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Margo Henderson The music industry is supported by the antithetical juxtaposition of art and commerce.

Like a ying- yang there must be an equal balance between the actual art- the music- and with business- getting the art to consumers. Music, concerts, merchandise, and music videos are all examples of products created by the industry and require collaboration from the business side as well as the creative side of the music business to reach the consumer. Each product of the music industry requires agreements in copyright, publishing, songwriting, recording, marketing, touring, and other transactions that many people do not think about due to their behind the scenes nature. The delicate relationship between music and business is what drives the music industry and gets the music to the consumers, without the business sector music would not exist in the way we know it today. The business aspect of the industry is often forgotten, but it is just as important as the music itself as it is the behind the scenes work is what enables the consumer to get the music. The modern music industry is driven by business. Large companies have been created to monopolize and foster artists in the favor of their bank accounts. Most often men, a majority of whom does not have a background in music, run these companies. Artists are signed to these companies, or major labels with promises of money and artistic success, but this is far

from the truth. Once signed the labels have complete control in creating the artist that they believe will bring them the most financial success. They develop an image that they believe will sell and do everything in their power to ensure that the artist becomes this image. Sexuality is an integral part of the marketing plan as promotion creates by these companies is image driven. Labels have turned away looking for the next new thing, or searching for talented artists. They are so concerned with loosing money that they find the best fit for the type of artist that is selling at the moment and mold the artist into an image. Womens presence in business has grown exponential since WWII. In 1940 women were of the workforce and by 1997 they had grown to . Although their presence has grown, female executives are still rare. In 2002, of the 10 top entrepreneurial companies women represented 13% of directors, 14% executives, and 16% board of directors. Only one woman was the top executive and two of the companies, one of them Clear Channel, which is in the music business, had no women in upper level positions. Assumed gender roles of society place limitations on the business efforts of women. Although women are the majority of the growing workforce they also bare the responsibility of most household and childcare responsibilities. (Furst 2008, p. 373) Not only do women experience

assumed responsibility within their own households, family responsibility and informal care of relatives falls on the woman. (Henry 2009, p. 152) Family- career oriented women often face scrutiny for this inability to work long hours, weekends, and travel. Women who are committed to their careers are often seen as less committed if they take advantage of flexible work hours and family- working policies. Many career primary motivated women are also subject to this unwarranted scrutiny. (Furst 2008, p. 373) Women are also more willing to live a different life than their male counterparts. When a problem arises women are more likely to cope with a constraining business coping method as men would approach the situation in a less flexible manner. (Henry 2009, p. 46) The role of women in the business world has evolved in the past several decades but the glass ceiling still exists in the house. Social roles affect how males and females interact within the workplace. Often men and women adopt stereotypical behavior to be accepted. The adoption of social roles supports the idea that women take care and men take charge. Men behave in a way that reflects dominance, aggression and achievement as women take the role of a follower or supporter. Their behavior reflects nurturance and affiliation. The male behaviors are those that are typically associated with leadership. (Furst, 2008

p.373) Women exhibit less authoritarian management skills, with superior negotiation and diplomatic skills. Often times women are employed where diplomacy and a motherly figure is valued.(Henry 2009, p.146) The characteristics of a strong business figure contrast the expectations of how a woman should act. Historically there has been a tendency for men to dominate management jobs and more prestigious professions. (Rausch 2009, p. 521) Women value interpersonal relationships, their environment and a sense of service more than men. A comparison of Bems Masculinity Words, a list of traits that create the concept of masculinity, to the words that are used to characterize an entrenepreur the feminine words did not match. Entrepreneurship is considered a masculine concept and is not gender neutral (Ahl 2006, p. 602) Trends in social behavior in the workplace affect organizational level factors. Males in the position to hire or promote individuals are predisposed to hire similar individuals due to their relative fit with the current executives who are mostly male. Top executives are artificially restricted to pools of CEOs from other companies and culturally defined by the male stereotype. (Furst 2008, p. 373) The absence of females in upper level management provides fewer opportunities for training and development which would lead to advancement. There is a lack of role models and senior

level women to offer career support and advancement opportunities. If womens presence in the upper levels of management was a matter of time more women would occupy executive positions. (Furst 2008 p. 373) The current state of the industry affects how women advance into executive positions. Women are often brought in during times of turbulence when immense change is needed. Susan Whiting, the CEO of Nielson Media Research took over in 2002 during a scandal and investigation by the FTC to determine if Nielson was working in the best interest of the public. Whiting demanded change and took a bold leadership approach and Nielson underwent more changes in one year than had happened in the last twenty years. These changes required an increase in quality, new technology and media. Women are seen as a solution to turbulent industries because of their different approaches to business. Women are often put in power when there is an involuntary termination of a male CEO, when the pool is expanded to include non-traditional candidates. Women are perceived as more charismatic or transformational leaders and are often used to save companies in times of need. (Furst 2008, p. 381) This non-traditional adjustment sends a signal to stakeholders that change is in the air. Women are often more willing to share information, listen to peoples point of view, and to use an

