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Lecture 4 Assignment-Textbook Ch.

16 (Lymphatic System and Immunity)

16.3 Tissue Fluid and Lymph 3. Distinguish between tissue fluid and lymph. (p. 619) Lymph: tissue fluid that has entered into a lymphatic capillary. 4. Describe the primary functions of lymph. (p. 620) Primary functions: Returns to the bloodstream most of the small proteins that blood capillaries filtered. Transports foreign particles, i.e. bacteria, viruses, to lymph nodes 16.4 Lymph Movement 5. Explain why physical exercise promotes lymphatic circulation. (p. 621) Contracting skeletal muscles compress lymphatic vessels. This squeezing action moves the lymph inside a vessel, but because lymphatic vessels have valves that prevent backflow, the lymph can move only toward a collecting duct. Breathing aids lymph circulation by creating a relatively low pressure in the thorax during inhalation. 6. Explain how a lymphatic obstruction leads to edema. (p. 621) The continuous movement of fluid from interstitial spaces into blood capillaries and lymphatic capillaries stabilizes the volume of fluid in these spaces. Conditions that interfere with lymph movement cause tissue fluid to accumulate in interstitial fluid, producing edema. 9. Explain the functions of a lymph node. (p. 623) Lymph nodes filter potentially harmful foreign particles from the lymph before it is returned to the bloodstream. Lymph nodes are centers for the production of lymphocytes that act against foreign particles They contain macrophages that remove foreign particles from lymph 16.6 Thymus and Spleen 10. Indicate the locations of the thymus and spleen. (p. 623) Thymus: In the mediastinum anterior to the aortic arch Posterior to the upper part of the body of the sternum Extends from the root of the neck to the pericardium. Spleen the upper left portion of the abdominal cavity just inferior to the diaphragm, posterior and lateral to the stomach. 11. Compare and contrast the functions of the thymus and spleen. (p. 623)

Thymus soft, bilobed organ within the mediastinum. it slowly shrinks after puberty. its composed of lymphatic tissue subdivided into lobules lobules conatin lymphocytes T lymphocytes leave the thymus and provide immunity secretes thymosins, which stimulate maturation of T lymphocytes Spleen upper left portion of the abdominal cavity resembles a large lymph node encapsulated and subdivided into lobules by VT spaces in splenic lobules are filled with blood filters foreign particles and damaged RBCs from the blood, contains many macrophages and lymphocytes

Lecture 4 Assignment-Textbook Ch. 16 (Lymphatic System and Immunity)

16.7 Body Defenses Against Infection 12. Defense mechanisms that prevent the entry of many types of pathogens and destroy them if they enter provide innate (nonspecific) defense. Mechanisms that are very precise, targeting specific pathogens provide adaptive (specific) defense. (p. 626) 16.8 Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses 13. Define species resistance. (p. 626) Each species is resistant to certain diseases that may affect other species but is susceptible to disease other species may resist. 14. Identify the barriers that provide the bodys first line of defense against infectious agents. (p. 626) Mechanical barriers: skin, hair, mucous membranes 15. Describe how enzymatic actions function as defense mechanisms against pathogens. (p. 626) Enzymes provide a chemical barrier to pathogens. a. By splitting components of the pathogen b. decreasing the pH 19. Identify the major phagocytic cells in the blood and other tissues. (p. 627) The most active phagocytic cells of the blood are neutrophils and monocytes. Chemicals released from injured tissues attract these cells. Neutrophils engulf and digest smaller particles; monocytes phagocytize larger ones. Macrophages are fixed phagocytic cells found in lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and lungs. This constitutes reticuloendothelial tissue. 20. List possible causes of fever, and explain the benefits of fever. (p. 628) Viral or bacterial infection stimulates certain lymphocytes to secrete IL-1, which temporarily raises body temperature. Physical Factors Chemical factors Heat/UV light Acids/bases Elevated body temperature and the resulting decrease in blood iron level and increased phagocytic activity hamper infection. 16.9 Adaptive (Specific) Defenses, or Immunity 21. Distinguish between an antigen and a hapten. (p. 628) Antigen is a foreign substance, such as a protein, polysaccharide or a glycolipid, to which lymphocytes respond. A hapten are small molecules that can combine with larger ones, becoming antigenic.

