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Lecture 9 Assignment-Textbook Ch.

21 (Water, electrolyte, and Acidbase balance)

21.1 Introduction 1. Explain how water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent. (p. 811) Water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent, because electrolytes are dissolved in the water of body fluids. Anything that alters the concentrations of the electrolytes will alter the concentration of the water by adding solutes to it or by removing solutes from it. 21.2 Distribution of Body Fluids 2. All of the water and electrolytes enclosed by cell membranes constitute the: (p. 811) b. intracellular fluid. 3. Explain how the fluids in the compartments differ in composition. (p. 812) Extracellular fluids Intracellular fluid Have similar compositions, including relatively Contains relatively high concentrations of high concentrations of sodium, chloride, and potassium, phosphate, and magnesium ions, a bicarbonate ions, and lesser concentrations of somewhat greater concentration of sulfate potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, ions, and lesser concentrations of sodium, and sulfate ions. chloride, and bicarbonate ions. The blood plasma fraction contains It also has a greater concentration of protein considerably more protein than either than plasma. interstitial fluid or lymph 4. Describe how fluid movements between the compartments are controlled. (p. 812) There are two main factors that regulate fluid and electrolyte movement between the compartments. They are: Hydrostatic pressure Osmotic pressure Hydrostatic pressure, or blood pressure, is the amount Osmotic pressure, the attraction of water to solutes, of force that the water is exerting on the blood vessel is the main factor in water and electrolyte movement. walls. It is the main reason that fluid enters the Any changes in the amounts of water will cause the interstitial space from the capillaries movement of solutes in the appropriate direction until the concentrations on both sides are stabilized. Any change in the concentration of the solutes will cause water to move in the same way. 21.3 Water Balance 6. Define water of metabolism. (p. 813) Water produced as a by-product of metabolic processes. 7. Explain how water intake is regulated. (p. 813). The primary regulator of water intake is thirst.

An increase in the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid due to water loss stimulates osmoreceptors in the thirst center. Activity in the hypothalamus causes the person to feel thirsty and to seek water. Drinking and the resulting distention of the stomach by water stimulate nerve impulses that inhibit the thirst center.

Water is absorved through the walls of the stomach and small intestine.
The osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid returns to normal.

Lecture 9 Assignment-Textbook Ch.21 (Water, electrolyte, and Acidbase balance)

21.4 Electrolyte Balance 9. Electrolytes in body fluids that are of importance to cellular functions include: (p. 815) a. sodium b. potassium c. calcium d. chloride e. all of the above. 10. Explain how electrolyte intake is regulated. (p. 815) Electrolytes are usually obtained in sufficient quantities in response to hunger and thirst mechanisms. In a severe electrolyte deficiency, a person may experience a salt craving. 11. List the routes by which electrolytes leave the body. (p. 816) The greatest amount of electrolyte output occurs with the actions of the kidneys and urine production. Some electrolytes are lost by perspiration, which varies with the amount of perspiration produced. Also, varying amounts are lost in feces. 12. Explain how the adrenal cortex functions to regulate electrolyte balance. (p. 818) The kidneys and the hormone aldosterone primarily regulate these ions. Aldosterone, which the adrenal cortex secretes, increases sodium ion reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons. A decreased in the sodium ion concentration in the extracellular fluid stimulates aldosterone secretion via the renin-angiotensin system. 13. Describe the role of the parathyroid glands in regulating electrolyte balance. (p. 818) The parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands regulate calcium ion concentration. When this occurs, the parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, which causes the concentrations of the phosphate ions in the extracellular fluids to increase. 14. Describe the role of the renal tubules in regulating electrolyte balance. (p. 818) Chloride ions are passively reabsorbed in renal tubules as sodium ions are actively reabsorbed. 21.5 Acid-Base Balance 15. Define an acid, a base. (p. 819) acids Electrolytes that ionize in water and release hydrogen ions

base Any substance that combines with hydrogen ions

17. Strong acids dissociate to release hydrogen ions more completely. An example is hydrochloric acid. (p. 820) Strong acids 18. Weak bases dissociate to release fewer hydroxide ions. (p. 820) 19. Explain how an acid-base buffer system functions. (p. 820) Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes. Buffer systems are composed of sets of 2 or more chemicals They convert strong acids into weaker acids or strong bases into weaker bases. They include the bicarbonate buffer system, and protein buffer system. 20. Describe how the bicarbonate buffer system resists changes in pH. (p. 821)

