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Also, in some areas there may be strong competition for certain brands so they must seethat too much supply does not reach there. For example, in Karachi due to a lot of competition in the creams line from LUs Prince, E.B.M has been forced to limit itssupply of Rio instead it concentrates on other brands in Karachi. It markets its Rio brandin Punjab where LUs competition is weaker.Also under the N.S.M are the two G.R.M (General Regional Managers) EBM hasdivided the country into two zones the northern zone which includes Punjab, NWFP andnorthern part of Baluchistan, and the southern zone, which includes Sindh and southernparts of Baluchistan. G.R.M are the heads of each of these zones. For the southern zone,the G.R.M sits in Karachi and for the northern zone, the G.R.M is in Rawalpindi. HereEBM has used geographic organization 4 (Kotler) , because of the large area EBM iscovering and also because there are people of different cultures in each province. Their tastes and preferences differ and so it is important to adopt a more regionalized approach.Both the Regional Managers are responsible for an efficient distribution of biscuits intheir respective zones. They are also responsible for the promotion of the different brandsin their zones. Sine they live in the same environment as the consumers, they becomemore aware of the consumers preferences and can suggest some importantimprovements about the brands to the top management.Under the G.R.M are the Z.M (Zonal Managers). There are four Zonal Managers. Thetwo zones the northern and the southern are further divided into four sub-zones. They are Karachi and Hyderabad in the Southern Zone and Rawalpindi and Lahore NorthernZone . A Zonal Manager heads each zone.Each Z.M is responsible for the activities in their respective zones. They seek tomaximize the companys profitability in their zones. 84

Each Z.M has a field force under him. On an average there are six salesmen in aparticular field force. They all are provided delivery vans in which they deliver the goodsto the major retail outlets of the country. They try and make sure that most of the brandsare available in their particular areas retail outlets. The field force is the last link betweenthe E.B.M and the customers, and so an important position. As they are closest to thecustomers they give useful suggestions about how to bring about improvements in theproduct. (The organization chart below has been taken from the company) 85

FUNCTIONAL EFFICIENCY At EBM, there is a very good coordination between the marketing and the sales staff. Inthe formal hierarchy, the N.S.M is directly under the VP marketing. This leads to aneffective interaction between the two areas. Infact, the VP Marketing makes the major selling decisions. This also leads to a very effective communication system.The marketing staff often carries out market researches to analyze the major consumer trends and also to identify the opportunities in the market. The research may be helpful inidentifying the reasons for low sales and profits. This information is very useful for theselling people as they can alter then strategies accordingly. Also quick decisions can bemade as this information is readily made available to the sales people, this makes thecompany more adaptable to the changing environment. Communication Upward communication 4 (Kotler) is very important for any organization as some of the mostdynamic ideas may come from someone lower down the hierarchy. It becomes veryimportant when the marketing heads are trying to allocate the advertising budget. EBMhas a limited advertising budget, which is about 50% of its major competitor LU. EBMtries to allocate this among the different brands to achieve the maximum benefit.To make on effective decision in such a situation, the Marketing Heads need specificinformation about each brand in terms of its position in the market and not just thecurrent sales figures. This could be accessed from the sales managers lower down thehierarchy. Because of the close interaction of the sales and the marketing people atEBML. This is not been much of a problem. Regular meetings are arranged between thetop management and the lower level managers so that the different brands progresscould be evaluated. 86