22. Review the origin of T cells and B cells. (p. 628) T cells originate in the thymus. B cells are those processed in another part of the body, i.e. the fetal liver. 25. Define cytokine. (p. 630) Type of protein secreted by a T lymphocyte that attacks viruses, virally infected cells, and cancer cells 28. Explain the function of plasma cells. (p. 632) Type of antibody-producing cell that forms when activated B cells proliferate 31. Match the types of antibodies with their function and/or where each is found. (p. 635) 1. Associated with allergic reactionsIgE 2. Important in B cell activation, on surfaces of most B cellsIgD 3. Activates complement, anti-A and anti-B in bloodIgM 4. Effective against bacteria, viruses, toxins in plasma and tissue fluidsIgG 5. In exocrine secretions, including breast milkIgA

Lecture 4 Assignment-Textbook Ch. 16 (Lymphatic System and Immunity)

34. Contrast a primary and a secondary immune response. (p. 635)

Primary immune response B cells or T cells first encountering an antigen for which they are specialized to react constitutes a p.i.r. Secondary immune response occurs rapidly as memory cells respond to subsequent exposure to an antigen
35. Contrast active and passive immunity. (p. 638)

Active immunity a person who encounters a pathogen and has a primary immune response develops natarullay a.i. Passive Immunity when antinodies pass through a placental membrane from a pregnant woman to her fetus, the fetus develops naturally acquired p.i.
36. Define vaccine. (p. 638) Preparation that includes antigens used to stimulate an immune response to prevent an infectious disease 37. Explain how a vaccine produces its effect. (p. 638) A vaccine contains bacteria or viruses that have been killed or weakened so they cannot cause a serious infection; or it may contain a toxin of an infectious organism that has been chemically altered to destroy its toxic effects. The antigens present still retain the characteristics needed to simulate a primary immune response. 38. Describe how a fetus may obtain antibodies from maternal blood. (p. 638) Receptor-mediated endocytosis utilizing receptor sites on cells of the fetal yolk sac transfers IgG molecules to the fetus. 39. Explain the relationship between an allergic reaction and an immune response. (p. 639) Allergic or hypersensitivity reactions are excessive misdirected immune responses that may change tissues. 40. Distinguish between an antigen and an allergen. (p. 639) Antigen Substance that stimulate cells to produce antibodies

Allergen Foreign substance capable of stimulating an allergic reaction

41. Describe how an immediate-reaction allergic response may occur. (p. 639) Occurs within minutes after contact. Persons with this type of allergy have inherited the tendency to overproduce IgE antibodies in response to certain antigens 42. List the major events leading to a delayed-reaction allergic response. (p. 641) It results from repeated exposure of the skin to certain chemical substances. As a consequence of these repeated contacts, the foreign substance and a large number of T cells collect in the skin and eventually activate the T cells. Their actions and the actions of macrophages they attract cause the release of various chemical factors. This causes eruptions and inflammation of the skin. It is called delayed since it takes about forty-eight hours to occur. 43. Explain the relationship between tissue rejection and an immune response. (p. 641) A transplant recipients immune system may react against the donated tissue in a tissue rejection reaction.

Lecture 4 Assignment-Textbook Ch. 16 (Lymphatic System and Immunity)

44. Describe two methods used to reduce the severity of a tissue rejection reaction. (p. 641) Matching the donor and recipient tissues giving drugs that suppress the immune system. 45. Explain the goal of using immunosuppressive drugs before a transplant. (p. 641) They are used to reduce the recipient immune systems rejection of transplanted tissue. 46. Explain the relationship between autoimmunity and an immune response. (p. 641) Autoimmunity occurs when the immune system does not distinguish between self and nonself and manufactures autoantibodies that attack the bodys own cells. For whatever reason, the autoantibodies treat a certain cell type in the body as a foreign object and signal the immune system to defend against the perceived invader. 16.10 Life-Span Changes 47. Explain the causes for a decline in the strength of the immune response in the elderly. (p. 644) The immune system begins to decline early in life, in part due to the decreasing size of the thymus. Numbers of T cells and B cells do not change significantly, but activity levels do. Proportions of the different antibody classes shift. Critical Thinking (p.649) 2. What functions of the lymphatic system would be affected in a person born without thymus? a. Infants susceptibility to infections would increase. b. Thymus gland: site of T-cell maturation. i. T-cell deficiency results in the individual having little or no resistance to intracellular virus, fungal, or bacterial infections. Some parents keep their preschoolers away from other children to prevent them from catching illnesses. How might these well-meaning parents be harming their children? By not letting the children be with other kids, they are hindering the child from building their own immunity.