Anda di halaman 1dari 45

ِ‫حكَامُ ِدمَاءِ الْ َمرْأَةِ الطّ ِب ْي ِعيّة‬

ْ َ‫أ‬
islamic rules ON
MENSTRUATI
ON
AND
POST-NATAL
BLEEDING
by
DR. ABU AMEENAH BILAL PHILIPS
Edited by Riaz Ansary
DAR AL FATAH PUBLICATIONS
2

Copyright 1995 Dar Al Fatah

All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced,


stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any
means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise—without prior permission of the copyright owner.

Printed in the United Arab Emirates

Dar Al Fatah
Printing, Publishing & Distribution Co. Llc.
P.O.Box 23424, Sharjah
Tel: (9716) 322308 / Fax: 322526

International Standard Book Number ( ISBN ): 9960-672-87-7

2
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Transliteration Legend 4
Foreword 5

CHAPTER ONE: The Evidence


Hayd and Nifaas 11
Istihaadah 33

CHAPTER TWO: Aal ‘Uthaymeen’s Rulings


Rulings on Purity and Prayer 45
Rulings on Ramadaan 62
Rulings on Hajj and ‘Umrah 77
Rulings on Divorce 88

CHAPTER THREE: Tahaarah


I. Wudoo’ 91
II. Ghusl 120
III. Tayammum 128

Hadeeth Index 130


Bibliography 141

3
4

TRANSLITERATION
Consonants
Á ’ Ö d
È b Ø t
Ê t Ù th
Ë th Ú ‘
Ì j Û gh
Í h Ý f
Î kh Þ q
Ï d ß k
Ð th á l
Ñ r ã m
Ò z ä n
Ó s å h
Ô sh æ w
Õ s í y

Vowels
ó a óÇ aa
õ u õæ oo
ö i öí ee

4
FOREWORD

I
t has been my intention, for some time now, to prepare a work
concerning the Islamic rules on menstruation and post-natal
bleeding for women, because I found questions on this subject
constantly arising at the end of my lectures in different parts of the
English speaking world. The many questions raised by Muslim
women indicate that existing literature in English does not
sufficiently address the related issues. Until very recently, there were
no books dedicated solely to issues of feminine hygiene. This void is
a direct result of the virtual absence of female scholars of Islamic
law in the Muslim world today.
There are certain basic rules governing female bleeding
which are clearly defined by the Sunnah and the judicial
1

explanations given by the Prophet’s wives and his companions.


Compilations of these laws and rulings in English may be found in
hadeeth compilations like Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan
2

Abu Dawud, Mishkat ul-Masabih, etc., as well as in good Fiqh 3

books like Fiqh us-Sunnah by Shaykh Sayyid Saabiq, which does


4

not restrict itself to the juristic opinions of a single school of Islamic

1 The sayings, acts and approvals of Prophet Muhammad (ρ ) which have


legal force.
2 Narrations containing the statements and actions of the Prophet (ρ ).
3 Applied Islamic law.
4 The Arabic original is in three volumes and the English translation by
Jamal Zarabozo and Said Dabbas is to be in twelve volumes, five of which
have been published to date by American Trust Publications in the USA and
the International Islamic Publishing House in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

5
6

legal thought. However, after reviewing Fiqh us-Sunnah, I realized


5 6

that there were a number of hadeeth texts not included in the


author’s presentation. Consequently, I decided to make a
7

comprehensive compilation of the hadeeths related to female


bleeding, thereby providing the reader with sufficient basic data to
understand the basic rules regarding this subject. However, there
are a number of issues related to female bleeding that are not
covered in the basic texts. The deduction of laws concerning these
issues and others not ruled upon by the earlier generations of
scholars can only be made by those who have a thorough knowledge
of the Sharee‘ah, its guiding principles and its goals.
8

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih Aal ‘Uthaymeen is well


known in the Muslim world today as one of the leading scholars of
Islamic Law. A number of his rulings have been compiled and
published in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, among them a
couple of booklets on female bleeding. Daarul-Birr Society in Dubai,
with whom I am presently working, asked me to review a translation
of a collection of Shaykh Aal ‘Uthaymeen’s rulings on female
bleeding entitled Ithnaani wa Khamsoona Su’aalan ‘an Ahkaam il-
Hayd. This forty-nine page booklet is quite popular in the Arab
9

world due to its concise coverage of the major problematic issues

5 The Reliance of the Traveller is a recent English translation of Ahmad


Naqeeb al-Misri’s legal compendium, ‘Umdat us-Saalik, which is according
to the Shaafi‘ee school of law, and al-Hedaya is an old English translation
of the major compilation of legal rulings based on the Hanafee school of
law.
6 Vol. 1, pp. 69-74.
7 For example, the hadeeths concerning the penalty for engaging in sexual
intercourse during menses, or taking a ghusl for each prayer in the case of
prolonged blood-flow ( istihaadah ), etc.
8 Islamic law as revealed in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah.
9 Fifty-Two Questions on the Laws Concerning Menstruation.

6
related to female hygiene and Islamic law. Unfortunately, I found
the translation inadequate and unsuitable for publication.
Consequently, I was obliged to undertake the project of retranslating
the booklet.
Upon completion of my retranslation of Shaykh Aal
‘Uthaymeen's “Fifty-two Questions” booklet, I realized that most of
the hadeeths referred to by the author, directly or indirectly, were not
quoted in their entirety and that there was a wealth of material not
mentioned at all. It has always been my position that Muslims
should be encouraged to gain their basic understanding of the
religion from the Qur’aan and hadeeths, wherever possible.
Consequently, I decided to provide the reader with a more
comprehensive text by compiling and explaining the basic evidence
for the rulings on female bleeding as the first chapter of my own
book and to add the Shaykh’s rulings as its second chapter.
In the course of my preparation of the Shaykh’s booklet for
the second chapter of my book, I decided to make certain changes in
order to make the material more readable and interesting. Primarily,
I deleted repeated questions and answers. Although the compiler of
the Arabic booklet stated that some questions and answers were
repeated because there were subtle differences in both the questions
and the Shaykh's answers which warranted their repetition, I chose
not to repeat them but to combine them into a single question
wherever possible. Consequently, the number of questions and
answers dropped by eight, from the original fifty-two to forty-four.
Some of the questions and answers have been rearranged to provide
a more logical flow of ideas. Furthermore, wherever Shaykh Aal
‘Uthaymeen mentioned opinions of other scholars or schools of
Islamic law which he considered inaccurate or weak, I relegated
them to the footnotes, so as not to confuse the reader who has no
academic background in Islamic law. It should also be noted that,

7
8

where necessary, the wording in both the questions and the answers
have been modified in their translation for clarity, because literal
translations are often very misleading. In the second chapter of this
work I have sought to present in English the essence of the Arabic
original, and I pray that I have succeeded in doing so. Fifteen
questions and answers from a recently published collection of
Islamic rulings on women’s issues, Fataawaa al-Mar’ah, were also
added to Chapter Two in order to widen the scope of this work and
increase its benefit. Footnotes indicating the name of the scholar
who made the ruling and the source (i.e. Fataawaa al-Mar’ah) were
also added to distinguish between the rulings from Shaykh Ibn Aal
‘Uthaymeen’s booklet and those from Fataawaa al-Mar’ah. This
book was also given to two Muslim female gynecologists and a
number of Muslim women from different parts of the world for
review and comment. Their suggestions and relevant information
from medical texts have been included in the footnotes.
I have referenced all of the hadeeths and Qur’aanic verses
mentioned in the text, and the location of hadeeths in existing
English translations were also added for the convenience of English
readers. Furthermore, all of the hadeeths not found in the authentic
collections of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim were checked for
authenticity according to the monumental work of Shaykh Naasirud-
Deen al-Albaanee on the Sunan and other works.
Since there are a number of references in the hadeeths and
the Shaykh’s booklet to wudoo’ and ghusl, I thought it appropriate to
mention some of the authentic narrations describing these methods
of ritual purification as a third chapter to the book. This chapter is of
particular importance to Muslim women due to the widespread
ignorance among them today regarding some of the most basic
religious matters.

8
In closing, I ask Allaah to reward all who have contributed in
putting this booklet in the hands of English readers, especially my
wife, Sakeenah, who did the English editing, my typist, Raja
Muhammad, and my department researcher, ‘Abdul-Majeed ‘Alee
Hasan, who helped in the referencing of hadeeths. I ask Allaah to
accept our sincere efforts to serve the religion of Islaam.

Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips


U.A.E.
7th July 1994

9
CHAPTER ONE: The Evidence
HAYD, NIFAAS AND ISTIHAADAH

T
he Arabic term hayd literally means “flowing.” However,
according to Islamic law it refers to the regular flow of blood
from the vagina of a healthy woman that is not a result of
childbirth or the breaking of the hymen. Thus, the term hayd
corresponds to the English term “menstruation” or “menses”.
Women should not feel sad or inconvenienced because of the
restrictions and difficulties associated with menses, because Allaah
destined it for them as a part of the trials of this life.

