Anda di halaman 1dari 34
MEKANIKA TEKNIK I PENDAHULUAN
MEKANIKA TEKNIK I
PENDAHULUAN

Apa itu Mekanika?

Cabang ilmu fisika yang berbicara tentang keadaan diam atau geraknya benda-benda yang mengalami kerja atau aksi gaya

Mechanics Rigid Bodies (Things that do not change shape) Deformable Bodies (Things that do change
Mechanics
Rigid Bodies
(Things that do not change shape)
Deformable Bodies
(Things that do change shape)
Fluids
Statics
Dynamics
Incompressible
Compressible

Buku apa yang dipakai?

R. C. Hibbeler, Engineering Mechanics, 7 th - 10 th Edition, Person Prentice-Hall

F. P. Beer and E. R. Johnston Jr., Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, SI Metric Edition, Mcgraw-hill, 3 rd Edition

R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Material, 3 th Edition, Person Prentice-Hall

dll

Bagaimana evaluasinya ?

Tugas-Kuis

UTS

UAS

: 25 %

: 30 % : 45 %

Tidak mentolerir segala bentuk kecurangan

Tapi tetap boleh cross check

Penjelasan TUGAS

Dikerjakan pada kertas A4

Tulis nama dan NIM di sebelah kanan atas,

serta tanggal dan tugas ke berapa

Apa saja yang dipelajari?

Keseimbangan partikel

Keseimbangan benda tegar

Diagram gaya normal, diagram gaya

geser, dan diagram momen

Konsep tegangan

Momen inersia dan momen polar

Teori kegagalan statis

Apa pentingnya mekanika (statik) / keseimbangan ?

Apa pentingnya mekanika (statik) / keseimbangan ?

Apa perbedaan partikel dan benda tegar?

Particle: A very small amount of matter which may be assumed to occupy a single point in space.

Rigid body: A combination of a large number of particles occupying fixed position with respect to each other.

Apa perbedaan Partikel dan Benda Tegar ?

Partikel:

Mempunyai suatu

massa namun ukurannya dapat

diabaikan, sehingga

geometri benda tidak

akan terlibat dalam analisis masalah

Benda Tegar:

Kombinasi sejumlah

partikel yang mana semua partikel

berada pada suatu

jarak tetap terhadap satu dengan yang lain

Contoh Partikel

Contoh Partikel
Contoh Partikel
Contoh Partikel
Contoh Partikel

Contoh Benda Tegar

Contoh Benda Tegar
Contoh Benda Tegar
Contoh Benda Tegar
Contoh Benda Tegar

Review Sistem Satuan

Four fundamental physical quantities. Length, Time, Mass, Force.

• We will work with two unit systems in static’s: SI & US Customary.

will work with two unit systems in static’s: SI & US Customary. Bagaimana konversi dari SI

Bagaimana konversi dari SI ke US atau sebaliknya ?

Apa yang harus dilakukan supaya

Mekanika Teknik menjadi mudah ?

Banyak dan sering menyelesaikan soal-soal

Prosedur mengerjakan soal:

1.

Baca soal dengan cermat

2.

Buat free body diagram dan tabulasikan data soal

3.

Tuliskan prinsip dasar / persamaan yang relevan dengan soal

4.

Selesaikan persamaan se-praktis mungkin sehingga didapat

hasil yang signifikan dan jangan lupa disertai sistem satuan

5.

Pelajari jawaban dengan akal sehat, masuk akal atau tidak

6.

Jika ada waktu, coba pikirkan cara lain untuk menyelesaikan

soal tersebut.

THE WHAT, WHY AND HOW OF A

FREE BODY DIAGRAM (FBD)

Free Body Diagrams are one of the most important things for

you to know how to draw and use.

What ? - It is a drawing that shows all external forces acting on the

particle.

Why ? - It helps you write the equations of equilibrium used to

solve for the unknowns (usually

forces or angles).

Why ? - It helps you write the equations of equilibrium used to solve for the

How ?

1. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its surroundings.

2. Show all the forces that act on the particle.

Active forces: They want to move the particle. Reactive forces: They tend to resist the motion.

3. Identify each force and show all known magnitudes and directions. Show all unknown magnitudes and / or directions as variables .

and directions. Show all unknown magnitudes and / or directions as variables . Note : Engine

Note : Engine mass = 250 Kg

A
A

FBD at A

Fundamental Principles

The parallelogram law for the addition of forces: Two

forces acting on a particle can be replaced by a single

force, called resultant, obtained by drawing the diagonal of the parallelogram which has sides equal to the given forces

f2

f1
f1

f1+f2

by drawing the diagonal of the parallelogram which has sides equal to the given forces f2

Parallelogram Law

Fundamental Principles (cont’)

The principle of transmissibility: A force acting at a point

of a rigid body can be replaced by a force of the the same magnitude and same direction, but acting on at a different point on the line of action

f1
f1

f2

f1 and f2 are equivalent if their

magnitudes are the same and the

object is rigid.

f2 f1 and f2 are equivalent if their magnitudes are the same and the object is

Principle of Transmissibility

APPLICATION OF VECTOR

ADDITION

APPLICATION OF VECTOR ADDITION There are four concurrent cable forces acting on the bracket. How do

There are four concurrent cable forces acting on the bracket.

How do you determine the resultant force acting on the bracket ?

