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Terminology Notebook Ch.

Chapter 16 Lymphatic System and Immunity Understanding Words (p.616) Prefix AutoDefinition Self Example Autoimmune diseaseimmune system attacking the bodys tissue Humoral immunityimmunity resulting from antibodies in body fluids Immunity-resistance to (freedom from) a specific disease Inflammation: localized redness, heat, swelling, and pain in the tissues Nodule-small mass of lymphocytes surrounded by CTs Pathogen-disease causing agent


Moisture, fluid


Free, exempt


To set on fire




Disease, sickness

Suffix -gen

Definition Become, be produced

Example Allergen: substance that evokes an allergic response

Table 16.2 Major Actions of an Inflammation Response p.627 Action Blood vessels dilate. Capillary permeability increases and fluid leaks into tissue spaces WBCs invade the region Tissue fluids containing clotting factors seep into the area Fibroblasts arrive Phagocytes are active Cells divide Result Tissues become red, swollen, warm, painful Pus may form as WBCs, bacterial cells, and cellular debris accumulate A clot containing threads of fibrin may form CT sac may form around injured tissues Bacteria, dead cells, and other debris removed Newly formed cells replace injured ones

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Table 16.3 Types of Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses p.628 Type Species resistance Mechanical barriers Description A species is resistant to certain diseases to which other species are susceptible Unbroken skin and mucous membranes prevent the entrance of some infectious agents. Fluids wash away microorganisms before they can firmly attach to tissues Enzymes in various body fluids kill pathogens. pH extremes and high salt concentration also harm pathogens. Interferons induce production of other proteins that block reproduction of viruses, stimulate phagocytosis, and enhance the activity of cells such that they resist infection and the growth of tumors. Defensins damage bacterial cells and membranes. Collectins grab onto microbes. Complement stimulates inflammation, attracts, phagocytes, and enhances phagocytosis Distinct type of lymphocyte that secretes perforins that lyse virus-infected cells and cancer cells A tissue response to injury that helps prevent the spread of infectious agents into nearby tissues Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages engulf and destroy foreign particles and cells Elevated body temperature inhibits microbial growth and increases phagocytic activity

Chemical barriers

Natural killer cells Inflammation Phagocytosis Fever

Table 16.4 A comparison of T cells and B cells p.630 Characteristic Origin of undifferentiated cell Site of differentiation Primary locations T cells Red bone marrow Thymus Lymphatic tissues, to%-80% of the circulating lymphocytes in blood Provide cellular immune response in which T cells interact directly with the antigens or antigen-bearing agents to destroy them B cells Red bone marrow Red bone marrow Lymphatic tissues, 20%-30% of the circulating lymphocytes in blood Provide humoral immune response in which B cells interact indirectly, producing antibodies that destroy the antigens or antigen-bearing agents

Primary functions

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Table 16.5 Types of Cytokines p.630 Cytokine Colony-stimulating factors Interferons Function Stimulate bone marrow to produce lymphocytes Block viral replication, stimulate macrophages to engulf viruses, stimulate B cells to produce antibodies, attack cancer cells Control lymphocyte differentiation and growth Stops tumor growth, releases growth factors, causes fever that accompanies bacterial infection, stimulates lymphocyte differentiation

Interleukins Tumor necrosis factor

Table 16.7 Characteristics of major immunoglobulins p.635 Type IgG IgA IgM Major Function Defends against bacteria, viruses, and toxins; activates complement Defends against bacteria and viruses Reacts with antigens on some RBC membranes following mismatched blood transfusions; activates complement B cell activation Promotes inflammation and allergic reactions


Table 16.8 Actions of antibodies p.636 Effect Agglutination Precipitation Neutralization Opsonization Chemotaxis Agglutination Lysis Description Antigens clump Antigens become insoluble Antigens lose toxic properties Alters antigen cell membranes so cells are more susceptible to phagocytosis Attracts macrophages and neutrophils into the region Clumping of antigen-bearing cells Allows for rapid movement of water and ions into the foreign cell causing osmotic rupture of the foreign cell Altering the molecular structure of viruses, making them harmless Helps prevent the spread of antigens