{ÇáóÐì ÎóáóÞó ÇáãóæúÊó æÇáúÍóíóæÉó


áöíÈúáõæóßõãú Ãóíøõßõãú ÃóÍúÓóäõ ÚóãóáÇð æåõæó
ÇáúÚÒöíÒõ ÇáúÛóÝõæÑõ}
“It is He who created death and life to determine
by tests which one of you is the best in deeds, and
He is the Almighty, the Forgiving.”
Soorah al-Mulk (67):2
Allaah made menses an essential part of the life-giving process by
which the female body is prepared for accepting and nurturing the
fertilized human egg. Consequently, the Prophet (ρ ) emphasized to
Muslim women that the trials of menses were a part of the divine
destiny which every Muslim must believe in and accept as a pillar of
faith. ‘Aa’ishah said,
ÎóÑóÌúäóÇ áÇó äóÑóì ÅöáÇøó ÇáúÍóÌøó ÝóáóãøóÇ ßõäøóÇ
ÈöÓóÑöÝó ÍöÖúÊõ ÝóÏóÎóáó Úóáóíøó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ )
æóÃóäóÇ ÃóÈúßöí. ÞóÇáó ((ãóÇ áóßö ¿ ÃóäõÝöÓúÊö ¿))
ÞõáúÊõ :äóÚóãú . ÞóÇáó (( Åöäøó åóÐóÇ
((. ÃóãúÑñ ßóÊóÈóåõ Çááøóåõ Úóáóì ÈóäóÇÊö ÂÏóãó
“We set out with the sole intention of performing Hajj and when we
reached Sarif, my menses began. The Messenger of Allaah (ρ )
10

came to me while I was crying and asked, ‘What is the matter with
you? Has your menses started?’ I replied, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘This is
something which Allaah has destined for the daughters of
Aadam.’ ” The Prophet’s companion, Ibn ‘Abbaas, was reported to
11

have said, “Menstruation began with Eve after she came out of
paradise.” 12

Beginning of Menses
There is no evidence from the Qur’aan or the authentic
traditions of Prophet Muhammad (ρ ) indicating the youngest age for
menses to begin or the oldest age for it to continue, nor the length
13 14

of the menses or the length of the period of purity between menses


(tuhr). The basic Qur’aanic text regarding menses is:
15

æíóÓóÆúáõæäóßó Úóäö {
ÇáúãóÍöíÖö Þõáú åõæ ÃóÐìð
ÝÇóÚúÊóÒöáõæÇ ÇáäøöÓóÇÁó
10 A place six miles outside of Makkah.
11 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 177-8, no. 293 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p.
607, no. 2791.
12 Collected by al-Haakim and Ibn al-Munthir and graded authentic (see
Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 477).
13 The hadeeth attributed to ‘Aa’ishah, “When a young girl reaches nine
years of age, she is a woman,” and collected by at-Tirmithee, al-Bayhaqee,
Aboo Nu‘aym and ad-Daylamee is not authentic (See, Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel,
vol. 1, p. 199, no. 185).
14 The statement attributed to ‘Aa’ishah, “When a woman reaches fifty
years of age, she has passed the limit of menstruation.” and collected by
Ahmad is also not authentic (See Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, vol. 1, p. 200, no. 186).
15 See ash-Shawkaanee’s ad-Daraaree al-Mudeeyah, vol. 1, p. 67.
ÝöÜí ÇáúãóÍöíÜÖö æóáÇ
ÊóÞúÑóÈõæåõäøó
} ÍóÊøóìíóØúåõÑúäó
“They ask you concerning menstruation. Tell them
that it is harmful, so they should avoid (sexual
intercourse with) women during their menses. They
should not come to them until they have become
pure...”
Soorah al-Baqarah (2):222
This verse only defines the law regarding sexual intercourse during
menses without specifying age. Therefore, as long as the bleeding
corresponds in nature to menstrual bleeding, it is to be considered
menses. ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr reported that the Prophet (ρ ) said to
Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh, who was experiencing a prolonged
blood-flow,
ÅöÐóÇ ßóÇäó Ïóãõ ÇáúÍóíúÖóÉö ÝóÅöäøóåõ ((
((. ÃóÓúæóÏõ íõÚúÑóÝõ
“When the blood of menses comes, it is dark and recognizable.” 16

Formal Prayer
Women are not allowed to make formal prayers (Salaah) in
a state of menstruation. ‘Aa’ishah reported that the Prophet (ρ ) said,

ÅöÐóÇ ÃóÞúÈóáóÊö ÇáúÍóíúÖóÉõ ÝóÏóÚöí ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó))


æóÅöÐóÇ ÃóÏúÈóÑóÊú ÝóÇÛúÓöáöí Úóäúßö ÇáÏøóãó
((.æóÕóáøöí

16Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 78, no. 304 and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 55, no. 263.
“Stop formal prayer when your menses begins. When it is finished,
wash off the blood from your body and return to formal prayer.” 17

However, menses does not restrict them from making supplications


(du‘aa).
It was the practice of the Prophet’s wife, Maymoonah,
during her menses not to pray, but to sit on a mat beside the
Prophet’s mosque. 18

‘Eed Prayers
In the case of ‘Eed prayers, all women are enjoined to
participate in the gathering, regardless of their condition. However,
only those who are able to make formal prayer should join the ‘Eed
prayer.
Úóäú ÃóíøõæÈó Úóäú ÍóÝúÕóÉó ÞóÇáóÊú ßõäøóÇ äóãúäóÚõ
ÚóæóÇÊöÞóäóÇ Ãóäú íóÎúÑõÌúäó Ýöí ÇáúÚöíÏóíúäö ÝóÞóÏöãóÊö
ÇãúÑóÃóÉñ ÝóäóÒóáóÊú ÞóÕúÑó Èóäöí ÎóáóÝò ÝóÍóÏøóËóÊú
Úóäú ÃõÎúÊöåóÇ æóßóÇäó ÒóæúÌõ ÃõÎúÊöåóÇ ÛóÒóÇ ãóÚó
ÇáäøóÈöíøö Õóáøóì Çááøóåõ Úóáóíúåö æóÓóáøóãó ËöäúÊóíú
ÚóÔóÑóÉó ÛóÒúæóÉð æóßóÇäóÊú ÃõÎúÊöí ãóÚóåõ Ýöí ÓöÊøò
ÞóÇáóÊú ßõäøóÇ äõÏóÇæöí Çáúßóáúãóì æóäóÞõæãõ Úóáóì
ÇáúãóÑúÖóì ÝóÓóÃóáóÊú ÃõÎúÊöí ÇáäøóÈöíøó (ρ ) ÃóÚóáóì
ÅöÍúÏóÇäóÇ ÈóÃúÓñ ÅöÐóÇ áóãú íóßõäú áóåóÇ ÌöáúÈóÇÈñ Ãóäú
áÇó ÊóÎúÑõÌó ÞóÇáó áöÊõáúÈöÓúåóÇ ÕóÇÍöÈóÊõåóÇ ãöäú
ÌöáúÈóÇÈöåóÇ æóáúÊóÔúåóÏ ÇáúÎóíúÑó æóÏóÚúæóÉó
ÇáúãõÓúáöãöíäó ÝóáóãøóÇ ÞóÏöãóÊú Ãõãøõ ÚóØöíøóÉó
ÓóÃóáúÊõåóÇ ÃóÓóãöÚúÊö ÇáäøóÈöíøó (ρ ) ÞóÇáóÊú ÈöÃóÈöí
äóÚóãú æóßóÇäóÊú áÇó ÊóÐúßõÑõåõ ÅöáÇøó ÞóÇáóÊú ÈöÃóÈöí
ÓóãöÚúÊõåõ íóÞõæáõ (( íóÎúÑõÌõ ÇáúÚóæóÇÊöÞõ æóÐóæóÇÊõ
ÇáúÎõÏõæÑö Ãóæö ÇáúÚóæóÇÊöÞõ ÐóæóÇÊõ ÇáúÎõÏõæÑö
æóÇáúÍõíøóÖõ æóáúíóÔúåóÏúäó ÇáúÎóíúÑó æóÏóÚúæóÉó
((. ÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó æóíóÚúÊóÒöáõ ÇáúÍõíøóÖõ ÇáúãõÕóáøóì
17 Sahih Al-Bukhari , vol. 1, p. 196, no. 327.
18 Ibid., p. 197, no. 329.
Ayyoub related that Hafsah said: We used to forbid our young
women from attending the ‘Eed prayers. However, a woman who
came and stayed at the fort of the Khalaf tribe, told that her sister 19

said, “We used to treat those wounded [in battle] and look
after the patients, and once I asked the Prophet (ρ ), ‘Is there any
harm if one of us stays at home [instead of attending the ‘Eed
prayers] because she does not have an outer garment?’ He said,
‘She should cover herself by sharing the outer garment of her
friend, share in the good and participate in the gathering of
Muslims.’ ”
When Umm ‘Ateeyah came, Hafsah asked her whether she
had heard that from the Prophet (ρ ) herself. She replied, “Yes—
may my father be sacrificed for him—I heard the Prophet (ρ ) say
that the unmarried virgins, mature women and menstruating
women should witness the good and the religious gathering of
Muslims, but the menstruating women should keep away from the
prayer-ground.” 20

In Muslim countries where the ‘Eed prayer-grounds are


surrounded by a wall, menstruating women may come inside the
enclosure, but sit or stand behind the rows of praying women.

