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CHAPTER 13 : VARIATION 2.

1 Variation in Organisms Activity 1 : Complete the table to compare continuous variation and discontinuous variation Continuous variation Differences are slight and grade into each other Slight with intermediate Differences Intermediate Determined by One or a very few genes Discontinuous variation

Graph

Normal distribution

Type of distribution Influencing factor Genetic factor

Cannot be inherited

Inheritance

Activity 2 : Complete the graphic organizer showing the effects of genetic factors on variation. 1.Genetic recombination by c... o. during meiosis 2.Independent assortment of c

Effects of genetic factors on variation

Random f between ovum and any sperm

Mutation

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Activity 3 : Match the sequence of events of crossing over during prophase 1.

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Activity 4 : Name the type of chromosomal mutation. Type of mutation Name

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Structured items: 1.

Group of Hibiscus

Height range Number of tree

151-155 cm 6

156-160 cm 9 TABLE 15.1

161-165 cm 10

166-170 cm 5

Colour of flower Red Yellow

Group of Hibiscus A and C B and D TABLE 15.2

(a)

What is the type of variation shown by the table 15.3 ? Trait Height Colour of flower Type of variation Continuous variation Discontinuous variation [2 marks ]

(b)

Base from the investigation , what is meant by continuous variation ? __________________________________________________________-__________________________________________________________ [ 1 mark }

(c)(i)

Using results from table 15.1, draw a histogram of number of Hibiscus tree against the height range (cm).

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(ii) Joint the midpoint of each bar to draw a smooth curve . (iii) Using results from table 15.3 plot a bar graph of number of people against the ability to roll tongue. [5 marks ]

(d)

State the factor that can cause this type of variation for each trait stated. Traits Height Tongue Rolling [2 marks ] Factors that cause variation

(e)

Explain how the students conducted the investigation to determine the type of variation in the height of people ? [3 marks ]

2. Features : * * * * * Broad forehead Short neck and limbs Almond-shaped eyes with folded eyelids Thick protruding tounge Mental retardation

DIAGRAM 15.3 Diagram 15.3 shows a group of children with a genetic disease due to mutation .

(a)

State the genetic disease based on diagram 15.3 .

[1 mark ]

(b)

What is the type of that mutation ?

[1mark ]

(a)

How many chromosomes do the children have ?

[1 mark]

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(b)

Mutation are caused by agents called mutagens . Give two examples of mutagens . [2marks ]

( f ) How do mutagens caused mutation ?

[2 marks]

(g)

Table 15.4 below shows genetic diseases caused by chromosome mutation. Fill in the blank by using the word given .

Male

Klinefelters syndrome

Female

Jacobs syndrome

Turners syndrome Number of Disease Chromosomes ( 44 + XO )

Male and Female Chromosomes involved Absence of one sex chromosome An extra X chromosomes Sex

( 44 + XXY )

TABLE 15.4

[4marks ]

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Essay Items. 1.

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2..

Type of finger prints Curves Right Loops Whorl Left Loops

DIAGRAM 15.4

Diagram 15.4 shows different variation among human beings. (a ) Determine the type of variation in Diagram 15.4 and 15.5. Give the reasons. [4 marks] (b) (i) What are the differences between continuous and discontinuous variation? (ii) State the factors that cause variation in humans . [6 marks]

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There are three sources of genetic factors in sexual reproduction events : Crossing over during meiosis 1 Independent assortment during meiosis Random fertilisation

(c) Base from the statement above, explain the three sources of genetic factors during sexual reproduction [10 marks]

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ANSWER : 2.1 Variation in Organisms Activity 1 : Complete the table to compare continuous variation and discontinuous variation Continuous variation Differences are slight and grade into each other Slight with intermediate A large number of genes Differences Intermediate Determined by Discontinuous variation Differences are discreet and clear cut No intermediates One or a very few genes

Graph

Normal distribution Environmental factor Cannot be inherited

Type of distribution Influencing factor Inheritance

Discrete distribution Genetic factor Can be inherited

Activity 2 : Complete the graphic organizer showing the effects of genetic factors on variation. 1.Genetic recombination by crossing over during meiosis 2.Independent assortment of chromosomes

Effects of genetic factors on variation

Random fertilisation between ovum and any sperm

Mutation

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Activity 3 : Match the sequence of events of crossing over during prophase 1.

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Activity 4 : Name the type of chromosomal mutation. Type of mutation Name

Deletion

Duplication

Inversion

Translocation

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Structured items: 1.

Group of Hibiscus

Height range Number of tree

151-155 cm 6

156-160 cm 9 TABLE 15.1

161-165 cm 10

166-170 cm 5

Colour of flower Red Yellow

Group of Hibiscus A and C B and D TABLE 15.2

(c) What is the type of variation shown by the table 15.2 ? Trait Height Colour of flower Type of variation Continuous distribution Discontinuous distribution [2 marks ] (d) Base from the investigation , what is meant by continuous variation ? There is a complete range of measurements for height from 151 cm to 170 cm [1 mark ]

(c)(i)

Using results from table 15.1, draw a histogram of number of Hibiscus tree against the height range (cm).