Neutralization Inflammation

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Table 16.9 Classification of Immunity p.639 Type Naturally acquired active immunity Artificially acquired active immunity Artificially acquired passive immunity Naturally acquired passive immunity Mechanism Exposure to live pathogens Result Stimulation of an immune response with symptoms of a disease Stimulation of an immune response without the symptoms of a disease Short-term immunity without stimulating an immune response Short-term immunity for newborn without stimulating an immune response

Exposure to a vaccine containing weakened or dead pathogens or their components Injection of gamma globulin containing antibodies or antitoxin Antibodies passed to fetus from pregnant woman with active immunity or to newborn through breast milk from a woman with active immunity

Table 16.10 Transplant Types p.641 Type Isograft Donor Identical twin Example Bone marrow transplant from a healthy twin to a twin who has leukemia Skin graft from one part of the body to replace burned skin Kidney transplant from a relative or closely matched donor Heart valves from a pig

Autograft Allograft Xenograft

Self Same species Different species

Table 16.11 Autoimmune Disorders p.642 Disorder Glomerulonephritis Symptoms Lower back pain Antibodies against Kidney cell antigens that resemble streptococcal bacteria antigens Thyroid gland antigen near TSH receptor, causing overactivity Pancreatic beta cells RBCs Myelin white matter of the CNS

Graves disease

Type I diabetes mellitus Hemolytic anemia Multiple sclerosis

Restlessness, weight loss, irritability, increased heart rate, and bp Thirst, hunger, weakness, emaciation Fatigue and weakness Weakness, incoordination, speech disturbances, visual complaints 4

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Myasthenia gravis Pernicious anemia Rheumatic fever Muscle weakness Fatigue and weakness Weakness, shortness of breadth Receptors for neurotransmitters on skeletal muscle Binding site for vitamin B on cells lining stomach Heart valve cell antigens that resemble streptococcal bacteria antigens Cells lining joints CT

Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic lupus erythematosus

Ulcerative colitis

Joint pain and deformity Red rash on face, prolonged fever, weakness, kidney damage, joint pain Lower abdominal pain

Colon cells

Clinical Application Table 16B how HIV is not transmitted p.643 Casual contact (social kissing, hugging, handshake) Objects (toilet seats, deodorants sticks, doorknobs) Mosquitoes Sneezing & coughing Sharing food Swimming in the same water Donating blood

Innerconnections p.645 Lymphatic system Important link between tissue fluid and the plasma; it also plays a major role in the response to infection Skin is a first line of defense against infection Lymphatic system returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream. Lymph originates as tissue fluid, formed by the action of blood pressure Cells of the immune system originate in the bone marrow Lymph plays a major role in the absorption of fats Muscle action helps pump lymph through the lymphatic vessels Cells of the immune system patrol the respiratory system to defend against infection Stress may impair the immune response The kidneys control the volume of extracellular fluid, including lymph Hormones stimulate lymphocyte production Special mechanisms inhibit the female immune system in its attack of sperm as foreign invaders 5

Integumentary system Cardiovascular system

Skeletal system Digestive system Muscular system Respiratory system Nervous system Urinary system Endocrine system Reproductive system

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Chapter 17 Digestive System Understanding Words p651 Prefix AlimentCariCecChymDefinition Food Decay Blindness Juice Example Alimentary canal-tubelike part of the digestive system Dental caries-tooth decay Cecum-blind-ended sac at the origin of the large intestine Chyme-semifluid paste of food particles and gastric juice formed in the stomach Deciduous teeth-teeth shed during childhood Frenulum-membranous fold that anchors the tongue to the floor of the moth Gastric gland-part of the stomach that secretes gastric juice Hepatic duct-duct that carries bile from the liver to the bile duct Esophageal hiatus-opening through which the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm Lingual tonsil-mass of lymphatic tissue at the toot of the tongue Peristalsis-wavelike ring of contraction that moves material along the alimentary canal Pyloric sphincter-muscle that serves as a valve between the stomach and small intestine Rectum-distal part of the large intestine Absorption-uptake of substance Villi-hairy projections of mucous membrane in the small intestine


