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Determining Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression

Purpose Compare freezing points of a pure solvent and a known solution of the solvent to determine the change in freezing point, Tf Calculate the molal freezing point depression constant (Kf) for the solvent. Determine the molar mass of an unknown solute using data from the proceeding procedures. Introduction A solution is a homogeneous mixture of substances, comprised of at least two components, the major component being the solvent and the minor the solute. The solvent is the component that defines the phase of a solution; it is the material into which the solute is introduced. The solute is the substance that dissolves in a solvent to form a solution. A solution can be made from any combination of the phases of matter. In this lab, two solids are mixed together, then melted to complete the solution process. There are a number of ways of expressing concentration quantitatively, but the ones commonly used in AP Chemistry are molarity (M), molality (m), mole fraction ( ) and mass percent. M = mol solute / L solution m = mol solute / kg solvent = mol solute / mol total mass % = (mass solute / mass total) * 100%

Since volume varies as temperature varies, any concentration measures that includes volume in its definition is temperature-dependent. Therefore a stated molarity, for instance, must include the temperature at which the solution was measured. Ratios that compare only moles or mass are not temperature-dependent, since those quantities do not vary as temperature does. Colligative properties are a set of characteristics that differ for a pure solvent and a solution of the solvent. The presence of particles of solute in the solvent interferes with the normal behavior of the solvent, especially the characteristic of vapor pressure. It is not important what the chemical composition or size of the solute particles may be, just that they are in solution with the solvent. It is the quantity of particles in solution that does change the behavior of the solvent, so a measure of concentration occurs in each of the equations that describe colligative properties. These equations describe the behavior of dilute solutions best, since the behavior of dilute solutions is closest to ideal. At higher concentrations, the solutions no longer behave in an ideal fashion. The colligative property investigated in this lab is that of freezing point depression. The presence of solute particles extends the temperature range over which the solvent remains liquid, so the boiling point of the solution is higher than that of the solvent, while the freezing point of the solution is lower than that of the solvent. The equation that describes that describes the change in freezing point is Tf = iKfm i = number of moles of solute particles in solution (van Hoff factor) Kf = molal freezing point constant for solvent

m = concentration in molality (since temperature varies)

Procedure Preview In this experiment, you will establish the freezing point of a pure solvent. By contaminating the pure solvent with a known quantity of a known solute, you can formulate a known solution. By then determining the freezing point of the known solution and comparing it to the freezing point of the pure solvent, you will be able to calculate the change in freezing point, Tf, and the freezing point depression constant, Kf, of the solvent. Finally, by making a solution of a fresh sample of the solvent with an unknown solute, and measuring its freezing point, you can calculate the molar mass of the unknown solute. You will make use of the following equations: Tf = iKfm m = mol solute / kg solvent mol solute = g solute / MM solute

By substituting, you can derive this relationship Prelab 1. You are given the following data (5 points) Mass of lauric acid = 8.242 gram Mass of benzoic acid = 1.083 grams Tf pure solvent = 42.9oC Tf lauric acid + benzoic acid = 38.2oC i = 1, Kf lauric acid = 3.9 oC/m calculate the molar mass of benzoic acid 2. Research on what supercooling is. How can it be minimized? (2 points) 3. Give two reasons why we use a nonvolative solute dissolved in lauric acid for this lab. (3 points) Procedures 1. Determine the freezing point of the pure solvent, lauric acid a. Weigh out 10 grams of lauric acid. While your quantity need not be exactly 10 rams, it is important to record how much you do use. b. Place lauric acid into a medium test tube c. Transfer the test tube to the hot water bath, submerging the closed end of the tube into the hot water. d. When the lauric acid has melted completely, move the test tube out of the hot water bath and place it into a cold water bath to cool. MM solute = (iKf g solute) / Tf

e. Place the metal probe thermometer into the solvent. f. Read the temperature of the liquid lauric acid every 10 seconds for 400 seconds. Do not use the temperature probe to stir, but move it often so that the temperature measured is that of the center of the well mixed liquid solution. g. If the probe is stuck after the liquid lauric acid has froze, do not pull it out. Gently warm the lauric acid again in the hot water bath to remove the probe. 2. Determine the freezing point of the pure solvent and solute a. Prepare a new test tube of solvent by weighing out a fresh sample of 10 grams of lauric acid. b. Weight out 1.0 gram of benzoic acid. Add the solute to the lauric acid in the new test tube. c. Melt the solution completely in the hot water bath, taking temperature readings every 10 seconds for 400 seconds. *NOTE: do not pour the hot solution into the sink. Reheat the solution in the water bath and pour the waste into the class disposal bin. Calculations 1. Using EXCEL, graph the two cooling curves (pure lauric acid and lauric acid + benzoic acid). 2. Find the freezing point for each curve one tangential to the curve where it represents the liquid cooling rapidly and one tangential to the curve where it represents the liquid solid plateau. The point of intersection of the two tangents is the freezing point. 3. Calculate the percent error of the freezing point if lauric acids freezing point is 44oC. 4. Determine Tf 5. Use the Kf and Tf to calculate the molar mass of benzoic acid. Kf for lauric acid is 3.9oC/m 6. Calculate percent error of the molar mass of benzoic acid and the standard deviation of the class data. Post Lab Questions 1. Write a paragraph on the errors that were present in your lab. How might they affect your results? (4 points) 2. In each of the following cases, explain your reasoning thoroughly, using equations if necessary. What would happen to the molar mass if you had (2 points each) a. Spilled some lauric acid before finding the freezing point b. Measured the Tf using the supercooled part of the graph c. If the thermometer consistently read a temperature 1.2oC lower than the correct temperature throughout the experiment. d. Using the incorrect value of lauric acids freezing point (both higher and lower value) Grading Rubric Prelab (10 points) Introduction (5 points) Calculations (10 points) Post lab questions (12 points) Conclusion (5 points)

Total = 42 points