Lecture 9 Assignment-Textbook Ch.21 (Water, electrolyte, and Acidbase balance)

The system occurs in both intra- and extracellular fluids. It consists of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). If a strong acid is present, it reacts with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbonic acid and sodium chloride, minimizing the increasing concentration of hydrogen ions. If a strong base is present, it reacts with carbonic acid, producing sodium bicarbonate and water, minimizing the alkaline shift. 21. Explain why a protein has both acidic and basic properties. It consists of the plasma proteins such as albumin and various proteins within the cells (including the hemoglobin of red blood cells). Because some amino acids have freely exposed carboxyl groups ( COOH), under some conditions these groups can become ionized and a hydrogen ion is released. Other amino acids have a freely exposed amino group ( NH2), which can accept hydrogen ions. Thus, protein molecules can function as acids by releasing hydrogen ions, or as bases by accepting hydrogen ions. This property allows protein molecules to act as a self-controlling acid-base buffer system. 22. Describe how a protein functions as a buffer system. Altered carboxyl groups can now accept hydrogen ions in an acidic environment, while the altered amino groups can release a hydrogen ion in a basic environment. In this way, a protein can act as a buffer system when necessary. 23. Describe the role of hemoglobin as a buffer. Red blood cells contain an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase that speeds the reaction of carbon dioxide and water. This reaction produces carbonic acid, which quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. Hemoglobin can accept hydrogen ions into its molecular structure and thus, helps control pH levels. 24. Explain how the respiratory system functions in the regulation of acid-base balance. (p. 822) It helps regulate pH by controlling the rate and depth of breathing. Increasing carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion concentrations stimulates chemoreceptors associated with the respiratory center; breathing rate and depth increase, and carbon dioxide concentration decreases. 25. Explain how the kidneys function in the regulation of acid-base balance. (p. 823) The nephrons help regulate excess hydrogen ion concentration by excreting hydrogen ions. This is accomplished by the epithelial cells along certain segments of the renal tubules. 27. Distinguish between a chemical buffer system and a physiological buffer system. (p. 823) Chemical buffers act rapidly; physiological buffers act more slowly. 21.6 Acid-Base Imbalance 29. Explain how the body compensates for acid-base imbalances. (p. 825) The nephrons help regulate excess hydrogen ion concentration by excreting hydrogen ions. This is accomplished by the epithelial cells along certain segments of the renal tubules. Acid-base buffers function rapidly, and convert strong acids or bases almost immediately. Because they act at the chemical level, they are called chemical buffers, and are the body's first line of defense against shifts in pH. Physiological buffer systems, such as the respiratory and renal mechanisms, function more slowly. The respiratory mechanism may take several minutes to begin. The renal mechanism may require one to three days. The physiologic body systems are known as the body's secondary defenses. Chemical buffers, such as hemoglobin, may resist shift in pH. The respiratory center is stimulated to increase breathing rate, lowering carbon dioxide concentration. Kidneys may excrete more hydrogen ions.

Lecture 9 Assignment-Textbook Ch.21 (Water, electrolyte, and Acidbase balance)

Critical Thinking (p.829) 5. A student hyperventilates and is disoriented just before an exam. Is this student likely to be experiencing acidosis or alkalosis? How will the body compensate in an effort to maintain homeostasis? This is respiratory alkalosis. The kidney will respond by reabsorbing more hydrogen ions from the urine into the blood to decrease blood pH. The respiratory rate will also decrease so that carbon dioxide levels can buildup to decrease the pH as well.