Falling off Bridle, restraint








Tongue Around


Gatekeeper, door


Straight To soak up Hairy

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Figure 17.1 organs of the Digestive system p653 Accessory organs Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Secrete saliva, which contains enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates Produces bile, which emulsifies fat Stores bile and introduces it into small intestine Produces and secretes pancreatic juice, containing digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions, into small intestine

Alimentary Canal Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Small intestine Mechanical breakdown of food; begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates Connects mouth with esophagus Peristalsis pushes food to stomach Mixes food with bile pancreatic juice; final enzymatic breakdown of food molecules; main site of nutrient absorption Absorbs water and electrolytes to form feces Regulates elimination of feces

Large intestine Rectum anus

Table 17.1 layers of the wall of the alimentary canal Layer Mucosa Submucosa Muscular layer Serosa

p655 Function Protection, secretion, absorption Nourishes, surrounding tissues, transports absorbed materials Movements of the tube and its contents Protection, lubrication

Table 17.3 mouth parts and their function in digestion p660 Part Cheeks Lips Tongue Location Form lateral walls of mouth Surround mouth opening Floor of mouth Function Hold food in mouth; muscles chew food Contain sensory receptors used to judge characteristics of foods Mixes food with saliva; moves food toward pharynx; contains taste receptors Holds food in mouth; directs


Forms roof of mouth 7

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Teeth In sockets of mandibular and maxillary bones food to pharynx Break food particles into smaller pieces; help mix food with saliva during chewing

Table 17.4 The major salivary glands p663 Gland Parotid glands Location Anterior to and somewhat inferior to the ears between the skin of the cheeks and the masseter muscles In the floor of the mouth on the inside surface of the mandible In the floor of the mouth inferior to the tongue Type of secretion Clear, watery serous fluid, rich in salivary amylase

Submandibular glands

Sublingual glands

Some serous fluid with some mucus; more viscous than parotid secretion Primarily thick, stringy mucus

Table 17.5 major components of gastric juice p668 Component Pepsinogen Pepsin Source Chief cells of gastric glands Formed from pepsinogen in the presence of hydrochloric acid Parietal cells of the gastric glands Function Inactive form of pepsin A protein-splitting enzyme that digests nearly all types of dietary protein Provides the acidic environment needed for production and action of pepsin Provides a viscous, alkaline protective layer on the stomachs inner surface Aids in vitamin B12 absorption

Hydrochloric acid


Mucous cells

Intrinsic factor

Parietal cells of gastric glands

Table 17.6 phases of gastric secretion p669 Phase Cephalic phase Action The sight, taste, smell, or thought of food triggers parasympathetic reflexes. Gastric juice is secreted in response Food in stomach chemically and mechanically stimulates secretion of gastrin, which in turn, stimulates secretion of gastric juice; reflex responses also stimulate gastric juice secretion As food enters the small intestine, it stimulates 8

Gastric phase

Intestinal phase

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intestinal cells to release intestinal gastrin, which, in turn, promotes the secretion of gastric juice from the stomach wall

Table 17.7 major functions of the liver p677 Carbohydrate metabolism Lipid metabolism Protein metabolism Storage Blood filtering Detoxification Secretion

Table 17.8 hormones of the digestive tract p678 Hormone Gastrin Intestinal gastrin Somatostatin Intestinal somatostatin cholecytoskinin Secretin source Gastric cells, in response to food Cells of small intestine, in response to chyme Gastric cells Intestinal wall cells, in response to fats Intestinal wall cells, in response to proteins and fats in the small intestine Cells in the duodenal wall, in response to acidic chyme entering the small intestine

Table 17.9 summary of the major digestive enzymes p683 Enzyme Salivary amylase Gastric enzymes Pepsin Gastric lipase Pancreatic enzymes Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic lipase Trypsin, chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Nucleases Intestinal enzymes Peptidase 9 Digestive action Begins carbohydrate digestion by breaking down starch and glycogen to disaccharides Begins protein digestion Begins butterfat digestion Breaks down starch and glycogen into disaccharides Breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol Breaks down proteins or partially digested proteins in to peptides Breaks down peptides into amino acids Breaks down nucleic acids into nucleotides Breaks down peptides into amino acids