Entering The Masjid


Menstruating women are permitted to enter the masjid
where there is a need. 21

19 The narration also stated that her “husband took part in twelve battles
along with the Prophet (ρ ) and her sister was in six of them along with her
husband.”
20 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 192-3, no. 321.
21 The hadeeth attributed to ‘Aa’ishah in which she quoted the Prophet (ρ )
as saying,
(( ÝóÅöäøöí áÇó ÃõÍöáøõ ÇáúãóÓúÌöÏó áöÍóÇÆöÖò æóáÇó ÌõäõÈ .))
“I do not permit a sexually defiled person (junub) or a menstruating woman
to enter the masjid.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 57, no. 232) has been
ruled inauthentic in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, vol. 1, p. 210-2, no. 193.
Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó ÞóÇáóÊú : ÞóÇáó áöí ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö
(ρ ) (( äóÇæöáöíäöí ÇáúÎõãúÑóÉó ãöäó ÇáúãóÓúÌöÏö .))
ÝóÞõáúÊõ : Åöäøöí ÍóÇÆöÖñ . ÝóÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ )
(( Åöäøó ÍóíúÖóÊóßö
((. áóíúÓóÊú Ýöí íóÏößö
‘Aa’ishah said: The Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) once told me to get
his mat from the masjid and I said, “I am menstruating!” He
replied, “Your menses is not on your hands.” 22

Touching And Reciting Qur’aan

22Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 65, no. 261 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p.
175, no. 587.
Menstruating women are permitted to read and touch the
Qur’aan. Ibraaheem an-Nakha‘ee said, “There is no harm in
23 24

menstruating woman reciting a Qur’aanic verse.” Ibn ‘Abbaas25

ruled that there was no harm if a person who was junub recited the
Qur’aan. Umm ‘Ateeyah reported that they were instructed to let the
menstruating women come out for the ‘Eeds and say, “Allaahu
akbar (Allaah is the greatest).” Ibn ‘Abbaas quoted Aboo Sufyaan
26

23 Although many scholars have prohibited menstruating women and people


in a state of sexual defilement (junub) from reciting the Qur’aan or touching
it, Imaam al-Bukhaaree took the position that there was no authentic
evidence to support such a position and that it was in fact permitted. In
support of his view he mentioned the positions of some of the early scholars
who also permitted reciting and touching the Qur’aan in order to show that
the prohibition of menstruating women from reciting the Qur’aan was not
unanimous among scholars of the past. (Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 305).
Ibn Taymeeyah said, “The prohibition of women from reading the Qur’aan
has no basis in either the Qur’aan or the Sunnah. The statement attributed
to the Prophet (ρ ), “The menstruating woman or person sexually defiled
(junub) should not read anything of the Qur’aan.” is not authentic,
according to the unanimous opinion of the hadeeth scholars. Undoubtedly,
women used to menstruate during the Prophet’s era, and if recitation of the
Qur’aan was prohibited as formal prayer was prohibited, the Prophet ( ρ )
would have explained it to his followers and his wives, and it would have
been transmitted to us. Consequently, since no prohibition has been
transmitted from the Prophet (ρ ), it is not permissible to declare it haraam
(forbidden) while knowing that he did not prohibit it. And if he did not
prohibit it, in spite of the many cases of menstruation during his time, it is
obvious that it is not haraam (Majmoo‘ al-Fataawaa , vol. 26, p. 191).
24 A leading scholar among the students of the companions of the Prophet
(ρ )
25 It was also the opinion of Imaam Maalik (Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p.
305).
26 Imaam al-Bukhaaree quoted this anecdote to show that since
menstruating women were instructed to mention Allaah’s names and
attributes, they should also be allowed to read the Qur’aan, in which
as saying, “Heraclius asked for the letter from the Prophet (ρ ) and
read it. It began: ‘In the name of Allaah, the Beneficent, the Most
Merciful. O people of the scripture, let us come to a common
principle between us, that we do not worship anyone [or
anything] besides Allaah.’ ” 27 28

Fasting
Menstruating women are exempted from fasting, regardless
of whether they feel themselves weakened by it or not. Allaah has
not permitted them to fast in His infinite wisdom, which the
believers are required to accept unquestioningly.

Úóäú ÃóÈöí ÓóÚöíÏò ÇáúÎõÏúÑöíøö ÞóÇáó :


ÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ) ((... ÃóáóíúÓó
ÅöÐóÇ ÍóÇÖóÊú áóãú ÊõÕóáøö æóáóãú
((¿ÊóÕõãú
Aboo Sa‘eed al-Khudree quoted the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) as
saying, “...Is it not true that a woman can neither pray nor fast
during her menses?” 29

Hajj Rites

Allaah’s names and attributes are also mentioned..


27 Soorah Aal ‘Imraan (3): 64.
28 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 182, chapter 9. Imaam al-Bukhaaree
mentioned this incident, which can be found in its entirety in the chapter on
revelation, in order to prove that since the Prophet (ρ ) sent verses of the
Qur’aan to the pagans, who were in a state of defilement, a menstruating
woman should be able to read the Qur’aan.
29 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 181, no. 301, and Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pp. 47-8, no.
142
(narrated by Ibn ‘Umar).
With regard to the rites of Hajj, menstruating women are
allowed to perform all of them, with the exception of the formal
prayers and the rite of walking around the Ka‘bah seven times
(tawaaf).
‘Aa’ishah said: We set out with the sole intention of performing
Hajj and when we reached Sarif, my menses began. The
30

Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) came to me while I was crying and asked,


“What is the matter with you? Has your menses started?” I replied,
“Yes.” He said,
Åöäøó åóÐóÇ ÃóãúÑñ ßóÊóÈóåõ Çááøóåõ Úóáóì ÈóäóÇÊö ))
ÂÏóãó ÝóÇÞúÖöí ãóÇ íóÞúÖöí ÇáúÍóÇÌøõ ÛóíúÑó Ãóäú áÇó
((ÊóØõæÝöí ÈöÇáúÈóíúÊö
“This is something which Allaah has destined for the daughters of
Aadam. So do all the rites that the pilgrims do, except Tawaaf. ” 31 32

æ Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó ÞóÇáóÊú áöÑóÓõæáö Çááøóåö


(ρ ) íóÇ ÑóÓõæáó Çááøóåö ¡ Åöäøó ÕóÝöíøóÉó
ÈöäúÊó Íõíóíøò ÞóÏú ÍóÇÖóÊú . ÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ
Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( áóÚóáøóåóÇ ÊóÍúÈöÓõäóÇ Ãóáóãú
Êóßõäú ØóÇÝóÊú ãóÚóßõäøó ¿)) ÝóÞóÇáõæÇ :
((. Èóáóì . ÞóÇáó ((ÝóÇÎúÑõÌöí
‘Aa’ishah also related that she told the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) that
Safeeyah bint Huyay began menstruating and he said, “Perhaps she
will delay us. Did she make Tawaaf ?” We replied, “Yes.” He then
told her to go ahead. 33

Divorce
It is prohibited to pronounce divorce when a woman is on
30 A place six miles outside of Makkah.
31 Walking around the Ka‘bah seven times.
32 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 177-8, no. 293 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p.
607, no. 2791.
33 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 195, no. 325.
her menses. Instead, she must be in a period of purity (between
menses) in which her husband has not had sexual relations with her.
‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar reported that he had divorced his wife while
she was menstruating and his father had asked the Messenger of
34

Allaah (ρ ) about it. He replied,

áöíõÑóÇÌöÚúåóÇ Ëõãøó íõãúÓößúåóÇ ÍóÊøóì ÊóØúåõÑó ))


Ëõãøó ÊóÍöíÖó ÝóÊóØúåõÑó ÝóÅöäú ÈóÏóÇ áóåõ Ãóäú
íõØóáøöÞóåóÇ ÝóáúíõØóáøöÞúåóÇ ØóÇåöÑðÇ ÞóÈúáó Ãóäú
íóãóÓøóåóÇ ÝóÊöáúßó ÇáúÚöÏøóÉõ ßóãóÇ ÃóãóÑó Çááøóåõ
((ÚóÒøó æóÌóáøó
“Instruct your son to take her back and keep her until she is clean.
Then he should wait until she menstruates and becomes clean
again. If he then wishes to keep her, he may do so, and if he wishes
to divorce her, he may do so without having sex with her. That is the
period which Allaah prescribed for divorcing women.” 35

The pronouncement of divorce during menses is still


counted as one pronouncement. Yoonus ibn Jubayr asked Ibn ‘Umar,
“Is the pronouncement of divorce counted if a person divorces his
wife while she is in a state of menses?” He replied, “Why not? Was
he helpless or foolish?” However, one who does so has committed
36

a sin. When Ibn ‘Umar was asked about a person who divorces his
wife while she is menstruating, he replied, “If he pronounced one or
two divorces, Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) would command him to take
her back, allow her respite until she enters her second menses, allow
her respite until she is purified, then divorce her without having sex
with her. If he had pronounced three divorces, he would have

34 The second Caliph, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab.


35 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 7, p. 129, no. 178 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p.
756, no. 3475.
36 Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p. 757, no. 3484.
disobeyed his Lord’s command regarding divorce, but she would be
irrevocably separated from him.” 37

Clothes Worn During Menses


There is no requirement that women wear special garments
during menses, as ‘Aa’ishah explained that many of them only had a
single dress, which they used during and after menstruation.
‘Aa’ishah was quoted as saying, “None of us had more than a
single garment and we used to wear it while menstruating.” 38