(ii)

Joint the midpoint of each bar to draw a smooth curve .

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Number of Hibiscus tree 10 8 6 4 2 Height range (cm)


151- 156155 160 161165 166170

(iii)

Using results from table 15.3 plot a bar graph of number of Hibiscus tree against the height. [5 marks ]

Number of Hibiscus tree 14 12 10 Height (cm)

(d) State the factor that can cause this type of variation for each trait stated. Traits Height Tongue Rolling Factors that cause variation Genetic and environmental factor Genetic factor [2 marks ]

(e)

Explain how the students conducted the investigation to determine the type of variation in the height of Hibiscus tree ? [3 marks ]

-The height of each tree is measured using the measuring tape/ruler. - The height is grouped into five classes of height range - The height range is recorded in a frequency table. - A histogram is drawn to show the normal distribution [ marks ]

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2. Features : * * * * * Broad forehead Short neck and limbs Almond-shaped eyes with folded eyelids Thick protruding tounge Mental retardation

DIAGRAM 15.3 Diagram 15.3 shows a group of children with a genetic disease due to mutation .

(a)

State the genetic disease based on diagram 15.3 . Down Syndrome

[1 mark ]

(b)

What is the type of that mutation ? Chromosomal mutation

[1mark ]

(c)

How many chromosomes do the children have ? 47 chromsomes

[1 mark]

(d)

Mutation are caused by agents called mutagens . Give two examples of mutagens . [2marks ]

Radioactives radiation , X-rays , ultraviolet light , gamma rays , chemical substances , formaldehyde , pesticides .

( f ) How do mutagens caused mutation ?

[2 marks]

Chromosomal mutation -changes in the structure of chromosomes or the number of chromosomes. Gene mutation -Chemical change in the structure of gene, it may also alter the DNA or genetic code.

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(g)

Table 15.4 below shows genetic diseases caused by chromosome mutation. Fill in the blank by using the word given .

Male

Klinefelters syndrome

Female

Jacobs syndrome

Turners syndrome Number of Disease Turners syndrome Klinefelters syndrome Chromosomes ( 44 + XO )

Male and Female Chromosomes involved Absence of one sex chromosome An extra X chromosomes Sex

Female

( 44 + XXY )

Male [4marks

TABLE 15.4 Essay Items. 1.

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2.

Type of finger prints Curves Right Loops Whorl Left Loops

DIAGRAM 15.4

Diagram 15.4 shows different variation among human beings. (a ) Determine the type of variation in Diagram 15.4. Give the reasons. Discontinuous variation. This is because different people has distinct type of finger print, either curve, right loop, whorl or left loop. [4 marks]

(c) (i) What are the differences between continuous and discontinuous variation? Continuous variation Differences are slight and grade into each other Slight with intermediate A large number of genes Differences Intermediate Determined by Discontinuous variation Differences are discreet and clear cut No intermediates One or a very few genes

Graph

Normal distribution Environmental factor Cannot be inherited

Type of distribution Influencing factor Inheritance

Discrete distribution Genetic factor Can be inherited

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(ii) State the factors that cause variation in humans . Genetic and environmental factors. [ 6 marks ]

There are three sources of genetic factors in sexual reproduction events : Crossing over during meiosis 1 Independent assortment during meiosis Random fertilisation

(c) Base from the statement above, explain the three sources of genetic factors during sexual reproduction No. 1(a) Answer -Diagram 15.4 is (height ) continuous variation -Because the differences between individuals are slight and can be changed . -Diagram 15.5 is ( type of fingerprints ) Discontinuous variation -Because the differences between individuals are obvious and cannot be changed (b)(i) Continuous variation Discontinuous variation 1m 1m [10 marks] Mark 1m 1m

Differences between individuals are slightly with intermediates

Differences between individuals are obvious 2m

There is a complete range of measurements from one extreme to the other for a particular characteristics.

There is no gradual change between two extremes

2m

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(b)(ii)

Genetic factors environmental factors or both.

1m 1m

(c)

Crossing over during meiosis -During prophase I of meiosis, two homologous chromosomes are paired up in a bivalent. -The non-sister chromatids break at the chiasma. -Segment of the chromatids exchange places . -The exchange of genetic materials between the chromatids results in new , different genetic combination of genes from the parents. -The new genetic combination result in variation . 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

Independent assortment during meiosis -During metaphase I of meiosis , homologous chromosomes arrange themselves randomly at the equator. -The random arrangement and separation of each homologous pair is independent of one another. -Independent assortment produces various genetic combinations in the gametes . 1m 1m 1m

Random fertalisation -Each gametes has a unique set or combination of genes . -A male gamete can fertilise any of the female gametes, . -so, the fertalisation between a male gamete and a female gamete occurs randomly. -As a result , a zygote is formed with variety of gene combination. -With random fertilasation , variations occur in the offspring. 1m ( Max: 10 marks ) 1m 1m 1m 1m

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