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Sucrose, maltase, lactase Intestinal lipase Enterikinase Breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides Breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol Shortens trypsinogen into trypsin

Table 17A Diagnostic tests for colorectal cancer p691 Diagnostic test Digital rectal exam Double-contrast barium enema Fecal occult blood test Colorectal cancer gene test (experimental) Sigmoidoscopy Colonoscopy Description Physician palpates large intestine and rectum x-ray exam following ingestion of contrast agent highlights blockages in large intestine Blood detected in feces sample Mutations associated with colorectal cancer detected in DNA of cells shed with feces Endoscopic views rectum and lower colon Endoscope views rectum and entire colon

Innerconnections p692 Digestive system Integumentary system Skeletal system Muscular system Ingests, digests, and absorbs nutrients for use by al body cells Vitamin D activated in the skin plays a role in absorption of calcium from the digestive tract Bones are important in mastication. Calcium absorption is necessary to maintain bone matrix Muscle are important in mastication, swallowing, and the mixing and moving of digestion products though the gastrointestinal tract Can influence digestive system activity Hormones can influence digestive system activity Bloodstream carries absorbed nutrients to all body cells Plays a major role in the absorption of fats D.S. and R.S. share common anatomical structures Kidneys and liver work together to activate vitamin D In a woman, nutrition is essential for conception and normal development of an embryo and fetus

Nervous system Endocrine system Cardiovascular system Lymphatic system Respiratory system Urinary system Reproductive system


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Chapter 18 Nutrition and metabolism Understanding words p698 Prefix BasDefinition Base Example Basal metabolic rate-metabolic rate of body under resting (basal) conditions Calorie-unit used to measure heat or energy content of foods Carotene-yellowish plant pigement that imparts the color of carrots and other yellowish plant tissues Lipids-fat or fatlike substance insoluble in water Malnutrition-poor nutrition resulting from lack of food or failure to adequately use available foods Nutrient-substance needed to nourish cells Obesity-condition in which the body has excess fat Pellagra-vitamin deficiency condition characterized by inflammation of the skin and other symptoms


Heat Carrot


Fat Bad, abnormal


Nourish Fat Skin

Suffix -meter

Definition Measure

Example Calorimeter-instrument used to measure the caloric content of food

Table 18.1 types of vegetarian diets p699 Type Vegan Ovo-vegetarian Lacto-vegetarian Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Pesco-vegetarian Semivegetarian Food restrictions No animal foods Eggs allowed; no dairy or meat Dairy allowed; no eggs or meat Dairy and eggs allowed; no meat Dairy, eggs and fish allowed; no other meat Dairy, eggs, chicken and fish allowed; no other meat


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Table 18.2 substances that control appetite p700 Substance Insulin State of secretion Pancreas Function Stimulates adipocytes to admit glucose and store fat; glycogen synthesis Suppresses appetite and increases metabolic rate after eating Enhances appetite Enhances appetite



Neuropeptide Y Ghrelin

Hypothalamus Stomach

Table 18.4 carbohydrate, lipid, and protein nutrients Nutrient Carbohydrate Calories per gram 4.1 Conditions associated with Excess Deficiencies Obesity, Metabolic acidosis dental caries, nutritional deficits Obesity, Weight loss, skin increased lesions serum cholesterol, increased risk of heart disease Obesity Extreme weight loss, wasting, anemia, growth retardation





Table 18.6 Vitamin Fallacies and Facts Fallacy The more vitamins, the better Fact Too much of a water-soluble vitamin results in excretion of the vitamin through urination; too much of a fat-soluble vitamin can harm health Many people do need vitamin supplements, particularly pregnant and breast-feeding women Vitamins do not directly supply energy; they air in release of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins 12

