Anda di halaman 1dari 13

Terminology Notebook

CHAPTER 13 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Understanding Words p.482 PREFIX CortDiuretEndoExoHormHyperLactMedParaTocVasDEFINITION Bark, rind To pass urine Inside Outside Impetus, impulse Above Milk Middle Beside Birth Vessel EXAMPLE Adrenal cortex-outer portion of an adrenal gland Diuretic-substance that promotes urine production Endocrine gland-gland that secretes to the outside through the duct Exocrine gland-gland that secretes to the outside through a duct Hormone-substance that a cell secretes that affects another cell Hyperthyroidism-condition resulting from an above-normal secretion of thyroid hormone Prolactin-hormone that promotes milk production Adrenal medulla-middle section of an adrenal gland Parathyroid glands-set of glands near the surface of the thyroid gland Oxytocin-hormone that stimulates the uterine muscles to contract during childbirth Vasopressin-substance that causes blood vessel walls to contract

SUFFIX -crin -tropic

DEFINITION To secrete Influencing

EXAMPLE Endrocrine-internal secretions Adenocorticotropic hormone-a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex

Table 13.6 Hormones of the Pituitary Gland p.499 Anterior Lobe Hormone Growth Hormone (GH) Action Stimulates increase in size and rate of division of body cells; Enhances movement of amino acids through membranes; Promotes growth of long bones Sustains milk production after birth; 1

Prolactin (PRL)

Terminology Notebook
Amplifies effect of LH in males Controls secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland Controls secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex Development of egg-containing follicles in ovaries; Stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogen; In males, stimulates production of sperm cells Promotes secretion of sex hormones; Releases egg cell in females

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Posterior Lobe Hormone Antidiuretic Hormone Action Causes kidneys to reduce water excretion; In high concentration, raises blood pressure Contracts muscles in uterine wall and those associated with milk-secreting glands

Oxytocin (OT)

Table 13.7 Hormones of the Thyroid Gland p.501 Hormone Thyroxine (T4) Action Increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates; Increases rate of protein synthesis; Accelerates growth; Stimulates activity in the nervous system Same as above, but five times more potent than thyroxine Lowers blood calcium and phosphate ion concentrations by inhibiting release of calcium and phosphate ions from bones and by increasing the rate at which calcium and phosphate ions are deposited in bones; Increases excretion of calcium by kidneys Table 13.8 Disorders of the Thyroid Gland p.501 2

Triiodothyronine (T3) Calcitonin

Terminology Notebook
Condition Hyperthyroid Hyperthyroidism Mechanism/Symptoms High metabolic rate, sensitivity to heat, restlessness, hyperactivity, weight loss, protruding eyes, goiter Autoantibodies (against self) bind TSH receptors on thyroid cell membranes, mimicking action of TSH, overstimulating gland (hyperthyroidism); Exopthalmia (protrusion of the eyes) and goiter Hypothyroid Hashimoto disease Hypothyroidism (infantile) Autoantibodies (against self) attack thyroid cells, resulting in hypothyroidism Cretinism-stunted growth, abnormal bone formation, mental retardation, low body temperature, sluggishness Myxedema-low metabolic rate, sensitivity to cold, sluggishness, poor appetite, swollen tissues, mental dullness. Deficiency of thyroid hormones due to iodine deficiency; Because no thyroid hormones inhibit pituitary release of TSH, thyroid is overstimulated and enlarges but functions below normal (hypothyroidism)

Graves Disease

Hypothyroidism (adult)

Simple goiter

Table 13.10 Comparative Effects of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine p.506 Structure or Function Affected Heart Blood Vessels Epinephrine Rate increases Vessels in skeletal muscle vasodilate, decreasing resistance to blood flow Some increase due to increased cardiac output Norepinephrine Rate increases Blood flow to skeletal muscles increases, resulting from constriction of blood vessels in skin and viscera Great increase due to vasoconstriction, counteracted in muscle blood vessels during exercise Some dilation

Systemic blood pressure

Airways

Dilated

Table 13.11 Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex p.509 3

Terminology Notebook
Hormone Aldosterone Action Helps regulate the concentration of extracellular electrolytes by conserving sodium ions and excreting potassium ions Decreases protein synthesis, increases fatty acid release, and stimulates glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrates Supplement sex hormones from the gonads; May be converted into estrogens

Cortisol

Adrenal androgens

Table 13.12 Hormones of the Pancreatic Islets p.511 Hormone Glucagon Action Stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and convert noncarbohydrates into glucose; Stimulates breakdown of fats Promotes formation of glycogen from glucose, inhibits conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose, and enhances movement of glucose through adipose and muscle cell membranes, decreasing blood glucose concentration; Promotes transport of amino acids into cells; Enhances synthesis of proteins and fats Helps regulate carbohydrates