However, it is permissible for women to set aside a particular dress


to wear during menses, if they so desire. Umm Salamah said:
ÈóíúäóÇ ÃóäóÇ ãóÚó ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) ãõÖúØóÌöÚóÉñ Ýöí
ÎóãöíáóÉò ÍöÖúÊõ ¡ ÝóÇäúÓóáóáúÊõ ÝóÃóÎóÐúÊõ ËöíóÇÈó
ÍöíÖóÊöí ¡ ÝóÞóÇáó ((ÃóäõÝöÓúÊö¿ )) ÝóÞõáúÊõ : äóÚóãú .
. ÝóÏóÚóÇäöí ÝóÇÖúØóÌóÚúÊõ ãóÚóåõ Ýöí ÇáúÎóãöíáóÉö
While I was lying with the Prophet (ρ ) under a woolen blanket, my
menses began. So I slipped away and put on my menses garment.
The Prophet (ρ ) asked me, “Did your menses start?” I replied,
“Yes.” He called me back and I slept with him under the same
woolen blanket. 39

Associating With Menstruating Women


The menstruating woman is not considered defiled in such a
way that she will defile objects or others whom she comes in contact

37 Ibid., p. 756, no. 3477.


38 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 185, no. 309.
39 Ibid., p. 192, no. 320.
with, as in Judeo-Christian tradition. She is considered
40

fundamentally clean as the Prophet (ρ ) said,


((. Åöäøó ÇáúãõÄúãöäó áÇó íóäúÌõÓõ ))
“The believer can never become defiled.” 41

“Anas ibn Maalik said: Among the Jews (in Madeenah), when a
woman menstruated, they ejected her from the house, and they did
not eat nor drink with her, nor did they associate with her in their
houses, so the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) was questioned about that
practice. Allaah then revealed the verse: “They question you
concerning menses. Tell them: It is an illness, so stay away from
women during menses.” Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) then said,
42

ÌóÇãöÚõæåõäøó Ýöí ÇáúÈõíõæÊö æóÇÕúäóÚõæÇ ßõáøó))


((ÔóíúÁò ÛóíúÑó ÇáäøößóÇÍö
“Associate with them in your houses and do everything except
sexual intercourse.” The Jews then said, “This man does not want
to leave anything we do without opposing it.” 43

The Prophet (ρ ) himself demonstrated for his followers a


total acceptance of contact with menstruating women. ‘Aa’ishah
said: “I would eat flesh from a bone when I was menstruating, then
hand it over to the Prophet (ρ ) and he would put his mouth where I
40 Jewish law regarding the menstruating woman is as follows: “19. When a
woman has a discharge of blood which is her regular discharge from her
body, she shall be in her impurity for seven days, and whoever touches her
shall be unclean until the evening. 20. And everything upon which she lies
during her impurity shall be unclean; everything also upon which she sits
shall be unclean. 21. And whoever touches her bed shall wash his clothes,
and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening.” (Leviticus
15:19-21.)
41 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 203, no. 723.
42 Soorah al-Baqarah (2):222. See p. 13 for a variant translation.
43 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pp. 175-6, no. 592 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p.
64, no. 258.
had put my mouth; I would drink, then hand it over to him, and he
would put his mouth at the place where I drank from.” She also
44

said: “Allaah’s Messenger used to rest his head on my lap when I


was menstruating, then recite the Qur’aan.” 45

‘Aa’ishah was further quoted as saying that she used to


comb the hair of the Messenger of Allaah while she was
menstruating and he was doing I‘tikaaf. He would extend his head
46

into her room [which was adjoining the mosque] and she would
comb his hair. 47

He even used to fondle and lie with his menstruating wives


in order to practically demonstrate to his followers what was
permissible and to remove any doubts which they may have had
regarding such practices. Maymoonah said, “The Prophet (ρ ) used
to fondle and embrace his wives during their menses. They would
wear a wrap up to mid-thigh or up to the knees.” ‘Aa’ishah was
48

reported to have said, “The Messenger of Allah (ρ ) and I used to


pass the night together with only a single piece of cloth on me,
though I was menstruating profusely. If any blood got on his body
or clothing, he would wash only the spot [of blood] and pray in the
garment.” 49

44 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 175, no. 590 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p.
65, no. 259.
45 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 179, no. 296 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1,
p. 65, no. 260.
46 Seclusion in the mosque for the purpose of dedicating some days for the
worshipping of Allaah. During seclusion, no sexual relations are permitted
and one may not leave the mosque except in cases of dire need.
47 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 178-9, no. 295.
48 Ibid., p. 181, no. 300 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 66, no. 267.
49 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 67, no. 269 and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 51, no. 241.
Sexual Intercourse During Menses
The only act which is forbidden is sexual intercourse, as
Allaah stated in the Qur’aan:

æóíóÓúÆóáõæäóßó Úóäö ÇáúãóÍöíúÖö Þõáú åõæó ÃóÐìð {


}ÝóÇÚúÊóÒöáõæÇ ÇáäøöÓóÇÁó Ýöì ÇáúãóÍöíúÖö
“They question you concerning menses. Tell them:
It is an illness, so stay away from women during
menses.”
Soorah al-Baqarah (2):222

Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) further clarified this verse saying,


“Associate with them in your houses and do everything except
sexual intercourse.” 50

The verse mentions the reason for the law along with the
law, which, given human nature, is more likely to result in
compliance with the prohibition. Menstruation is the process of
shedding uterine tissue that the body had produced to receive a
fertilized egg. Since the fertilized egg did not embed itself in the
tissue, the body sloughs it off in order to prepare for the next cycle
of ovulation. The woman’s reproductive system is not in a state of
readiness for intercourse, because it is preoccupied with this
process. Stimulation of her reproductive system by intercourse at
this time can cause uterine congestion and increase the menstrual
flow. The tissue of the vaginal walls is more susceptible at this time
to flaking away from the abrasion of intercourse. An orgasm during
menstruation may encourage a backward flow of menstrual blood
through the fallopian tubes into the abdominal cavity, which could
lead to endometriosis, the growth of uterine-lining tissue outside the
50Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pp. 175-6, no. 592 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p.
64, no. 258.
uterus, a condition associated with painful menses and anal bleeding.
Intercourse at this time can be harmful to the man as well. Menstrual
blood is a nutrient-rich medium for bacteria. If some of it enters the
man’s urethra, it can result in an inflammation with gonorrhea-like
symptoms. 51

However, if someone does indulge out of weakness, he is


required to atone by giving some money in charity to the poor.

Úóäö ÇÈúäö ÚóÈøóÇÓò Úóäö ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) Ýöí


ÇáøóÐöí íóÃúÊöí ÇãúÑóÃóÊóåõ æóåöíó ÍóÇÆöÖñ ¡
ÞóÇáó (( íóÊóÕóÏøóÞõ ÈöÏöíäóÇÑò Ãóæú
((. äöÕúÝö ÏöíäóÇÑò
Ibn ‘Abbaas reported that the Prophet (ρ ) said that a person who
had intercourse with his wife during her menses must give a dinar 52

or half a dinar in charity. Ibn ‘Abbaas clarified that if sexual


53

relations occurred in the beginning of the menses, the penalty was


one dinar and if at the end of the menses, the penalty was half a
dinar.
54

Sexual intercourse does not become permissible until


menstruation has ended and the woman has performed a ghusl or
wudoo’ or has at least washed away the traces of blood from her
private parts, as indicated by verse 222 of Soorah al-Baqarah:

51 See Principles of Gynaecology, p. 88, and Current Medical Treatment


and Diagnosis 1982, p. 443.
52 A dinar is equivalent to 4.25 grams of gold. (See Bidaayah al-Mujtahid,
vol. 2, p. 79.
53 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 66, no. 264, and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 51, no. 237.
54 Ibid., no. 265 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1,
p. 51, no. 238.
æó áÇó ÊóÞúÑóÈõæåõäøó ÍóÊøóì íóØúåõÑúäó {
ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÊóØøóåøóÑúäó ÝóÃúÊõæåõäøó ãöäú ÍóíËõ
} ÃãóÑóßõãõ Çááøóåõ
“...and do not approach them until they are clean;
but when they have purified themselves, you may
approach them in the way ordained by Allaah.”

Ibn ‘Abbaas said that yat-hurna (they are clean) means from blood,
while tattahharna (they have purified themselves) means with
water. The opinion of the majority of scholars is that a complete
55

ghusl is the only form of purification referred to here, but ‘Ataa’ ibn
Abee Rabaah, Qataadah, al-Awzaa‘ee and Ibn Hazm all held the
opinion that washing the private parts was the minimum
requirement. Among their proofs is verse 108 of Soorah at-Tawbah:

áóãóÓúÌöÏñ ÃõõÓøöÓó Úóáóì ÇáøóÊøÞúæóì ãöäú Ãóæøóáö íóæãòò {


ÃóÍóÞøõ Ãóäú ÊóÞõæãó Ýöíåö Ýöíåö ÑöÌóÇáñ íõÍöÈøõæäó Ãóäú

}íóÊóØóåøóÑõæÇ æó Çááøóåõ íõÍöÈøõ ÇáúãõÊóØóåøöÑöíäó


“Certainly a masjid founded on piety is more
deserving that you should stand in it; in it are men
who love to be purified; and Allaah loves those who
purify themselves.”
The same verb, tatahhara, is used for purification in both verses.
The circumstances of revelation indicate that the purification praised
in the verse was the washing of the private parts with water after
going to the bathroom. As for the version of the hadeeth of Ibn
56

55 See Ibn Katheer’s Tafseer al-Qur’aan al-‘Atheem, vol. 1, pp. 350-1


56 Reported by Aboo Daawood (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 10, no. 44)
and authenticated by al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p.
11, no. 24.
‘Abbaas which stipulates one-half dinar as the expiation for
intercourse with one’s wife after her menses but before she has
bathed, it is weak. The authentic version of the hadeeth, as reported
by Aboo Daawood, does not mention this distinction. There are no
authentic hadeeths indicating the necessity of a ghusl before sex
with a woman who has stopped menstruating. However, a ghusl is
57

best in this situation, as it is the most complete purification, and as


doing so is the safest position in the difference of opinion on the
issue.