Addition of Vectors

Addition of Vectors C B B C • Trapezoid rule for vector addition • Triangle rule
C B B
C
B
B

C

Addition of Vectors C B B C • Trapezoid rule for vector addition • Triangle rule

Trapezoid rule for vector addition

Triangle rule for vector addition

Law of cosines,

R R

2

P

2

P

Q

Q

2

Law of sines,

2

PQ

cos

B

sin A

sin

B

sin C

 

Q

R

A

Vector addition is commutative,

P

Q

Q

P

Vector subtraction

Sample Problem

Sample Problem The two forces act on a bolt at A . Determine their resultant. SOLUTION:

The two forces act on a bolt at

A. Determine their resultant.

SOLUTION:

Trigonometric solution - use the triangle

rule for vector addition in conjunction with the law of cosines and law of sines to find the resultant.

Sample Problem (cont’)

Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule.

• Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule. From the Law of Cosines, R 2 

From the Law of Cosines,

R

2

P

2

40N

Q

2

2

PQ

cos

2

60N

2

R 97.73N

From the Law of Sines,

sin

A

 

Q

sin

A

 

 

A

sin B

R

sin B

Q

R

sin155

15.04

20  A

35.04

60 N

97.73N

B

2 40N 60N cos155



ADDITION OF SEVERAL VECTORS

ADDITION OF SEVERAL VECTORS • Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components •

Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components

Step 2 is to add all the x

components together and add all the y components together. These

two totals become the resultant

vector.

Step 3 is to find the magnitude

and angle of the resultant vector.

Example of this process,

Example of this process,

You can also represent a 2-D vector with a

magnitude and angle.

You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle.
You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle.
You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle.

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket. Find: The magnitude and angle of the

Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket.

Find:

The magnitude and angle of the resultant force.

Plan:

a) Resolve the forces in their x-y components.

b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector.

c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.

EXAMPLE (continued)

EXAMPLE (continued) F 1 = { 15 sin 40 ° i + 15 cos 40 °

F 1 = { 15 sin 40° i + 15 cos 40° j } kN

= { 9.642 i + 11.49 j } kN

F 2 = { -(12/13)26 i + (5/13)26 j } kN

= { -24 i + 10 j } kN

F 3 = { 36 cos 30° i

36 sin 30° j } kN

= { 31.18 i 18 j } kN

EXAMPLE (continued)

Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get, F R = { (9.642 24 + 31.18) i + (11.49 + 10 18) j } kN = { 16.82 i + 3.49 j } kN

F R = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1/2 = 17.2 kN

= tan -1 (3.49/16.82) = 11.7°

y F R 
y
F
R

x

Sample Problem

Sample Problem Four forces act on bolt A as shown. Determine the resultant of the force

Four forces act on bolt A as shown. Determine the resultant of the force on the bolt.

SOLUTION:

Resolve each force into rectangular components.

Determine the components of the resultant by adding the corresponding force components.

Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant.

Sample Problem (cont’)

Sample Problem (cont’) SOLUTION: • Resolve each force into rectangular components. force mag   x 

SOLUTION:

Resolve each force into rectangular components.

force

mag

 

x

comp

 

y

comp

     

F

1

150

 

129.9

 

75.0

   

F

2

80

 

27.4

 

75.2

   

F

3

110

 

0

 

110.0

 

F

4

100

 

96.6

 

25.9

   

R 199.1

x

R

y

 14.3

Determine the components of the resultant by adding the corresponding force components.

Calculate the magnitude and direction.

components. • Calculate the magnitude and direction. R y R x 14 3 N . 1991

R

y

R

x

14 3 N

.

1991 N

.

tan

4.1

 4.1
 4.1

14.3 N sin

R

199.6 N

R y R x 14 3 N . 1991 N . tan   4.1 

READING QUIZ

1. The subject of mechanics deals with what happens to a body

when

A) magnetic field

is / are applied to it.

B) heat

E) lasers

C) forces

D) neutrons

still remains the basis of most of today’s

engineering sciences.

A) Newtonian Mechanics

C) Euclidean Mechanics

B) Relativistic Mechanics

C) Greek Mechanics

READING QUIZ

3. Which one of the following is a scalar quantity?

A) Force

B) Position

C) Mass

4. For vector addition you have to use

A) Newton’s Second

B) the arithmetic

C) Pascal’s

D) the parallelogram

D) Velocity

law.

CONCEPT QUIZ

5. Can you resolve a 2-D vector along two directions, which are not at 90° to each other?

A)

Yes, but not uniquely.

B)

No.

C)

Yes, uniquely.

6. Can you resolve a 2-D vector along three directions (say at 0, 60, and 120°)?

A)

Yes, but not uniquely.

B)

No.

C)

Yes, uniquely.

ATTENTION QUIZ

7. Resolve F along x and y axes and write it in

vector form. F = {

A) 80 cos (30°) i

B) 80 sin (30°) i

C) 80 sin (30°) i

D) 80 cos (30°)

i

} N

80 sin (30°) j

-

+ 80 cos (30°) j

-

80 cos (30°) j

+ 80 sin (30°) j

y

x 30° F = 80 N
x
30°
F = 80 N

8. Determine the magnitude of the resultant (F 1 + F 2 )

force in N when

F 1 =

{ 20

i

+ 20

j } N .

{ 10

i + 20

j } N

and

F 2 =

A)

30 N

B) 40

N

C) 50 N

D)

60 N

E) 70

N