:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }
( )
b T
b m Txx b T
b Tw b Th b T
b b T
b Tw b Th b T
m b b T
s b Tw b Th b T
b T
b Tw b Th b T
x q z
g x y z k x m
x X x X z x q
x z x m
x X x X x q
g z x y x m
A g x X x X x q
bG x x m
x X x X x q
2 1
'
2
' '
'
4
'
4 1 4
'
'
3
'
3 3
' '
'
2
'
2 2
'
'
1
'
1 1
,
2
+
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
Notice that only one interval is required for obtaining the coefficients in that interval.
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14.1.2 Second Degree Polynomial
A seconddegree polynomial, as given in Figure 14.11b, is defined by:
( ) c x b x a x f + +
2
with in the interval
p m
x x x < < the following coefficients:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
2
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x b x a x f c
x x a
x x
x f x f
b
x x
x x
x f x f
x x
x f x f
a
p
p
p
m p
m
m
p
p
+
Notice that two intervals are required for obtaining these coefficients, valid in both intervals.
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319
14.2 Integrations
Either the trapezoid rule or Simpsons general rule can carry out numerical integration.
SEAWAY uses Simpson's general rule as a standard. Then, the integration has to be carried
out over a number of sets of two intervals, see Figure 14.11b. Numerical inaccuracies can
be expected when
0 0
x x x x
p m
<< or
m p
x x x x <<
0 0
. In those cases the trapezoid rule
has to be preferred, see Figure 14.11a.
SEAWAY makes the choice between the use of the trapezoid rule and Simpson's rule
automatically, based on the following requirements:
Trapezoid rile, if: 2 . 0
0
<
m p
m
x x
x x
or 0 . 5
0
>
m p
m
x x
x x
Simpsons rule, if: 0 . 5 2 . 0
0
<
<
m p
m
x x
x x
14.2.1 First Degree Integration
Firstdegree integration  carried out by the trapezoid rule, see Figure 14.11a  means the
use of a linear function:
( ) b x a x f +
The integral over the interval
0
x x
p
becomes:
( ) ( )
p
p p
x
x
x
x
x
x
x b x a
dx b x a dx x f
0
0 0
2
2
1
1
]
1
+
+
with:
( ) ( )
( )
0 0
0
0
x a x f b
x x
x f x f
a
p
p
+ +
+ +
2 3
2
2
1
3
1
with:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
2
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x b x a x f c
x x a
x x
x f x f
b
x x
x x
x f x f
x x
x f x f
a
p
p
p
m p
m
m
p
p
+
Some algebra leads for the integration over these two intervals to:
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
3
2
2
2
0
0
0
0
0 0
2
0
0
0
m p
p
p
m
p
p m
m p
m
m
p
m
x
x
x x
x f
x x
x x
x x
x f
x x x x
x x
x f
x x
x x
x x
dx x f
p
m
'
'
cos
'
and { }
b
F
wa
dx F
w
'
sin
'
over the ship length, L , require integration
intervals,
b
x , which are much smaller than the smallest wave length, 10
min
b
x . This
means that a large number of cross sections are required.
This can be avoided by writing the integrands in terms of ( ) dx x x f cos
1
and ( ) dx x x f sin
2
,
in which the integrands ( ) x f
2 , 1
vary much slower over short wave lengths as the harmonics
itself.
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321
The functions ( ) x f
2 , 1
can be approximated by a second degree polynomial:
( ) c x b x a x f + +
2
When making use of the general integral rules:
( ) x x x x dx x x
x x x dx x x
x dx x
sin 2 cos 2 cos
sin cos cos
sin cos
2 2
+ +
+
+
and:
( ) x x x x dx x x
x x x dx x x
x dx x
cos 2 sin 2 sin
cos sin sin
cos sin
2 2
+
the following expressions can be obtained for the inphase and outphase parts of the wave
loads, integrated from
m
x through
p
x , so over the two intervals
m
x x
0
and
0
x x
p
:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
p
m
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x b x a x a x f
dx x c dx x x b dx x x a
dx x c x b x a
dx x x f dx x F
x b x a x a x f
dx x c dx x x b dx x x a
dx x c x b x a
dx x x f dx x F
sin 2 cos 2
sin sin sin
sin
sin
cos 2 sin 2
cos cos cos
cos
cos
2
2
2
2
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
+ +
with coefficients obtained by:
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( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
2
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x b x a x f c
x x a
x x
x f x f
b
x x
x x
x f x f
x x
x f x f
a
p
p
p
m p
m
m
p
p
+
With this approach, the wave loads on a barge, for instance, can be calculated by using two
section intervals only for any length of the barge.
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323
14.3 Derivatives
First and second degree functions, of which the derivatives have to be determined, have been
given in Figure 14.31a,b.