The Ending Of Menstruation


Menstruation often ends gradually, which causes women
some doubt about its exact ending point. The Prophet (ρ ) instructed
his wives how to determine the end of menses, and they in turn
would teach the women. Some women used to send pads of cotton
with traces of yellowish discharge to ‘Aa’ishah [for her verdict on
whether their menses had ended or not], and she would say,
. áÇó ÊóÚúÌóáúäó ÍóÊøóì ÊóÑóíúäó
ÇáúÞóÕøóÉó ÇáúÈóíúÖóÇÁó
“Do not be hasty. They have not ended until you see the white
discharge. ”
58 59

The daughter of Zayd ibn Thaabit was told that some


women used to ask for candles at midnight to see if their menses had

57 See Aadaab al-Zafaaf, pp. 125-8


58 Al-Qassah al-Baydaa’ is defined as a whitish discharge from the womb at
the end of menstruation. Imaam Maalik said, “I asked the women about it,
only to find that it was something well known among them at the time of
purity (See, Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 501).
59 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 190, chapter 21.
stopped. Zayd’s daughter scolded them and informed them that the
wives of the Prophet’s companions never used to do that. 60

Bathing After Menstruation


When menses have ended, women are obliged to take an
Islamic bath (ghusl) in order to re-enter the spiritual state of purity
(tahaarah) required for formal prayer. The use of perfume in the
water is generally recommended. ‘Aa’ishah reported: Asmaa’ went
to the Prophet (ρ ) and asked, “O Messenger of Allaah! How
should we take a bath so we can be purified from menses?” He
replied,

ÊóÃúÎõÐõ ÓöÏúÑóåóÇ æóãóÇÁóåóÇ ÝóÊóæóÖøóÃõ ¡ ))


Ëõãøó ÊóÛúÓöáõ ÑóÃúÓóåóÇ æóÊóÏúáõßõåõ ÍóÊøóì
íóÈúáõÛó ÇáúãóÇÁõ ÃõÕõæáó ÔóÚúÑöåóÇ ¡ Ëõãøó
ÊõÝöíÖõ Úóáóì ÌóÓóÏöåóÇ ¡ Ëõãøó ÊóÃúÎõÐõ
((. ÝöÑúÕóÊóåóÇ ¡ ÝóÊóØøóåøóÑõ ÈöåóÇ
“She should prepare water mixed with lote-tree leaves, make
wudoo’ and wash her head, rubbing the water into the roots of her
hair, pour water over her whole body, then take a (musk-scented) 61

piece of cloth (or cotton) and clean with it (three times).” 62

She asked, “O Messenger of Allaah! How should she clean with


it?” ‘Aa’ishah said, “I understood what the Prophet (ρ ) meant and
said to her, ‘Wipe away the traces of blood.’ ” 63

60 Ibid. The reason for her disapproval is probably due to the fact that the
women were checking at night when the whiteness of the cotton pad could
not be clearly determined, which could cause them to begin formal prayer
before it is permitted (Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 501).
61 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 81, no. 315.
62 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 187, no. 312 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p.
188, no. 649.
63 Ibid., p. 186, no. 311 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 81, no. 314.
Braids
The Prophet (ρ ) allowed women with braided hair to wash
their heads without undoing the braids when taking a ghusl from
sexual defilement and at the conclusion of menses. It is, however,
64 65

recommended that she undo her braids and wash her head
thoroughly when taking ghusl due to menses. ‘Aa’ishah said,
æóßõäúÊõ ÃóäóÇ ãöãøóäú Ãóåóáøó ÈöÚõãúÑóÉò ÝóÃóÏúÑóßóäöí
íóæúãõ ÚóÑóÝóÉó æóÃóäóÇ ÍóÇÆöÖñ ÝóÔóßóæúÊõ Åöáóì
ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ )¡ ÝóÞóÇáó (( ÏóÚöí ÚõãúÑóÊóßö æóÇäúÞõÖöí
ÑóÃúÓóßö æóÇãúÊóÔöØöí æóÃóåöáøöí ÈöÍóÌøò .))
. ÝóÝóÚóáúÊõ
“I was one of those who assumed ihraam for ‘Umrah. My menses
began and continued until the day of ‘Arafat, so I complained to
the Prophet (ρ ). He told me to postpone my ‘Umrah, undo my
braids and comb my hair, and to assume ihraam for Hajj, and I did
so.” 66

64 Umm Salamah asked: O Messenger of Allaah! I am a woman who keeps


her hair in tight braids. Should I undo them when I bathe from sexual
defilement? He replied,
áÇó ¡ ÅöäøóãóÇ íóßúÝöíßö Ãóäú ÊóÍúËöíó Úóáóì ÑóÃúÓößö ))
ËóáÇóËó ÍóËóíóÇÊò Ëõãøó ÊõÝöíÖöíäó Úóáóíúßö ÇáúãóÇÁó
((. ÝóÊóØúåõÑöíäó
“It is enough for you to pour three handfuls of water over your head [and
wring out your locks after every handful (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 63,
no. 252)] then pour water over all of your body and you will be purified.”
[See Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 63, no. 251 and its authentication in
Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 48, no. 226]. See also Sahih
Muslim, vol. 1, p. 187, no. 643.
65 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 187, no. 644.
Brownness Or Yellowness After Purification
Once the end of menses has been accurately determined by
the appearance of the white discharge or by the insertion of a piece
of cotton, cloth, or tissue, and its removal without any traces of
blood, subsequent discharges are not considered a part of menses.
Umm ‘Ateeyah, who took an oath of allegiance with the Prophet
(ρ ), said, “We did not consider brown and yellow discharges after
purification as anything.” 67

Cleaning Garments
It is sufficient for women to wash the blood which falls on
their garments in order to make them clean enough to pray in, even
if stains remain. Asmaa’ bint Abee Bakr related that a woman asked
Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ), “O Messenger of Allaah! What should we
do if blood falls on our clothes?” He replied,

ÅöÐóÇ ÃóÕóÇÈó ËóæúÈó ÅöÍúÏóÇßõäøó ÇáÏøóãõ ãöäó ))


ÇáúÍóíúÖóÉö ÝóáúÊóÞúÑõÕúåõ Ëõãøó áöÊóäúÖóÍúåõ ÈöãóÇÁò
((. Ëõãøó áöÊõÕóáøöí Ýöíåö

66 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 188, no. 314. Imaams ash-Shaafi‘ee, Maalik


and Aboo Haneefah ruled that it was recommended for her to undo the
braids if water did not get to the roots of her hair during a ghusl for menses.
Imaam Ahmad ruled that it was compulsory, based on the above-mentioned
hadeeth. See Ibn al-Qayyim’s Tahtheeb as-Sunan, vol. 1, pp. 292-4. A
number of leading scholars from Imaam Ahmad’s school of law, like Ibn
Qudaamah, ruled that undoing the braids was recommended (See Fat-h al-
Baaree, vol. 1, p. 498). It should be noted that the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah was
not a case of ghusl at the conclusion of menses, but merely the
recommended ghusl for entering the state of ihraam.
67 Ibid., p. 194, no. 323 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 79, no. 307.
“If menstrual blood falls on your garment, you should take hold of
the spot, rub it, and wash it with water and then pray in it.” 68

‘Aa’ishah also stated the following:


ãóÇ ßóÇäó áÅööÍúÏóÇäóÇ ÅöáÇøó ËóæúÈñ æóÇÍöÏñ ÊóÍöíÖõ
Ýöíåö ¡ ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÃóÕóÇÈóåõ ÔóíúÁñ ãöäú Ïóãò ÞóÇáóÊú
. ÈöÑöíÞöåóÇ ¡ ÝóÞóÕóÚóÊúåõ ÈöÙõÝúÑöåóÇ
None of us had more than a single garment and we used to wear it
while menstruating. Whenever it got soiled with blood, we used to
apply saliva to the spot and scratch it with our nails.
69

Making Up Missed Prayers


A special concession is given to menstruating women
whereby prayers missed during the period of menstruation are not to
be made up. Mu’aathah reported: A woman asked ‘Aa’ishah
whether a menstruating woman should complete the prayers missed
during the menses and she replied,
ÃóÍóÑõæÑöíøóÉñ ÃóäúÊö¿ ßõäøóÇ äóÍöíÖõ ãóÚó ÇáäøóÈöíøö
(ρ ) ÝóáÇó íóÃúãõÑõäóÇ Èöåö —Ãóæú ÞóÇáóÊú : ÝóáÇó
. äóÝúÚóáõåõ

68 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 184, no. 305.