Insulin

Somatostatin

Interconnections p.516 Endocrine System Glands secrete hormones that have a variety of effects on cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems Melanocytes produce skin pigment in response to hormonal stimulation Hormones stimulate lymphocyte production Hormones act on bones to control calcium balance Hormones help control digestive system activity Hormones help increase blood flow to exercising muscles Decreased oxygen causes hormonal stimulation of red blood cell production; Red blood cells transport oxygen and carbon 4

Integumentary system Lymphatic system Skeletal system Digestive system Muscular system Respiratory system

Terminology Notebook
Nervous system Urinary system Cardiovascular system dioxide Neurons control the secretions of the anterior and posterior pituitary glands and the adrenal medulla Hormones act on the kidneys to help control water and electrolyte balance Hormones are carried in the bloodstream; Some have direct actions on the heart and blood vessels Sex hormones play a major role in development of secondary sex characteristics, egg and sperm

Reproductive system

CHAPTER 14 BLOOD Understanding Words p.522 Prefix AgglutinBilEmbolErythrHemoDefinition To glue together Bile Stopper Red Blood Example Agglutination-clumping of red blood cells Bilirubin-pigment excreted in the bile Embolism-obstruction of a blood vessel Erythrocyte-red blood cell Hemoglobin-red pigment responsible for the color of blood Hematocrit-percentage of red blood cells in a given volume of blood Heparin-anticoagulant secreted by liver cells Leukocyte-white blood cell Macrophage-large phagocytic cell Polycythemia-overproduction of red blood cell Thrombocyte-blood platelet involved in the formation of a blood clot

Hema-

Blood

HepaLeukoMacroPolyThromb-

Liver White Large Many Clot

Suffix -crit

Example To separate

Definition Hematocrit-percentage of blood volume of red blood cells in a blood sample, determined by 5

Terminology Notebook
separating the red blood cells from the plasm Fibrinolysin-protein-splitting enzyme that can digest fibrin Leukocytosis-overproduction of white blood cells Erythropoietin-hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells Hemostasis-arrest of bleeding from damaged blood vessels

-lys -osis -poie

To break up Abnormal condition Make, produce

-stasis

Halt, make stand

Table 14.2 Types of Anemia p.529 Type Aplastic Anemia Hemolytic anemia Iron deficiency anemia Pernicious anemia Sickle cell disease Thalassemia Cause Toxic chemicals, radiation, Toxic chemicals Dietary lack of iron Inability to absorb vitamin B 12 Defective gene Defective gene Defect Damaged bone marrow Red blood cells destroyed Hemoglobin deficient Excess of immature cells Red blood cells abnormally shaped Hemoglobin deficient; red blood cells short-lived

Table 14.4 Abnormal White Blood Cell Numbers p.534 White Blood Cell Population change Elevated lymphocytes Elevated eosinophils Elevated monocytes Elevated neutrophils Too few helper T cells (lymphocytes) Illness Hairy cell leukemia, whooping cough, mononucleosis Tapeworm infestation, hookworm infestation, allergic reactions Tyhphoid fever, malaria, tuberculosis Bacterial infections AIDS

Table 14.5 Cellular Components of Blood p.535 Component Red blood cell (erythrocyte) White blood cell (leukocyte) 6 Description Biconcave disc without a nucleus, above onethird hemoglobin Number present 4,200,000 to 6,200,000 per microliter 4,500 to 10,000 per microliter Function Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide Destroys pathogenic microorganisms and

Terminology Notebook
parasites and removes worn cells Granulocytes About twice the size of red blood cells; Cytoplasmic granules are present Nucleus with 2 of five lobes; cytoplasmic granules stain light purple in combined acid and base stains Nucleus bilobed; cytoplasmic granules stain red in acid stain Nucleus lobed; cytoplasmic granules stain blue in basic stain Cytoplasmic granules are absent Two to three times larger than a red blood cell; nuclear shape varies from spherical to lobed Only slightly larger than a red blood cell; its nucleus nearly fills cells Cytoplasmic fragment

Neutrophil

54%-62% of white blood cells present

Phagocytizes small particles

Eosinophil

1%-3% of white blood cells present Less than 1% of white blood cells present

Basophil

Kills parasites and moderates allergic reactions Releases heparin and histamine

Agranulocytes Monocyte

3%-9% of white blood cells present

Phagocytizes large particles

Lymphocyte

25%-33% of white blood cells present 130,000 to 360,000 per microliter

Provides immunity

Platelet (thrombocyte)

Helps control blood loss from broken vessels

Table 14.12 Antigens and Antibodies of the ABO Blood Group p.544 Blood type A B AB O Antigen A B A and B Neither A nor B Antibody Anti-B Anti-A Neither ant-A nor Anti-B Both anti-A nor anti-B

Table 14.13 Preferred and Permissible Blood Types for Transfusions p.546 Blood Type of Recipient Preferred Blood Type of Donor Permissible Blood Type of Donor (in an extreme emergency) O