A varied diet provides all needed vitamins Vitamins provide energy

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Table 18.8 fat-soluble vitamins p713 Vitamin Functions Sources & RDA for adults Liver, fish, whole milk, butter, eggs, leafy green vegetables, yellow and orange vegetables and fruits 40005000IU Conditions associated with Excess Nausea Headache Dizziness Hair loss Birth defect Deficiencies Nigh blindness Degeneration of epithelial tissues

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

An antioxidant necessary for synthesis of visual pigment, mucoproteins, & mucopolysaccharides; for normal development of bones and teeth; maintenance of epithelial cells Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus; promotes development of teeth and bones An antioxidant; prevents oxidation of vitamin A and polyunsaturated fatty acids; may help maintain stability of cell membranes Required for synthesis of prothrombin, which functions in blood clotting

Produced in skin exposed to UV light; in milk, egg yolk, fish liver oils, fortified foods 400IU Oils from cereal seeds, salad, oils, margarine, shortenings, fruits, nuts, vegetables 30IU Leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, pork liver, soy oil, tomatoes, cauliflower

Diarrhea Calcification of soft tissues, renal damage

Rickets Bone decalcification weakening

Nausea Headache Fatigue Easy bruising and bleeding

Rare, uncertain effects

Jaundice in formula-fed newborns

Prolonged clotting time

Table 18.9 Water-soluble vitamins p719 Vitamin Functions Sources for RDA for adults Len meats, liver, eggs, whole-grain cereals, leafy green vegetables, legumes 1.5 mg 13 Conditions associated with Excess Uncommon, vasodilation, cardiac dysrhythmias Deficiencies Beriberi, muscular weakness, enlarged heart

Thiamine (vitamin B1)

Part of coenzyme required for oxidation of carbohydrates; coenzyme required for ribose synthesis

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Riboflavin (vitamin B2) Part of enzymes and coenzymes, such as FAD, required for oxidation of glucose and fatty acids and for cellular growth Part of coenzymes NAD and NADP required for oxidation of glucose and synthesis of proteins, fats and nucleic acids Part of coenzyme A required of carbohydrates and fats Coenzyme required for synthesis of proteins and various amino acids, for conversion of tryptophan to niacin, for production of antibodies, and for nucleic acid synthesis Part of coenzyme required for synthesis of nucleic acids and for metabolism of carbohydrates; plays role in myelin synthesis; required for normal RBC production Coenzyme required for metabolism of Meats, dairy products, leafy green vegetables, whole-grain cereals 1.7mg None known Dermatitis, blurred vision

Niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3)

Liver, lean meats, peanuts, legumes 20 mg

Flushing, vasodilation, wheezing, liver problems

Pellagra, photosensisitve dermatitis, diarrhea, mental disorders

Panthotenic acid (vitamin B5)

Vitamin B6

Meats, whole grain cereals, legumes, milk, fruits, vegetables 10mg Liver, meats, bananas, beans, peanuts, wholegrain cereals, egg yolk 2mg

None known

Numbness, clumsiness, paralysis

Rare, loss of appetite, mental depression, muscle spasms Rare, convulsions, vomiting seborrhea lesions

Cyanoco-balamin (vitamin B12)

Liver, meats, milk, cheese, eggs 3-6g

None known

Pernicious anemia

Folacin (folic acid)

Liver, leafy green vegetables, wholegrain cereals, 14

None known

Megaloblastic anemia

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certain amino acids and for DNA synthesis; promotes production of normal RBCs Coenzyme required for metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids and for nucleic acid synthesis Required for collagen production, conversion of folacin to folic acid, and metabolism of certain amino acids; promotes absorption of iron and synthesis of hormones from cholesterol legumes 0.4mg


Liver, egg yolk, nuts, legumes, mushrooms 0.3mg

None known

Rare, elevated blood cholesterol, nauseas, fatigue, anorexia

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy green vegetables 60mg

Exacerbates gout and kidney stone formation

Scurvy, lowered resistance to infection, wounds heal slowly

Table 18.10 major minerals Mineral Functions Sources and RDA for adults Milk, milk products, leafy green vegetables 800mg Conditions associated with Excess Kidney stones, deposition of calcium phosphate in soft tissues None known Deficiencies Stunted growth, misshapen bones, fragile bones, tetany Stunted growth