69 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 185, no. 309.
“Are you a Haroorite? During the time of the Messenger of
70

Allaah (ρ ) we did not make up missed prayers after menses, nor


were we instructed to do so.” 71

Making Up Missed Fasts


Allaah in His infinite wisdom and mercy distinguished
between fasting and formal prayers with regard to making them up
when missed due to menstruation. The formal five prayers are a
daily ongoing requirement while formal fasting is only required for
one month out of every year. Making up missed days of fasting
before the next obligatory fast is relatively easy, while making up
missed prayers would constitute a major monthly burden.
Consequently, Allaah only required menstruating women to make up
their missed fasts. Mu‘aathah said, “I asked ‘Aa’ishah: ‘What is
72

the reason why a woman who menstruates [during Ramadaan]


completes her fasts, but not her formal prayers?’ She replied, ‘Are
you a Haroorite?’ I said, ‘I am not a Haroorite, I am only curious.’
She said, ‘We were present in the Prophet’s era and were instructed

70 This term refers to those belonging to the Khawaarij (Seceders) sect,


which was the first group to split off from the main body of Muslims. They
were also called Harooreeyah (Haroorites) because the first group of them
rebelled against Caliph ‘Alee at a place called Harooraa near Kufah.
Khaarijites subsequently split into many subsects, but they all agreed on the
principle of following the implications of the Qur’aanic texts and rejecting
any hadeeths which contradicted their deduced implications (Fat-h al-
Baaree, vol. 1, p. 502). Consequently, they held, against the belief of the
majority of the Muslims, that a menstruating woman should make up missed
prayers after purification in the same way that she is required by the
Qur’aanic text to make up missed days of fasting.
71 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 191, no. 318 , Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 190,
no. 660 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 65, no. 262.
72 She is considered one of the major jurists among the students of the
Prophet’s companions (taabi‘oon).
to complete our fasts, but we were not instructed to complete our
prayers.’ ”
73

Post-Natal Bleeding
In the case of bleeding after childbirth, women are instructed
to abandon formal prayer and fasting for a maximum period of forty
days. Umm Salamah said,

ßóÇäóÊö ÇáäøõÝóÓóÇÁõ Úóáóì ÚóåúÏö ÑóÓõæáö Çááøóåö (ρ )


ÊóÞúÚõÏõ ÈóÚúÏó äöÝóÇÓöåóÇ ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó íóæúãðÇ Ãóæú
ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó áóíúáóÉð æóßõäøóÇ äóØúáöí Úóáóì æõÌõæåöäóÇ
. ÇáúæóÑúÓó — ÊóÚúäöí ãöäó ÇáúßóáóÝö
“Women experiencing post-natal bleeding would refrain from
formal prayer for forty days or forty nights, and we used to rub our
faces with an aromatic herb called wars to remove dark spots.” 74

Missed Prayers
As in the case of prayers missed due to menstruation,
women are not required to make up prayers missed due to post-natal
bleeding, but they are enjoined to make up the days of missed fasts.
Mussah al-Azdeeyah said: I performed Hajj and came to Umm
Salamah and told her, “O Mother of the Believers! Samurah ibn
Jundub is instructing women to make up prayers missed during their
menstrual periods.” She replied,
áÇó íóÞúÖöíäó ßóÇäóÊö ÇáúãóÑúÃóÉõ ãöäú äöÓóÇÁö
ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) ÊóÞúÚõÏõ Ýöí ÇáäøöÝóÇÓö ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó

73 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 191, no. 662.


74Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 80, no. 311 and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, pp. 62-3, no. 304.
áóíúáóÉð áÇó íóÃúãõÑõåóÇ ÇáäøóÈöíøõ (ρ ) ÈöÞóÖóÇÁö
. ÕóáÇóÉö ÇáäøöÝóÇÓö
“They should not do so. The wives of the Prophet (ρ ) used to
abstain from formal prayer for forty days when bleeding after
childbirth and the Prophet (ρ ) did not instruct them to make up
the prayers missed during the period of bleeding.” 75

Minimum
There are no authentic narrations to indicate the
minimum period of post-natal bleeding. Anas ibn Maalik said,

ßóÇäó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) æóÞøóÊó áöáäøõÝóÓóÇÁö


ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó íóæúãðÇ ÅöáÇøó Ãóäú ÊóÑóì ÇáØøõåúÑó ÞóÈúáó
. Ðóáößó
“Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) set a time period of forty days for women
bleeding after child-birth, except if they became pure before that
time.” 76

Istihaadah (Bleeding between Menses) 77

75 Ibid., p. 80, no. 312, and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood,
vol. 1, p. 63, no. 305.
76 Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol. 1, p. 350, no. 649, and authenticated in Irwaa’
al-Ghaleel, vol. 1, p. 223.
77 Abnormal uterine bleeding means either (1) excessive or prolonged
bleeding during the normal time of flow (menorrhagia) or (2) any bleeding
during the intermenstrual interval (metrorrhagia). This condition is usually
due to local lesions, e.g. uterine myomas, adenomyosis, endometritis, etc.
Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding that occurs 6 months or more following
cessation of menstrual function may be due to local or systemic causes.
(Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 1982, pp. 428 & 430.)
When bleeding occurs outside of its normal time frame, it is
no longer considered as menses, and the woman experiencing it is
considered ritually pure. She is required to fast and make formal
prayers in spite of the blood flow.
Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó ÃóäøóåóÇ ÞóÇáóÊú : ÞóÇáóÊú ÝóÇØöãóÉõ
ÈöäúÊõ ÃóÈöí ÍõÈóíúÔò áöÑóÓõæáö Çááøóåö (ρ ) : íóÇ ÑóÓõæáó
Çááøóåö ¡ Åöäøöí áÇó ÃóØúåõÑõ ¡ ÃóÝóÃóÏóÚõ ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó ¿
ÝóÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( ÅöäøóãóÇ Ðóáößö ÚöÑúÞñ
æóáóíúÓó ÈöÇáúÍóíúÖóÉö ¡ ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÃóÞúÈóáóÊö
ÇáúÍóíúÖóÉõ ÝóÇÊúÑõßöí ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó ¡ ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÐóåóÈó
((. ÞóÏúÑõåóÇ ÝóÇÛúÓöáöí Úóäúßö ÇáÏøóãó æóÕóáøöí
‘Aa’ishah related: Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh asked Allaah’s
Messenger (ρ ), “O Messenger of Allaah, I do not become clean
from menses. Should I abstain from formal prayers?” He replied,
“No, [the bleeding] is from a blood vessel and not menses. So
when the real menses begins, stop praying and when the period
ends, wash the blood from your body and resume praying the
formal prayers.” 78

This is in contrast to Judeo-Christian tradition, which


considers her unclean in the same way as the menstruating woman,
and further requires her to make atonement for her state. 79

78 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 183, no. 303.


79 Jewish law regarding prolonged blood-flow is as follows: “25. If a woman
has a discharge of blood for many days, not at the time of her impurity, or if
she has a discharge beyond the time of her impurity, all the days of the
discharge she shall continue in uncleanness; as in the days of her impurity,
she shall be unclean. 26. Every bed on which she lies, all the days of her
discharge, shall be to her as the bed of her impurity; and everything on
which she sits shall be unclean, as in the uncleanness of her impurity. 27.
And whoever touches these things shall be unclean, and shall wash his
Unnatural bleeding may occur as an extension of menses or
may occur after menses has ended.

Prolonged Bleeding 80

1. In the case of prolonged bleeding the Prophet (ρ )


instructed women to judge the beginning and ending of their periods
according to the characteristics of the blood. ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr
reported that the Prophet (ρ ) said to Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh,
who was experiencing a prolonged blood-flow,

Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó Ãóäøó ÝóÇØöãóÉó ÈöäúÊó ÃóÈöí ÍõÈóíúÔò


ßóÇäóÊú ÊõÓúÊóÍóÇÖõ ÝóÞóÇáó áóåóÇ ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ )
(( Åöäøó Ïóãó ÇáúÍóíúÖö Ïóãñ ÃóÓúæóÏõ íõÚúÑóÝõ
ÝóÅöÐóÇ ßóÇäó Ðóáößó ÝóÃóãúÓößöí Úóäö ÇáÕøóáÇóÉö
((. ÝóÅöÐóÇ ßóÇäó ÇáúÂÎóÑõ ÝóÊóæóÖøóÆöí æóÕóáøöí
“When the blood of menses comes, it is dark and recognizable. If it
is that, stop formal prayer. If it is other than that, make wudoo’
and pray.” 81

clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 28.
But if she is cleansed of her discharge, she shall count for herself seven
days, and after that she shall be clean. 29. And on the eighth day she shall
take two turtledoves or two young pigeons, and bring them to the priest, to
the door of the tent of meeting. 30. And the priest shall offer one for a sin
offering and the other for a burnt offering; and the priest shall make
atonement for her before the Lord for her unclean discharge.” (Leviticus
15:25-30.)
80 Medically known as hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia (cyclic menstrual
bleeding that is excessive in amount) Current Medical Diagnosis &
Treatment 1982, p. 428.
81 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 78, no. 304 and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 55, no. 263.
2. Where it is difficult to determine by the characteristics of
the blood, women were instructed to estimate the period of menses
according to their normal pattern. ‘Aa’ishah reported that Umm
Habeebah asked Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) about prolonged
82

blood-flow and the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) replied,


83

ÇãúßõËöí ÞóÏúÑó ãóÇ ßóÇäóÊú ÊóÍúÈöÓõßö ÍóíúÖóÊõßö ))


((. Ëõãøó ÇÛúÊóÓöáöí æóÕóáøöí
“Stop praying for as long as your menses used to prevent you, then
bathe yourself and begin formal prayers.” 84

‘Adee ibn Thaabit also quoted his grandfather as saying that the
Prophet (ρ ) said, regarding the woman having prolonged blood-
flow,

ÊóÏóÚõ ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó ÃóíøóÇãó ÃóÞúÑóÇÆöåóÇ Ëõãøó ))


ÊóÛúÊóÓöáõ æóÊõÕóáøöí æóÇáúæõÖõæÁõ ÚöäúÏó ßõáøö
((. ÕóáÇóÉò
“She should stop praying during her menstrual period; then she
should take a bath and pray by making wudoo’ for every prayer.” 85

3. If a woman has no established pattern for menses, she 86

assumes that it is six or seven days.


