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EMERGING SOLAR PV

APPLICATIONS IN BUILDINGS

ARBUTUS

P.JAYAKUMAR
Environmental Revolution
“ The pace of the Environmental Revolution will have to be
far quicker than that of its predecessors.The Agricultural
Revolution began some 10,000 years ago, and the
Industrial Revolution has been under way for two
centuries. But if the Environmental Revolution is to
succeed ,it must be compressed into a few decades.In
contrast with the Industrial Revolution ,which was based
on a shift to fossil fuels ,this new transformation will be
based on a shift away from fossil fuels.”
Worldwatch Institute
1992
Energy Efficient Buildings
Buildings contribute to serious environmental problems because of
excessive consumption of energy and other natural resources.Energy
used for heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting cause severe
depletion of environmental resources.
Steps advocated for adopting an integrated approach to building design
are:
• Solar passive techniques in a building design to minimise load on
conventional systems
• Design energy-efficient lighting and HVAC
• USE RE systems (Solar PV and Solar Water Heating)to meet a
part of building load
• Use low energy materials and methods of construction
Through the door

• SPV-Diesel Hybrid
 Benefits
 Schematic
 Concept
• BIPV
Diesel Generation

• Diesel generators are a • As per an REPP Research


major source of air report in1996,there were
pollution 626,000 installed units in
• They are growing in U.S aggregating to a
capacity every year;The capacity of 102,000
aggregate of ‘tracked’ and MW.Growing at 1.7%
‘unrecognised’ captive annual growth rate
generation in India is • They released in
21,500 MW in 1999 of 1996about 293,000 tons of
which 6000 MW is Nox(slightly less than current Nox
DG;Growing at 8% p.a. emission of all power plants in
Pennsylvania,New York and New
Jersey)
SPV-DG HYBRIDS

Diesel Engines Energy input (100%)

Exhaust Engine Indicated


(34%) cooling(30%) Horse Power

Friction Brake horse


And other Power (26%)
Losses(10%)
SPV-DG HYBRIDS

• DG set consists of two main subsystems:


a) an internal combustion engine
b) an alternator
• Efficiency of the IC engine is about 26% (considered to be
highly energy efficient)
• Efficiency of a DG set is the combined efficiency of the
engine and the alternator
** Overall efficiency is defined as the number of units of electricity
generated per litre of fuel consumption.The figure is called
SEGR(specific electricity generation ratio)with the unit of kWh/litre.
SPV-DG HYBRIDS

Recommended SEGR values for certain DG


capacities(Source PCRA)
Rating (KVA) Recomme nded SEGR
1450 3.84
1100 3.78
400 3.69
250 3.2
120 3.0
SPV-DG HYBRIDS

• In a DG set , reduction of fuel consumption ,even by a


small percentage ,can lead to enormous monetary savings.
• The extent to which a DG is loaded has a pronounced
effect on its operating efficiency.
• At part load operation the efficiency of the DG set drops
with a consequent decrease in SEGR.
• Fairly pronounced at loads below 60%
SPV-DG HYBRIDS

600
Fuel cons.
Ml/kWh)500

400

300

200

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 EFFECT OF LOADING


ON THE EFFICIENCY
Rated load (%)
OF A DG SET
SPV-DG HYBRIDS

SCHEMATIC :
SOLAR ARRAY

PCU

BATTERY DG
~

LOADS
SPV-DG HYBRIDS

Concepts:

• DC power generated by the Solar PV Array is stored in the battery bank.

• When battery voltage falls below a preset level, the PCU automatically cuts
off the battery bank from the loads and activates the Diesel Power source
to feed the loads directly

• Logic controller in the PCU ensures priority to Solar Power and uses Diesel
Power only when the Solar power/Battery charge is inadequate.