Calcium/ Ca

Structure of bones and teeth; essential for neurotransmitter release, muscle fiber contraction, and blood

Phosphorus (P)


Structure of bones and teeth; in nearly all metabolic reactions; in nucleic acids, many proteins, some enzymes, and some vitamins; in cell membrane, ATP, and phosphates of body fluids Helps maintain intracellular

Meats, cheese, nuts, whole-grain cereals, milk, legumes 800mg

Avocados, dried 15



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(K) osmotic pressure and regulate pH; required for nerve impulse conduction apricots, meats, nuts, potatoes, bananas 2500mg Meats, milk, eggs, legumes No RDA established Table salt, cured ham, sauerkraut, cheese, graham crackers 2500 mg weakness, cardiac abnormalities, edema None known

Sulfur (S)

Essential part of certain amino acids, thiamine, insulin, biotin, and mucopolysaccharides Sodium (Na) Helps maintain osmotic pressure of extracellular fluids; regulates water movement; plays a role in nerve impulse conduction; regulates pH and transport of substances across cell membranes Chloring (Cl) Helps maintain osmotic pressure of extracellular fluids, regulates pH, maintains electrolyte balance; forms hydrochloric acid; aids transport of carbon dioxide by RBCs Magnesium Required in metabolic reactions (Mg) in mitochondria that produce ATP; plays a role in the breakdown of ATP to ADP

None known

Hypertension, Nausea, edema, body cramps, cells shrink convulsions

Same as for sodium No RDA established



Milk, dairy products, legumes, nuts, leafy green vegetables 300-350mg


Neuromascular disturbances

Table 18.11 trace elements p723 Trace element Functions Sources & RDA for adults Liver, lean meats, dried apricots, raisins, enriched whole-grain cereals, legumes, molasses 10-18mg Nuts, legumes, wholegrain cereals, leafy green vegetables, fruits 2.5-5 mg Conditions associated with Excess Liver damage Deficiencies Anemia

Iron (Fe)

Part of hemoglobin molecule; catalyzes formation of vitamin A; incorporated into a number of enzyme Activates enzymes required for fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, formation of urea, and normal functioning of the nervous system Essential for hemoglobin

Manganese (Mn)

None known

None known

Copper (Cu)

Liver, oysters, crabmeat, nuts, whole-grain 16



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synthesis, bone development, melanin production and myelin formation Essential component for synthesis of thyroid hormones cereals, legumes 2-3mg

Iodine (I)

Cobalt (Co)

Zinc (ZN)

Fluorine (F) Selenium (Se) Chromium (Cr)

Component of cyanocobalamin; required for synthesis several enzymes Component of enzymes involved in digestion, respiration, bone metabolism, liver metabolism; necessary for normal wound healing and maintaining integrity of the skin Component of tooth structure Components of certain enzymes Essential for use of carbohydrates

Food content varies with soul content in different geographic regions; iodized table salt 0.15mg Liver, lean meats, milk No RDA established

Decreased uptake by the thyroid gland

Decreased synthesis of thyroid hormones Pernicious anemia

Heart disease

Meats, cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables 15mg

Slurred speech, problems walking

Depressed immunity, loss of taste and smell, learning difficulties

Fluoridated water (1.5-4mg) Lean meats, fish, cereals 0.05-2mg Liver, lean meats, wine 0.05-2mg

Mottled teeth Vomiting, fatigue None known

None known None known None known

Figure 18.20 food guide pyramids-difference between the pyramids p722 Food pyramids organize foods according to suggested proportions of the diet, often in serving sizes. One food pyramid, developed in the US Dept of Agriculture, dominated for years, but new ones offer more specific suggestions geared to age, health, ethnicity, food preferences such as vegetarianism or weight loss goals. Past pyramids can seem strange in light of todays individualized goals. A plan from the 1940s had 8 categories, including separate groups for butter and margarine, and for eggsfoods now associated with the development of heart disease. In the 1920s, an entire food group was devoted to swets.