inclusive team-style building model. The encourage participation from employees that is gained from this increases the companys integrity and public image. Many women become entrepreneurs to avoid the constraints placed on them in a corporate environment. Around 60% of women report that they have experienced some kind of unequal treatment based on their gender. (Henry 2009 p. 153) The sexual induniendo, inferences, implications, and harassment can be repulsive and enough to influence a womens decision to leave the corporate environment. (Henry 2009, p. 47) These women desire to be free from upper level management and the gender bias that is associated with it. The creative nature of the music industry attracts women who often exhibit the personality characteristics of women entrepreneurs. The creative are generally micro, small or medium size businesses but range up tp large multinational companies. Work in the creative industries is comprised of predominately part time workers, and is considered flexible. Women often keep their businesses small because of their families. A smaller business is less likely to interfere with family. (Bledsoe 2010, p. 51) Studies of women entrepreneurs habits revealed that women are less likely to use debt or equity financing, forcing them to use their personal

savings for startup and expansion. Earnings from opportunities are the main source of ongoing capital for businesses and without the financial resources their opportunities are limited. Although it is generally believed that women are less likely to take risks than their male counterparts this is not the case. Women may be more likely to ignore the rules and take risks. They tend to not be bound by conventional wisdom and take risks to break through the glass ceiling. (Furst 2008, p. 378) .

Workers in the creative sector are described as highly independent and pursue self- employment and entrepreneurship in a spirit of self fulfillment and exploration. Womens superior multitasking abilities and experiences make them portfolio workers par excellence and suitable for project based enterprises (Henry 2009, p. 48) Contrasting with other industries the creative industries work is generally project based instead of career path oriented. The emphasis on projects makes the creative industries more attractive for entrepreneurial endeavors. Technological advancements have drastically changed the industry and new business models are constantly being created to adapt to current technology. The current large business based approach to the music industry is failing in the digital age. With the advent of illegal downloading the consumer has more control over the type and ways that they consume music.

In a profile of market demand and music consumption from 1997- 2006 the dollar value of the industy peaked in 1999- the year Napster was created- at $14.6 mil and by 2006 was only worth $11.5 million. In 2006 it was estimated that only 16% of people obtained their music legally. (Spotts 2010 p. 36) No longer can the major labels control the artists that the public has access too. The labels have not embraced this development in technology and have further alienated their customers by seeking litigation against them. The next big trend in the industry is likely to be the efforts of one of the many entrepreneurs breaking into the music industry. The current state of panic for the major music companies and their failure to adapt to a changing industry has confirmed the need for a new business model. The glorified days of big music companies and famous rock stars are gone; the music industry of today is all about the small unique business with true artists earning a living wage. Entrepreneurs are developing innovative and creative ways to reach fans and to distribute music that the big business machines of the past are stubbornly rejecting. The disintermediation of the recording industry has increased the popularity of the artist- entrepreneur driven business model. This model of Do It Yourself or DIY as it is called in the industry has enables artists that

previously went unnoticed to be successful. (Williams, 2009 p. 49) Technology, the internet, and music downloading have given artists the option to bypass record labels completely and reach consumers through direct-to-fan websites such as (Spotts, 2010 p. 35) This paradigm shift in the new delivery of music enhances the importance of the entrepreneur. The artist- entrepreneur model has increased the need for contracted services, as the artists no longer have the major labels financial backing. Generally big businesses are male dominated as entrepreneurship is generally considered the business of women. . Women own around 10.4 million firms, or 50% of firms in the United States. These women-owned firms employ more than 12.8 million people and generate $1.9 trillion in sales each year. (Bledsoe, 2010 p. 41) The work of women entrepreneurs is essential for the vitality of the U.S. economy. (Williams, 2009 p.43) This shift was catalyzed by advances in technology, which have also increased female presence in the industry. The Internet, or the great equalizer (Spotts, 2010 p. 35) helped to level the playing field because it is gender nonspecific. Women can start and run businesses over the Internet without showing their faces or gender. All contracts and services can be done online which enables their business not their gender to be the most

important part.(Williams, 2009, p. 40) A focus on art as the main priority instead of business enables more women to break into the industry, as there are no rigid rules or standards that are presented in the business approach. The change in the approach to music and business is also closing the gender gap.(Williams, 2009 p. 49) Women entrepreneurs and are generally highly intelligent, have a strong imagination, and are hard workers with strong will. These women may play an important role in the development of new business models in the music industry because their business habits reflect exactly what the industry needssomething different. In most industries women have become an important part of the business world but in a male dominated industry such as the music industry women are still subordinate to their male counterparts. The current shift to the industrys future depending on entrepreneurs may give women new opportunities in the industry. Based on my critical evaluation of the literature on women entrepreneurs in the music industry I believe there needs to be more research conducted to fully understand their role in the industry. Current research focuses mainly on the limitations that women face due to their gender roles. The research rarely investigates how women entrepreneurs have been successful and focuses mainly on the obstacles that stand in their way of

success. Although these obstacles are valid the lack of research on successful women entrepreneurs reflects the idea that the glass ceiling still does exist and that it is too tough to overcome these boundaries. The music industry is a perfect place for research on women entrepreneurs. The industry is currently struggling against technology and changing times and entrepreneurs will be the people who move the industry into the future. There is great opportunity for women to become successful in reinventing the way that business is approached and conducted and the contributions of women entrepreneurs should be followed closely.