A 7

Terminology Notebook
B AB O B AB O O A,B,O No alternate types

CHAPTER 15 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM UNDERSTANDING WORDS p.552 Prefix AngioAtherBradyDiastolVessel Porridge Slow Dilation Definition Example Angiotensin-substance that constricts blood vessels Atherosclerosis-deposits of plaque in arteries Bradycardia-abnormally slow heartbeat Diastolic pressure-blood pressure when the ventricle of the heart is relaxed Edema-accumulation of fluids in the tissues that causes them to swell Semilunar valve-valve with crescent shaped flaps Myocardium-muscle tissue within the wall of the heart Papillary muscle-small mound of muscle projecting into a ventricle of the heart Phlebitis-inflammation of a vein Arteriosclerosis-loss of elasticity and hardening of a blood vessel wall Syncytium-mass of merging cells that act together Systolic pressure-blood pressure resulting from a single ventricular contraction Tachycardia-abnormally fast heartbeat

Edem-

Swelling

LunMyoPapill-

Moon Muscle Nipple

PhlebScler-

Vein Hard

SynSystol-

Together Contraction

Tachy-

Rapid

Suffix -gram

Definition Something written

Example Electrocardiogram-recording of the electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle

Terminology Notebook

Table 15.1 Wall of the Heart p.557 Layer Epicardium (visceral pericardium) Myocardium Endocardium Function Forms a protective outer covering; secretes serous fluid Contracts to pump from the heart chambers Forms a protective inner lining of the chambers and valves

Table 15.2 Valves of the Heart p.560 Valve Tricuspid valve Location Right atrioventricular orifice Function Prevents blood from moving from right ventricle into right atrium during ventricular contraction Prevents blood from moving from pulmonary trunk into right ventricle during ventricular relaxation Prevents blood from moving from left ventricle into left atrium during ventricular contraction Prevents blood from moving from aorta into left ventricle during ventricular relaxation

Pulmonary valve

Entrance to pulmonary trunk

Mitral valve

Left atrioventricular orifice

Aortic valve

Entrance to aorta

15.3 Characteristics of Blood Vessels p.580 Vessel Artery Type of wall Thick, strong wall with 3 layers an endothelial lining, a middle layer of smooth muscle and elastic tissue, and an outer layer of connective tissue Thinner wall than an artery but with 3 layers; smaller arterioles have an endothelial lining, some smooth muscle tissue, and a small amount of connective tissue Single layer of squamous epithelium 9 Function Carries blood under relatively high pressure from the heart to arterioles

Arteriole

Connects an artery to a capillary, helps control the blood flow into a capillary by vasoconstricting or vasodilating

Capillary

Provides a membrane through which nutrients, gases, and

Terminology Notebook
wastes, are exchanged between the blood and tissue fluid; connects an arteriole to a venule Connects a capillary to a vein

Venule

Vein

Thinner wall than an arteriole, less smooth muscle and elastic tissue Thinner wall than an artery but with similar layers; the middle layer is more poorly developed; some have flaplike valves

Carries blood under relatively low pressure from a venule to the heart; valves prevent a backflow of blood; serves as blood reservoi

10

Terminology Notebook
Figure 15.11 Path of Blood through the Heart and Pulmonary Circuit

Blood from systemic circuit Venae cavae and coronary sinus

Right atrium
Tricuspid Valve

Right ventricle
Pulmonary valve

Pulmonary trunk

Pulmonary arteries

Alveolar capillaries (lungs)

Pulmonary veins

left atrium
Mitral valve

left ventricle
Aortic valve

aorta

blood to systemic circuit


11

Terminology Notebook
Clinical Applications Table 15A Risk factors for Stroke p.588 Alcohol consumption Diabetes Elevated serum cholesterol Family history of cardiovascular disease Hypertension Smoking Transient ischemic attacks

Table 15B Drugs to Treat Hypertension p.588 Type of Drug Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Beta blockers Calcium channel blockers Diuretics Mechanism of action Block formation of angiotensin II, preventing vasoconstriction Lower heart rate Dilate blood vessels by keeping calcium ions out of muscle cells in vessel walls Increase urine output, lowering blood volume

Interconnections p.610 Cardiovascular system The heart pumps blood through as many as 60,000 miles of blood vessels, delivering nutrients to, and removing wastes from, all body cells Changes in skin blood flow are important in temperature control The lymphatic system returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream Bones help control plasma levels of calcium ions, which influence heart action The digestive system breaks down nutrients into forms readily absorbed by the bloodstream Blood flow increases to exercising skeletal muscle, delivering oxygen and nutrients and removing wastes. Muscle actions help the blood circulate. The respiratory system oxygenates the blood and removes carbon dioxide. Respiratory movements help the blood circulate The brain depends on blood flow for survival. The nervous system helps control blood flow and blood pressure The kidneys clear the blood of wastes and substances present in the body. The kidneys help control blood pressure and blood volume. 12

Integumentary system Lymphatic system Skeletal system Digestive system Muscular system

Respiratory system

Nervous system

Urinary system

Terminology Notebook
Endocrine system Hormones are carried in the bloodstream. Some hormones directly affect the heart and blood vessels Blood pressure is important in normal function of the sex organs

Reproductive system

13