• The PCU is bi-directional enabling the DG to be deployed for battery


charging
SPV-DG HYBRIDS

• Stand alone Solar PV-the ideal • The Life Cycle Cost of energy(10
substitute. Not pragmatic years) for a PV-DG system is
always due to high initial considerably less than a Stand
alone DG or Stand alone PV
investment,reqmt of high
battery cap. •

• SPV-DG Hybrid Helps:


1.Reducing Diesel usage
2.Operation of DG on the preferred
range ,results in consequent fuel
savings on account of better
specific fuel cons.and reduced
O&M;Battery cap.with less
autonomy
BIPV
• Modern design employing clean solar photovoltaic technology turn
buildings into emission free power sources
• BIPV means integration of solar modules into the fabric of a building
providing a smart and sustainable solution
• Solar roof tiles,glazed facades,louvres,Curtain walls etc.
• Benefits:
-- Technology that offsets the cost of traditional building
materials
-- On-site inflation proof power supply
-- Visible corporate social responsibility
BIPV
History:
• When BIPV started in 1980s a conflict arose between scientists and
engineers on maximising energy output and aesthetics.Aesthetics was
realised to be one of the major limitation in 1990s.
• Although costs of SPV generation has come down recently ,depending
on the system life time ,the interest rate and other parameters the cost
is estimated to be about Rs.10 to Rs.15/unit with some subsidies.
• A solution to this issue is to replace conventional elements of the
building envelope (roof tiles,roof cladding,façade elements,windows
etc.) with SPV serving dual functions of as a building element and in
electricity generation
Types
SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM STANDALONE
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

Junction Boxes

DC-DC Converter /
Voltage Regulator
DC loads

Charge
Controller

AC loads

Battery Bank Inverter


Grid Connect
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

Junction Boxes

DC Distribution Board Local Data Monitoring

Local PC Local Printer

Power
Conditioning
Unit Remote Data Monitoring

Modem Telephone

AC Distribution Board

Remote PC Remote printer


Grid
Hybrid System
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

Junction Boxes

Controller

DG set

AC loads

Grid

Battery Bank Inverter


Office Building in Germany
AUSTRIA
• As in most of Europe, tile is the
traditional material for sloped roofing
in Austria. In an effort to make
residential PV arrays compatible with
the majority of existing roofs, a flat-
glass roof tile using single-crystal
technology has been prototyped in
Villach, Austria, by a private group
headed by Dr. Kroner. The tiles are a
glass-on-glass laminate with silicon gel
used as the encapsulant. Each tile
measures about 12 in. wide by 9 in.
high in active area and incorporates
twelve 3- in. sq. cells to deliver about 12
Wp . A prototype residential roof
system, shown in Figure , was
successfully fielded in Gleisdorf
FINLAND
• Figure shows a Finnish
summer cottage with a 2.4-kWp
rooftop array of amorphous
silicon modules from NAPS
France. This system was
installed in 1992 and includes a
battery bank and stand-alone
2.5-kW DC/AC inverter to
power lighting, refrigeration,
home electronics and small
appliances, vacuum cleaner,
washing machine, and
dishwasher
NORWAY

A demonstration low-energy row house with 3 apartments has been constructed in Hamar to provide housing
for foreign journalists at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The project, shown in Figure, established a new level of
integrated design incorporating passive solar, super insulation, air-tight construction with controlled
ventilation, active solar water heating, high-efficiency heat pumps for backup space and water heating
as well as non-toxic building materials. The center apartment gets its electricity from a 2.2-kWp , 27-sq.-m,
roof-integrated, utility-interactivePV system.
US
• Figure shows DOE's
Southwest Residential
Experiment Station
(SWRES), constructed at
New Mexico State
University in Las Cruces,
New Mexico, to test PV
systems in the hot, dry,
desert climate.
US
• In 1992, Advanced
Photovoltaics Systems (APS)
completed its new
manufacturing plans in
Fairfield, California
• Gregory’s design incorporates a
cubic control room for the
production facility clad with
APS modules. The cube, shown
in Figure , also has a skylight
fitted with both clear glass and
PV modules. The building's
front entry canopy also
incorporates PV modules above
the curved metal elements.
Thank You for
your
patience