Figure 14.31: Determination of Longitudinal Derivatives
14.3.1 First Degree Derivative
The two polynomials  each valid over two intervals below and above
0
x x  are given by:
for
0
x x < : ( )
m m
b x a x f +
for
0
x x > : ( )
p p
b x a x f +
The derivative is given by:
for
0
x x < :
( )
m
a
dx
x df
for
0
x x > :
( )
p
a
dx
x df
,
_
1
1
]
1
,
_
A mean derivative dx df at
0
x x can be obtained by:
( ) ( )
m p
p
x x
p
m
x x
m
x x
x x
dx
df
x x
dx
df
x x
dx
df
1
1
]
1
,
_
+
1
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
0 0
0
0 0
14.3.2 Second Degree Derivative
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The two polynomials  each valid over two intervals below and above
0
x x  are given by:
for
0
x x < : ( )
m m m
c x b x a x f + +
2
for
0
x x > : ( )
p p p
c x b x a x f + +
2
A derivative of a second degree function:
( ) c x b x a x f + +
2
is given by:
( )
b x a
dx
x df
+ 2
This leads for
0
x x < to:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
2 0 1 0 2 1
2 1
2
1 0
1 0
2
2 1
1 0 1 0 2 1
2 0 1 0 2 1
2 1
2
1 0
1 0
2
2 1
2 0 1 0 2 1
2 1
2
1 0
1 0
2
2 1
2 1 1 0 2 1
2
2
0
1
2
m m m m
m m m
m m m
m m m m
x x
m m m m
m m m
m m m
x x
m m m m
m m m
m m m
m m m m m
x x
x x x x x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x x x
dx
df
x x x x x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
dx
df
x x x x x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x x x
dx
df
m
m
'
+
+
,
_
'
+
+
,
_
'
,
_
and for
0
x x > to:
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( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
0 2 1 2 0 1
0 1
2
1 2
1 2
2
0 1
1 2 1 2 0 1
0 2 1 2 0 1
0 1
2
1 2
1 2
2
0 1
0 2 1 2 0 1
0 1
2
1 2
1 2
2
0 1
0 1 1 2 2 1
2
2
0
1
2
x x x x x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x x x
dx
df
x x x x x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
dx
df
x x x x x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
x f x f x x x x
dx
df
p p p p
p p p
p p p
p p p p p
x x
p p p p
p p p
p p p
x x
p p p p
p p p
p p p
p p p m p
x x
m
m
'
+
+
,
_
'
+
+
,
_
'
,
_
,
_
1
1
]
1
,
_
A mean derivative dx df at
0
x x can be obtained by:
p m
p
x x
p
m
x x
m
x x
d d
dx
df
d
dx
df
d
dx
df
+
1
1
]
1
,
_
+
1
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
0 0
0
with:
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 1
0 2
1 2
0 1
1 0
2 0
2 1
1 0
3
2
3
2
x x
x x
x x
x x
d
x x
x x
x x
x x
d
p
p
p p
p
p
m
m
m m
m
m
,
_
,
_
p
m
p
m
x
x
x
x
mp
dy dx
ds s
2 2
14.4.1 First Degree Curve
The curve length of a first degree curve, see Figure 14.41a, in the two intervals in the region
p m
x x x < < is:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
y y x x y y x x s
p p m m mp
+ + +
14.4.2 Second Degree Curve
The curve length of a second degree curve, see Figure 14.41b, in the two intervals in the
region
p m
x x x < < is:
'
1
]
1
+ + +
1
]
1
+ + + + +
2
1 1
2
1 1
2
0 0
2
0 0
2
1 ln 1
1 ln 1
p p p p
p p p p
p s
mp
with:
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327
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4
sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
2
sin
cos
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1
0 0
0
2 2
2 2
+
+
+
+
+
+
y y x x
p
y y x x
y y x x
y y x x
x x y y
p
y y x x
y y x x
p
y y x x
y y
y y x x
x x
p p
p p
m m
m m
m m
p p
m p m p
m p m p
m p
m p m p
m p
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329
15 References
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L.J.M. Adegeest,
Nonlinear Hull Girder Loads in Ships,
PhD Thesis, 1994, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
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S.L. Bales,
Wind and Wave Data for Seakeeping Performance Assessment,
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th
ITTC Seakeeping Committee, Athens,
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Boese [1970]
P. Boese,
Eine Einfache Methode zur Berechnung der Wiederstandserhhung eines Schiffes in
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van den Bosch and Vugts [1966]
J.J. van den Bosch and J.H. Vugts,
Roll Damping by Free Surface Tanks,
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J.E. Conolly,
Standards of Good Seakeeping for Destroyers and Frigates in Head Seas,
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I. Dimitrieva,
DELFRAC, 3D Potential Theory Including Wave Diffraction and Drift Forces Acting
on the Structures,
(Description of the 3D Computer Code DELFRAC, written by J.A. Pinkster),
Technical Report 1017, 1994, Delft University of Technology, Ship Hydromechanics
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Faltinsen and Svensen [1990]
O.M. Faltinsen and T. Svensen,
Incorporation of Seakeeping Theories in CAD,
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W. Frank,
Oscillation of Cylinders in or below the Free Surface of Deep Fluids,
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J. Fukuda,
Coupled Motions and Midship Bending Moments of a Ship in Regular Waves,
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J. Gerritsma and W. Beukelman,
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O. Grim,
Berechnung der durch Schwingungen eines Schiffskrpers Erzeugten Hydro
dynamischen Krfte,
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O. Grim,
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O. Grim,
Die Schwingungen von schwimmenden zweidimensionalen Krper,
Technical Report, 1956, HSVABericht No. 1090, HSVA, Hamburg, Germany.
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O. Grim,
Die Schwingungen von schwimmenden zweidimensionalen Krper,
Technical Report, 1957, HSVABericht No. 1171, HSVA, Hamburg, Germany.
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M. Haskind,
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Huijsmans [1996]
R.H.M. Huijsmans,
Motions and Drift Forces on Moored Vessels in Current,
PhD Thesis, 1996, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
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Y. Ikeda, Y. Himeno and N. Tanaka,
A Prediction Method for Ship Rolling,
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John [1950]
F. John,
On the Motions of Floating Bodies, Part II,
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de Jong [1973]
B. de Jong,
Computation of Hydrodynamic Coefficients of Oscillating Cylinders,
Technical Report 145S, 1973, Netherlands Ship Research Centre TNO, Shipbuilding
Department, Delft, The Netherlands.
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J.M.J. Journe,
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J.M.J. Journe,
Strip Theory Algorithms, Revised Report 1992,
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