Úóäú ÍóãúäóÉó ÈöäúÊö ÌóÍúÔò ÞóÇáóÊú : ßõäúÊõ
ÃõÓúÊóÍóÇÖõ ÍóíúÖóÉð ßóËöíÑóÉð ÔóÏöíÏóÉð ¡
ρ ) and wife of ‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf.
82 Sister-in-law of the Prophet (
83 ‘Aa’ishah went on to remark that she saw Umm Habeebah’s wash-tub full
of blood.
84 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 190, no. 658.
85 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 76, no. 297 and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 60, no .286.
86 Medically referred to as menometrorrhagia (uterine bleeding that is
totally irregular in frequency and duration of episodes and excessive in
amount.) Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 1982, p. 428.
ÝóÃóÊóíúÊõ ÑóÓõæáó Çááøóåö (ρ ) ÃóÓúÊóÝúÊöíåö
æóÃõÎúÈöÑõåõ ¡ ÝóæóÌóÏúÊõåõ Ýöí ÈóíúÊö ÃõÎúÊöí
ÒóíúäóÈó ÈöäúÊö ÌóÍúÔò ¡ ÝóÞõáúÊõ : íóÇ ÑóÓõæáó
Çááøóåö ¡ Åöäøöí ÇãúÑóÃóÉñ ÃõÓúÊóÍóÇÖõ ÍóíúÖóÉð
ßóËöíÑóÉð ÔóÏöíÏóÉð ¡ ÝóãóÇ ÊóÑóì ÝöíåóÇ ¿ ÞóÏú
ãóäóÚóÊúäöí ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó æóÇáÕøóæúãó . ÝóÞóÇáó
(( ÃóäúÚóÊõ áóßö ÇáúßõÑúÓõÝó ÝóÅöäøóåõ íõÐúåöÈõ
ÇáÏøóãó .)) ÞóÇáóÊú : åõæó ÃóßúËóÑõ ãöäú Ðóáößó . ÞóÇáó
(( ÝóÇÊøóÎöÐöí ËóæúÈðÇ .)) ÝóÞóÇáóÊú : åõæó ÃóßúËóÑõ
ãöäú Ðóáößó ¡ ÅöäøóãóÇ ÃóËõÌøõ ËóÌøðÇ . ÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ
Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( ÓóÂãõÑõßö ÈöÃóãúÑóíúäö ÃóíøóåõãóÇ
ÝóÚóáúÊö ÃóÌúÒóÃó Úóäúßö ãöäó ÇáúÂÎóÑö æóÅöäú ÞóæöíÊö
ÚóáóíúåöãóÇ ÝóÃóäúÊö ÃóÚúáóãõ .)) ÞóÇáó áóåóÇ (( ÅöäøóãóÇ
åóÐöåö ÑóßúÖóÉñ ãöäú ÑóßóÖóÇÊö ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö ¡
ÝóÊóÍóíøóÖöí ÓöÊøóÉó ÃóíøóÇãò Ãóæú ÓóÈúÚóÉó ÃóíøóÇãò
Ýöí Úöáúãö Çááøóåö ¡ Ëõãøó ÇÛúÊóÓöáöí ÍóÊøóì ÅöÐóÇ
ÑóÃóíúÊö Ãóäøóßö ÞóÏú ØóåõÑúÊö æóÇÓúÊóäúÞóÃúÊö ¡
ÝóÕóáøöí ËóáÇóËðÇ æóÚöÔúÑöíäó áóíúáóÉð Ãóæú
ÃóÑúÈóÚðÇ æóÚöÔúÑöíäó áóíúáóÉð æóÃóíøóÇãóåóÇ æóÕõæãöí
¡ ÝóÅöäøó Ðóáößó íóÌúÒöíßö ¡ æóßóÐóáößó ÝóÇÝúÚóáöí Ýöí
ßõáøö ÔóåúÑò ßóãóÇ ÊóÍöíÖõ ÇáäøöÓóÇÁõ æóßóãóÇ
íóØúåõÑúäó ãöíÞóÇÊõ ÍóíúÖöåöäøó æóØõåúÑöåöäøó . æóÅöäú
ÞóæöíÊö Úóáóì Ãóäú ÊõÄóÎøöÑöí ÇáÙøõåúÑó æóÊõÚóÌøöáöí
ÇáúÚóÕúÑó ÝóÊóÛúÊóÓöáöíäó æóÊóÌúãóÚöíäó Èóíúäó
ÇáÕøóáÇóÊóíúäö ÇáÙøõåúÑö æóÇáúÚóÕúÑö æóÊõÄóÎøöÑöíäó
ÇáúãóÛúÑöÈó æóÊõÚóÌøöáöíäó ÇáúÚöÔóÇÁó Ëõãøó
ÊóÛúÊóÓöáöíäó æóÊóÌúãóÚöíäó Èóíúäó ÇáÕøóáÇóÊóíúäö ¡
ÝóÇÝúÚóáöí ¡ æóÊóÛúÊóÓöáöíäó ãóÚó ÇáúÝóÌúÑö
ÝóÇÝúÚóáöí ¡ æóÕõæãöí Åöäú ÞóÏöÑúÊö Úóáóì Ðóáößó .
((. æóåóÐóÇ ÃóÚúÌóÈõ ÇáúÃóãúÑóíúäö Åöáóíøó
Hamnah bint Jahsh said, “I used to bleed profusely and con-tinually,
so I went to the Prophet (ρ ) to inform him and seek his judgement.
When I found him at my sister Zaynab’s, I said: O Messenger of
Allaah! I have a strong, prolonged flow of blood, which has
prevented me from fasting and formal prayer. What should I do?
He replied, “Use cotton and it will stop the blood.” I said, “It is
greater than that.” He then said, “Then wrap a napkin,” and I said,
“It is greater than that.” He said, “Then use a piece of cloth under
the napkin.” I said, “It is greater than even that. My blood gushes.”
He said, “I will instruct you to do two things; you will be rewarded
for whichever one you do. You know best which one you are able to
do. This is only a kick from Satan, so consider yourself on your
menses for six or seven days known to Allaah, then take a ghusl
until you have cleaned yourself and pray and fast for twenty-four
or twenty-three days and that will be sufficient for you. Do that
every month according to periods in which women menstruate and
are pure. If you are able to, advance the ‘Asr prayer and delay
87

Thuhr prayer by bathing when you are pure and combining the
88

Thuhr prayer and ‘Asr prayer. Then advance the ‘Ishaa prayer
89 90

and delay the Maghrib prayer by taking another bath and


91

87 Mid-afternoon prayer, made after the length of the shadow of an object


equals its height until immediately before sunset.
88 Mid-day prayer, which may be done anytime after the sun begins to
decline from its zenith until the length of the shadow of an object equals its
height.
89 All hadeeths which mention joining salaahs due to prolonged bleeding
prescribe it in this fashion, known as al-jam‘ as-suwaree in Arabic, i.e.
“apparent joining”. The Hambalee math-hab, which is the most
accommodating on issues of joining salaahs, permits a sick person as well
as those suffering from istihaadah or incontinence to join the two afternoon
salaahs or the two evening salaahs at either the earlier or the later time.
(See Fiqh us-Sunnah, vol. 2, p. 118.)
90 Night prayer, made from about an hour after sunset until midway between
sunset and dawn.
91 Sunset prayer, made immediately after sunset until the redness leaves the
sky.
combining the Maghrib prayer and ‘Ishaa prayer. Then take a
separate bath for the Fajr prayer, and fast if you are able to do it.
92

That is the more beloved of the two ways to me.” 93

Ghusl: A woman experiencing prolonged blood flow may


take a bath prior to every compulsory prayer.

Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó ÒóæúÌö ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) Ãóäøó Ãõãøó


ÍóÈöíÈóÉó ÈöäúÊó ÌóÍúÔò ÎóÊóäóÉó ÑóÓõæáö Çááøóåö (ρ )
æóÊóÍúÊó ÚóÈúÏö ÇáÑøóÍúãóäö Èúäö ÚóæúÝò ÇÓúÊõÍöíÖóÊú
ÓóÈúÚó Óöäöíäó ¡ ÝóÇÓúÊóÝúÊóÊú ÑóÓõæáó Çááøóåö (ρ ) Ýöí
Ðóáößó ¡ ÝóÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( Åöäøó åóÐöåö
áóíúÓóÊú ÈöÇáúÍóíúÖóÉö æóáóßöäú åóÐóÇ ÚöÑúÞñ
ÝóÇÛúÊóÓöáöí æóÕóáøöí))...ÞóÇáóÊú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉõ :
ÝóÃóãóÑóåóÇ ÈöÇáúÛõÓúáö áößõáøö ÕóáÇóÉò . ÞóÇáóÊú
ÚóÇÆöÔóÉõ : ÝóßóÇäóÊú ÊóÛúÊóÓöáõ Ýöí ãöÑúßóäò Ýöí
ÍõÌúÑóÉö ÃõÎúÊöåóÇ ÒóíúäóÈó ÈöäúÊö ÌóÍúÔò ÍóÊøóì ÊóÚúáõæó
. ÍõãúÑóÉõ ÇáÏøóãö ÇáúãóÇÁó
The Prophet’s wife ‘Aa’ishah said, “Umm Habeebah bint Jahsh had
continual “menstrual” bleeding for seven years and she asked
Allaah’s Messenger concerning it. Allaah’s Messenger said, ‘This is
not menstruation but only a vein; so you should take a bath and
pray formal prayers.’” ‘Aa’ishah said, “(He instructed her to take a
bath for every prayer [so]) she used to take a bath (for every
94

92 Dawn prayer, made anytime after the beginning of dawn until sunrise.
93 Authentically collected by Aboo Daawood (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, pp.
72-3, no. 287), at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and authenticated in Irwaa’ al-
Ghaleel, vol. 1, pp. 202-3, no. 188.
94 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 74, no. 292 and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 58, no. 275.
prayer) in a wash-tub in the home of her sister, Zaynab bint Jahsh,
95

and the redness of her blood was prominent in the water.” 96

She may, instead, combine two compulsory prayers with a


single bath and make wudoo’ for voluntary prayers. ‘Aa’ishah said,
Ãóäøó ÓóåúáóÉó ÈöäúÊó Óõåóíúáò ÇÓúÊõÍöíÖóÊú ¡ ÝóÃóÊóÊö
ÇáäøóÈöíøó (ρ ) ¡ ÝóÃóãóÑóåóÇ Ãóäú ÊóÛúÊóÓöáó ÚöäúÏó
ßõáøö ÕóáÇóÉò ¡ ÝóáóãøóÇ ÌóåóÏóåóÇ Ðóáößó ÃóãóÑóåóÇ Ãóäú
ÊóÌúãóÚó Èóíúäó ÇáÙøõåúÑö æóÇáúÚóÕúÑö ÈöÛõÓúáò
æóÇáúãóÛúÑöÈö æóÇáúÚöÔóÇÁö ÈöÛõÓúáò æóÊóÛúÊóÓöáó
. áöáÕøõÈúÍö
“Sahlah bint Suhayl had a prolonged blood-flow and she came to the
Prophet (ρ ) and asked him about it. He commanded her to take a
bath for every prayer. However, when this became difficult for her,
he instructed her to take one bath and combine the Thuhr prayer and
‘Asr prayer ([by] advancing the ‘Asr prayer and delaying Thuhr
prayer), take another bath and combine the Maghrib prayer and
97

‘Ishaa prayer ([by] advancing the ‘Ishaa prayer and delaying the

95 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 195, no. 324 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1,
p. 74, no. 290.
96 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 195, no. 324, Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 189,
no. 655 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 73, no. 288.
Note: ‘Ikrimah said, “The Prophet (ρ ) instructed Umm Habeebah bint
Jahsh, who was suffering from prolonged blood-flow, to abstain from prayer
during her menstrual period; then she should bathe and pray. If anything
occurs (to nullify her wudoo’) she should make wudoo’ and pray.” See
Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 79, no. 305. This was also the view of
Rabee‘ah and Imaam Maalik ibn Anas.
97 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 74, no. 294 and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 59, no. 281.
Maghrib prayer), and take a separate bath for the Fajr prayer.”
98 99

Asmaa’ bint ‘Umays also reported that she informed the Messenger
of Allaah (ρ ) about Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh, who had a
prolonged blood-flow and had abandoned formal prayer. Allaah’s
messenger (ρ) said,

ÓõÈúÍóÇäó Çááøóåö Åöäøó åóÐóÇ ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö ))


áöÊóÌúáöÓú Ýöí ãöÑúßóäò ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÑóÃóÊú ÕõÝúÑóÉð
ÝóæúÞó ÇáúãóÇÁö ÝóáúÊóÛúÊóÓöáú áöáÙøõåúÑö
æóÇáúÚóÕúÑö ÛõÓúáÇð æóÇÍöÏðÇ æóÊóÛúÊóÓöáú
áöáúãóÛúÑöÈö æóÇáúÚöÔóÇÁö ÛõÓúáÇð æóÇÍöÏðÇ
æóÊóÛúÊóÓöáú áöáúÝóÌúÑö ÛõÓúáÇð æóÇÍöÏðÇ
((. æóÊóÊóæóÖøóÃú ÝöíãóÇ Èóíúäó Ðóáößó
“Subhaanallaah (Glory be to Allaah)! This comes from the devil.
She should sit in a tub, and when she sees yellowness on top of the
water, she should take a bath once for the noon and afternoon
prayers, another bath for the sunset and night prayers, and
another for the dawn prayer, and in between times she should make
wudoo’ (ablutions).” 100

Wudoo’: The minimum required of a Muslim woman in this


state is that she take a bath when her menses reaches its
approximated end and make wudoo’ for every formal prayer.
‘Aa’ishah said: Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh came to the Prophet
(ρ ) and informed him of her condition. He said,

98 Ibid.
99 Ibid., p. 75, no. 295 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood,
vol. 1, p. 59, no. 282.
100 Ibid., pp. 75-6, no. 296 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee
Daawood, vol. 1, p. 59, no. 283.
Ëõãøó ÇÛúÊóÓöáöí Ëõãøó ÊóæóÖøóÆöí áößõáøö ))
((. ÕóáÇóÉò æóÕóáøöí
“Take a bath, then perform wudoo’ for every formal prayer and
pray.” ‘Adee ibn Thaabit also quoted his grandfather as saying that
101

the Prophet (ρ ) said, regarding the woman having prolonged blood-


flow, “She should stop praying during her menstrual period; then
she should take a bath and pray by making wudoo’ for every
prayer.” ‘Aa’ishah was also quoted as saying concerning a woman
102

experiencing prolonged blood-flow, “She should take a bath, then


make wudoo’ (for each prayer) until her next menstrual period.” 103

Sexual Intercourse
Sexual intercourse is permitted with women experiencing
bleeding outside of menses, according to the practice of the
companions of the Prophet (ρ ). ‘Ikrimah said, “Umm Habeebah had
a prolonged blood-flow and her husband used to have sexual
relations with her.” He also quoted Hamnah bint Jahsh as saying
104

that her husband used to have sexual relations with her during the
period in which she had a prolonged blood-flow. 105

I‘tikaaf 106

101 Ibid., p. 76, no. 298 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood,
vol. 1, p. 60, no. 287.
102 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 76, no. 297 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee
Daawood, vol. 1, p. 60, no. 286.
103 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 76, no. 299 and authenticated in Saheeh
Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 60, no. 288.
104 Ibid., p. 80, no. 309 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood,
vol. 1, p. 62, no. 302.
105 Ibid., no. 310 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1,
p. 62, no. 303.
It is also permissible for women having prolonged bleeding
outside of menses to be secluded in the mosque. The Prophet’s wife
‘Aa’ishah said,
Ãóäøó ÇáäøóÈöíøó (ρ ) ÇÚúÊóßóÝó ãóÚóåõ ÈóÚúÖõ
äöÓóÇÆöåö æóåöíó ãõÓúÊóÍóÇÖóÉñ ÊóÑóì ÇáÏøóãó
. ÝóÑõÈøóãóÇ æóÖóÚóÊö ÇáØøóÓúÊó ÊóÍúÊóåóÇ ãöäó ÇáÏøóãö
“Once one of the Prophet’s wives did i‘tikaaf along with him while
she was bleeding between periods. She used to see blood and put a
dish under her while she prayed [to prevent the blood from soiling
107

the floor of the mosque].” 108

106 I‘tikaaf literally means to stick to something, whether good or evil, and
to block out everything else. Islamically, it refers to seclusion in the mosque
with the intention of becoming closer to Allaah. The Prophet (ρ ) used to
seclude himself for the last ten days of Ramadaan and in the year that he
died, he secluded himself for twenty days (See, Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 3, p.
145, no. 260). One year, he also secluded himself during the last ten days of
Shawwaal, instead of Ramadaan (See, Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 3, p. 144, no.
257). It is also possible to seclude oneself without fasting. Prophet
Muhammad (ρ ) instructed ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab to seclude himself for one
night since he had made a vow to do so (See Sahih Al-Bukhari , vol. 3, pp.
144-5, no. 258).
107 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 3, p. 184, no. 306
108 Ibid., p. 185, no. 307 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 2, p. 683, no. 2470.